emergency action plan Airway Open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin. Remove Danger Make the scene safe. Do not take risks. YES DANGER? Make sure it is safe for you to give help. NO YES History Find out what has happened. Signs and Symptoms How does the patient feel or look? Try to work out what’s wrong. Treatment Remember – If you’re not sure, always seek professional medical advice. Response? Shout and gently shake or tap the casualty. Help! Shout for help, but don’t leave the casualty yet. NO Normal Breathing? Look, listen and feel for no more than 10 seconds. If you’re not sure if breathing is normal, treat it as though it is not. Dial 999 Now (If not already done) NO Resuscitation Give 30 chest compressions, then 2 rescue breaths. Continue giving cycles of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths. Only stop to recheck the patient if they start breathing normally – otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation. If there is more than one rescuer, change over every 2 minutes to prevent fatigue. 30 to 2 YES Secondary Survey Check for bleeding, injuries and clues (see your first aid book). Recovery Position Recovery Position (see book). Dial 999 if not already done. Monitor Airway and Breathing. Keep the casualty Warm.
priorities of treatment Primary Survey Secondary Survey B Breathing A Airway B Bleeding (or burns) B Bones
FISHFISH SHAPEDSHAPED Causes of unconsciousness ainting mbalance of heat hock ead Injury troke eart Attack sphyxia oisoning pilepsy iabetes
levels of consciousness AVPUAVPU lert oice ain nresponsive Confused Inappropriate words Utters sounds No verbal response Localises pain Responds only
secondary survey Primary Survey First! – D.R.A.B. Bleeding or Burns Head and Neck Shoulders and Chest Abdomen and Pelvis Legs and Arms Pockets and Clues Recovery Position
head injuries Concussion Compression Unconsciousness for a short period, followed by an increase in levels of response and recovery. Could have a history of recent head injury with apparent recovery, but then deteriorates Short term memory loss (particularly of the incident). Confusion, irritability. Levels of response become worse as condition develops Mild, general headache.Intense headache. Pale, clammy skin.Flushed, dry skin. Shallow / normal breathing.Deep, noisy, slow breathing. (Pressure on the respiratory control area of the brain) Rapid, weak pulse. (Blood diverts away from the extremities) Slow, strong pulse. (Caused by raised blood pressure) Normal pupils, reacting to light. One or both pupils dilate as pressure increases on the brain. Possible nausea or vomiting on recovery. Condition becomes worse. Fits may occur. No recovery.
diabetes High Blood Sugar Low Blood Sugar Onset Slow Fast Levels of response Deteriorate slowly Deteriorate rapidly Skin Dry and Warm Pale, cold, sweaty Breathing Deep sighing breaths Shallow and rapid Pulse Rapid Other symptoms Excessive urination Very thirsty Hunger Fruity smell on breath May be confused for drunkenness
moving and handling For most women, reduce weight by one third Reduce weight by 10% for twisting 45 o Reduce weight by 20% for twisting 90 o Assumptions: The load is grasped in both hands. The handler is in a stable body position The lift takes place in reasonable working conditions An average adult weighs 60 to 70kg!
moving and handling Chin up as you lift Bend with your knees not your back Keep your back upright Keep the load as close to your body as possible Feet apart to give you balance