Presentation on theme: "Principles of first aid Preserve life: Prevent deterioration: Promote recovery: Airway Breathing Stop bleeding Treat shock Treat other injuries Reassure."— Presentation transcript:
Principles of first aid Preserve life: Prevent deterioration: Promote recovery: Airway Breathing Stop bleeding Treat shock Treat other injuries Reassure Relieve pain Handle with care Protect from harm Circulation
Assess dangers Make safe Give emergency aid Get help Clear up Look after yourself Action in an emergency
The first person at the scene of an incident should: Danger Make the area safe Response Airway Breathing Reassure the casualty and bystanders Use bystanders to help Prioritise and respond to the immediate needs of the casualty Send for help Circulation
Inform next of kin, if possible Complete reports to include: Details of the incident As soon as possible: Location of the incident Date and time of the incident Who was involved What was done Who was notified
If possible, wear disposable gloves, improvise with polythene bags or consider whether the casualty can help, eg apply pressure to bleeding. Remember: Wash your hands carefully afterwards. Infection control Clean surfaces with bleach diluted 1:10 with water. If possible, keep any minor wounds covered with a plaster. Buy and use a resuscitation face shield. Dispose of soiled items appropriately.
A – Alert – will talk but may be drowsy. V – Responds to Voice – responds to simple commands, eg ‘open your eyes’, or may respond to simple questions. P – Responds to Pain – will react (eg make a noise) to a pinch on the back of the hand. U – Unresponsive – there is no response at all. Levels of consciousness
Causes of unconsciousness: Fainting Imbalance of heat Shock Heart attack/ angina pectoris Stroke Head injuries Asphyxia/hypoxia/ near drowning Asthma Anaphylaxis Poisoning Seizures Diabetic emergencies
Primary survey Check for danger. Emergency life support for adults and children 1 Check for response. Speak loudly and clearly to the casualty. Ask questions like ‘are you all right?’. If there is no response, shout for help. Do not leave the casualty.
Emergency life support for adults and children 2 Open the airway. 3 Check for normal breathing. Look, listen and feel.
Emergency life support for adults and children 4 If breathing normally, place in the recovery position. CALL THE EMERGENCY SERVICES
Basic life support Carry out a primary survey: Emergency life support for adults and children CALL THE EMERGENCY SERVICES For children It can be more beneficial to give five initial breaths followed by cycles of 30:2 compressions and breaths. One-handed compressions may be more suitable. Danger Response Airway Breathing Circulation
Emergency life support for adults and children 1 If not breathing normally, start CPR with 30 chest compressions. 2 Open the airway.
Emergency life support for adults and children 3 Give two rescue breaths.Continue with 30 compressions and two rescue breaths until: Qualified help arrives to take over. The casualty starts to breathe normally. You become too exhausted to continue.
Chain of survival
Fluid loss – bleeding, burns, severe diarrhoea or vomiting Cardiac problems – heart attack, electrocution Anaphylaxis – severe allergic reaction to stings, types of food, environmental features, poisons Shock: causes
Pale, cold, clammy skin Shock: signs and symptoms Weak, dizzy, light-headed Nausea or vomiting Thirsty Yawning Anxiety or irrational behaviour Rapid, weak pulse Rapid, shallow breathing Dropping level of consciousness
Treat the cause and prevent the condition getting worse by: Shock: treatment Correct positioning of the casualty Reassurance Keeping the casualty fairly warm Monitoring breathing if necessary Do not give anything to eat or drink
Direct pressure Bleeding Elevate Dress
Elevation sling Slings
Arm sling Slings
Heart attack position
Duty of care for other people’s children Whilst first aiders would not normally give medication, youth leaders working with other people’s children have a duty of care equivalent to that of a ‘responsible parent’ They are often required to look after or carry medicines for young children and sometimes need to administer them Leaders should always seek parental permission before doing so
First aid kits A guide to the contents of a kit: 1 pair of disposable non-latex protective gloves 20 individually wrapped sterile adhesive dressings 2 sterile eye pads 4 individually wrapped triangular bandages, preferably sterile 6 safety pins 6 medium-sized (approximately 12cm x 12cm) individually wrapped sterile unmedicated wound dressings
First aid kits You may like to include: Resuscitation shield Scissors Extra gloves Adhesive tape Steripods Guidance leaflet (a leaflet supplied with the kit or that you make yourself which includes brief instructions on emergency treatment) Individually wrapped moist cleaning wipes for the first aider’s hands