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First Aid Training. aims of first aid PPPPPP reserve Life revent Worsening romote Recovery.

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Presentation on theme: "First Aid Training. aims of first aid PPPPPP reserve Life revent Worsening romote Recovery."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Aid Training

2 aims of first aid PPPPPP reserve Life revent Worsening romote Recovery

3 the airway

4 emergency action plan Airway Open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin. Remove Danger Make the scene safe. Do not take risks. YES DANGER? Make sure it is safe for you to give help. NO YES History Find out what has happened. Signs and Symptoms How does the patient feel or look? Try to work out what’s wrong. Treatment Remember – If you’re not sure, always seek professional medical advice. Response? Shout and gently shake or tap the casualty. Help! Shout for help, but don’t leave the casualty yet. NO Normal Breathing? Look, listen and feel for no more than 10 seconds. If you’re not sure if breathing is normal, treat it as though it is not. Dial 999 Now (If not already done) NO Resuscitation  Give 30 chest compressions, then 2 rescue breaths.  Continue giving cycles of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths.  Only stop to recheck the patient if they start breathing normally – otherwise do not interrupt resuscitation.  If there is more than one rescuer, change over every 2 minutes to prevent fatigue. 30 to 2 YES Secondary Survey Check for bleeding, injuries and clues (see your first aid book). Recovery Position  Recovery Position (see book).  Dial 999 if not already done.  Monitor Airway and Breathing.  Keep the casualty Warm.

5 priorities of treatment Primary Survey Secondary Survey B Breathing A Airway B Bleeding (or burns) B Bones

6 DRABDRAB anger resuscitation esponse irway reathing

7 FISHFISH SHAPEDSHAPED Causes of unconsciousness ainting mbalance of heat hock ead Injury troke eart Attack sphyxia oisoning pilepsy iabetes

8 levels of consciousness AVPUAVPU lert oice ain nresponsive Confused Inappropriate words Utters sounds No verbal response Localises pain Responds only

9 secondary survey Primary Survey First! – D.R.A.B. Bleeding or Burns Head and Neck Shoulders and Chest Abdomen and Pelvis Legs and Arms Pockets and Clues Recovery Position

10 head injuries Concussion Compression Unconsciousness for a short period, followed by an increase in levels of response and recovery. Could have a history of recent head injury with apparent recovery, but then deteriorates Short term memory loss (particularly of the incident). Confusion, irritability. Levels of response become worse as condition develops Mild, general headache.Intense headache. Pale, clammy skin.Flushed, dry skin. Shallow / normal breathing.Deep, noisy, slow breathing. (Pressure on the respiratory control area of the brain) Rapid, weak pulse. (Blood diverts away from the extremities) Slow, strong pulse. (Caused by raised blood pressure) Normal pupils, reacting to light. One or both pupils dilate as pressure increases on the brain. Possible nausea or vomiting on recovery. Condition becomes worse. Fits may occur. No recovery.

11 compression

12 pupils

13

14

15 the respiratory system

16 Alveoli

17 collapsed lung

18 External Airway Breathing Circulation Control Centre Suffocation,Drowning, High Altitude Tongue, Vomit, Choking, Strangulation, Hanging, Burns, Anaphylaxis, Disease. Crushing, Collapsed Lung, Chest Injury, Poisons, Asthma, Disease, Illness. Heart Attack, Angina, Bleeding, Poisons, Anaemia. Stroke, Head Injury, Drug Overdose/Poisons, Spinal Injury, Electric Shock. hypoxia – the causes

19 hypoxia – signs and symptoms Pale, Cold, Clammy / Cyanosis Nausea / Vomiting Increase In Pulse Rate Weak Pulse Increase in Breathing Rate / Short of Breath Dizziness / Confusion Lowered Levels of Response

20 the circulatory system

21 the heart – blood flow From the Lungs To the Lungs From the Body To the Body Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Left Atrium Right Atrium

22 the heart

23 a typical heart attack

24 electrical impulses of the heart

25 Shock –normal circulation

26 Hypovolaemic Shock

27 cardiogenic shock

28 fainting Handbrake!!

29 anaphylactic shock

30 anaphylaxis Picture: Many Thanks to the Anaphylaxis Campaign.

31 CALIPGADCALIPGAD ontusion types of wound brasion aceration ncision uncture un Shot mputation egloved

32 fractured wrist

33 eye / face laceration

34 finger laceration

35 Fingertip amputation

36 puncture wound

37 blood loss 10%20%40%30% Blood Loss Blood Pressure Heart Rate Blood Vessels Constrict Dilate

38 SEEP it or Lay treatment of bleeding xamine levate ressure

39 SCALD ize severity of burns ause ge ocation epth

40 burns – estimating the area

41 laceration

42 dislocated kneecap

43 burns

44 COOL! REMOVE DRESS burns treatment

45 the skeleton

46 the spine 5 Fused Sacral 5 Lumbar 12 Thoracic 7 Cervical

47 Closed Open Complicated Green Stick types of fracture

48 PLUSDICT ain types of wound oss of power natural movement welling or bruising eformity rregularity repitus enderness

49 open fracture

50 Note the poor aseptic technique!

51 open fractured wrist

52 RICE est sprains and strains ce ompression levation

53 body temperature C0C 0F0F Unconsciousness / fitting. Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. Strong bounding pulse. Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. Pale sweaty skin. Nausea / loss of appetite. Normal Body Temperature Shivering Fatigue, Slurred speech Confusion, forgetfulness Shivering stops, muscle rigidity Very slow, very weak pulse Noticeable drowsiness Severe reduction in response levels Unconsciousness Dilated pupils Pulse undetectable Appearance of death Death Heat Stroke Heat Exhaustion Mild Hypothermia Severe Hypothermia Normal

54 body temperature C0C 0F0F Unconsciousness / fitting. Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. Strong bounding pulse. Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. Pale sweaty skin. Nausea / loss of appetite. Normal Body Temperature Shivering Fatigue, Slurred speech Confusion, forgetfulness Shivering stops, muscle rigidity Very slow, very weak pulse Noticeable drowsiness Severe reduction in response levels Unconsciousness Dilated pupils Pulse undetectable Appearance of death Death Heat Stroke Heat Exhaustion Mild Hypothermia Severe Hypothermia Normal

55 body temperature C0C 0F0F Unconsciousness / fitting. Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. Strong bounding pulse. Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. Pale sweaty skin. Nausea / loss of appetite. Normal Body Temperature Shivering Fatigue, Slurred speech Confusion, forgetfulness Shivering stops, muscle rigidity Very slow, very weak pulse Noticeable drowsiness Severe reduction in response levels Unconsciousness Dilated pupils Pulse undetectable Appearance of death Death Heat Stroke Heat Exhaustion Mild Hypothermia Severe Hypothermia Normal

56 body temperature C0C 0F0F Unconsciousness / fitting. Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. Strong bounding pulse. Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. Pale sweaty skin. Nausea / loss of appetite. Normal Body Temperature Shivering Fatigue, Slurred speech Confusion, forgetfulness Shivering stops, muscle rigidity Very slow, very weak pulse Noticeable drowsiness Severe reduction in response levels Unconsciousness Dilated pupils Pulse undetectable Appearance of death Death Heat Stroke Heat Exhaustion Mild Hypothermia Severe Hypothermia Normal

57 body temperature C0C 0F0F Unconsciousness / fitting. Confused / restless. Headache, dizzy, uncomfortable. Strong bounding pulse. Flushed dry skin, hot to touch. Cramps in stomach / arms / legs. Pale sweaty skin. Nausea / loss of appetite. Normal Body Temperature Shivering Fatigue, Slurred speech Confusion, forgetfulness Shivering stops, muscle rigidity Very slow, very weak pulse Noticeable drowsiness Severe reduction in response levels Unconsciousness Dilated pupils Pulse undetectable Appearance of death Death Heat Stroke Heat Exhaustion Mild Hypothermia Severe Hypothermia Normal

58 the digestive system

59 diabetes High Blood Sugar Low Blood Sugar Onset Slow Fast Levels of response Deteriorate slowly Deteriorate rapidly Skin Dry and Warm Pale, cold, sweaty Breathing Deep sighing breaths Shallow and rapid Pulse Rapid Other symptoms Excessive urination Very thirsty Hunger Fruity smell on breath May be confused for drunkenness

60 moving and handling For most women, reduce weight by one third Reduce weight by 10% for twisting 45 o Reduce weight by 20% for twisting 90 o Assumptions: The load is grasped in both hands. The handler is in a stable body position The lift takes place in reasonable working conditions An average adult weighs 60 to 70kg!

61 moving and handling Chin up as you lift Bend with your knees not your back Keep your back upright Keep the load as close to your body as possible Feet apart to give you balance

62


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