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Principles of first aid

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of first aid"— Presentation transcript:


2 Principles of first aid
Preserve life: Airway Breathing Circulation Prevent deterioration: Stop bleeding Treat shock Treat other injuries Promote recovery: Reassure Relieve pain Handle with care Protect from harm

3 Action in an emergency Assess dangers Make safe Give emergency aid
Get help Clear up Look after yourself

4 The first person at the scene of an incident should:
Danger Response Airway Breathing Circulation Make the area safe Reassure the casualty and bystanders Use bystanders to help Prioritise and respond to the immediate needs of the casualty Send for help

5 As soon as possible: Inform next of kin, if possible
Complete reports to include: Details of the incident Location of the incident Date and time of the incident Who was involved What was done Who was notified

6 Infection control If possible, wear disposable gloves, improvise with polythene bags or consider whether the casualty can help, eg apply pressure to bleeding. Remember: Wash your hands carefully afterwards. Clean surfaces with bleach diluted 1: with water. If possible, keep any minor wounds covered with a plaster. Buy and use a resuscitation face shield. Dispose of soiled items appropriately.

7 Recovery position

8 Levels of consciousness
A – Alert – will talk but may be drowsy. V – Responds to Voice – responds to simple commands, eg ‘open your eyes’, or may respond to simple questions. P – Responds to Pain – will react (eg make a noise) to a pinch on the back of the hand. U – Unresponsive – there is no response at all.

9 Causes of unconsciousness:
Asphyxia/hypoxia/ near drowning Fainting Imbalance of heat Asthma Shock Anaphylaxis Heart attack/ angina pectoris Poisoning Stroke Seizures Head injuries Diabetic emergencies

10 Emergency life support for adults and children
Primary survey Check for danger. 1 Check for response. Speak loudly and clearly to the casualty. Ask questions like ‘are you all right?’. If there is no response, shout for help. Do not leave the casualty.

11 Emergency life support for adults and children
2 Open the airway. 3 Check for normal breathing. Look, listen and feel.

12 Emergency life support for adults and children
4 If breathing normally, place in the recovery position. CALL THE EMERGENCY SERVICES

13 Emergency life support for adults and children
Basic life support For children It can be more beneficial to give five initial breaths followed by cycles of 30:2 compressions and breaths. One-handed compressions may be more suitable. Carry out a primary survey: Danger Response Airway Breathing Circulation CALL THE EMERGENCY SERVICES

14 Emergency life support for adults and children
1 If not breathing normally, start CPR with 30 chest compressions. 2 Open the airway.

15 Emergency life support for adults and children
3 Give two rescue breaths. Continue with 30 compressions and two rescue breaths until: Qualified help arrives to take over. The casualty starts to breathe normally. You become too exhausted to continue.

16 Chain of survival

17 Shock: causes Fluid loss – bleeding, burns, severe diarrhoea or vomiting Cardiac problems – heart attack, electrocution Anaphylaxis – severe allergic reaction to stings, types of food, environmental features, poisons

18 Shock: signs and symptoms
Pale, cold, clammy skin Weak, dizzy, light-headed Nausea or vomiting Thirsty Yawning Anxiety or irrational behaviour Rapid, weak pulse Rapid, shallow breathing Dropping level of consciousness

19 Shock: treatment Treat the cause and prevent the condition getting worse by: Correct positioning of the casualty Reassurance Keeping the casualty fairly warm Monitoring breathing if necessary Do not give anything to eat or drink

20 Bleeding Direct pressure Elevate Dress

21 Slings Elevation sling

22 Slings Arm sling

23 Choking

24 Heart attack position

25 Fractures

26 Nose bleeds

27 Duty of care for other people’s children
Whilst first aiders would not normally give medication, youth leaders working with other people’s children have a duty of care equivalent to that of a ‘responsible parent’ They are often required to look after or carry medicines for young children and sometimes need to administer them Leaders should always seek parental permission before doing so

28 First aid kits A guide to the contents of a kit:
1 pair of disposable non-latex protective gloves 20 individually wrapped sterile adhesive dressings 2 sterile eye pads 4 individually wrapped triangular bandages, preferably sterile 6 safety pins 6 medium-sized (approximately 12cm x 12cm) individually wrapped sterile unmedicated wound dressings

29 First aid kits Guidance leaflet (a leaflet supplied with the kit or that you make yourself which includes brief instructions on emergency treatment) You may like to include: Resuscitation shield Scissors Extra gloves Adhesive tape Steripods Individually wrapped moist cleaning wipes for the first aider’s hands


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