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First Aid. First Aid At Work Commercial Training.

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Presentation on theme: "First Aid. First Aid At Work Commercial Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 First Aid

2 First Aid At Work Commercial Training

3 Candidates will be able to: >State the principles and aims of first aid > State your responsibility as a first aider > State the action to take at an emergency incident > Demonstrate an awareness of safety issues Learning outcomes Being a first aider and first aid equipment

4 Candidates will be able to: >Briefly outline the structure and function of the respiratory and circulatory systems > State some causes of hypoxia > Outline the theory behind Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) > Demonstrate the treatment for a conscious casualty who is choking > Demonstrate the treatment for an unconscious casualty who is known to have choked Resuscitation Learning outcomes

5 Management of blood loss Candidates will be able to: > State how blood is circulated around the body > State the definition of shock > State & demonstrate how to control serious external bleeding > State & demonstrate how to treat a person with internal bleeding > State & demonstrate how they would treat a casualty suffering from shock Learning outcomes

6 Candidates will be able to: > Explain what is meant by Mechanism of Injury > Demonstrate the correct management of a conscious casualty > Demonstrate the correct management of an unconscious casualty, to include Primary and Secondary Survey > Demonstrate how to place an acting unconscious casualty in the Recovery Position from their back, front and side and state the reasons behind your actions > Describe the after care required for all of the above Unconsciousness Learning outcomes

7 Candidates will be able to: >State the causes of burns and scalds > Demonstrate the general treatment for burns & scalds > Describe the treatment for a corrosive burn to the eye Burns Learning outcomes

8 Candidates will be able to: > State the purpose of the skeleton > Describe what is meant by the term fracture > State the causes of fractures > State the types of fractures > Describe the signs and symptoms of a fracture > Treat fractures of different bones > Differentiate between a sprain and a strain > Outline the treatment of a sprain and a strain Fractures Learning outcomes

9 Candidates will be able to: >Describe what is meant by the term minor illness > List the minor illnesses > Describe the signs and symptoms of some minor illnesses > Show the treatment for a minor illness Minor injuries & medical conditions Learning outcomes

10 1. Ensure that you always act within your own limitations and advise the trainer if you are unable to undertake any practical activity 2. Ensure that you understand what is expected of you during the practical sessions and demonstrations – if in doubt ask! Health & safety We are committed to ensuring that you enjoy your learning experience and can undertake it in a safe environment. To ensure this, it is vital that you follow the instructions given by the trainer

11 3. When acting as a casualty it is vital that you relax, and stop the activity if, at any time, you feel you are at risk, feel any pain or discomfort 4. Observe your colleagues when they are undertaking practical activities and stop the activity if you feel they are at risk Health & safety

12 1. Preserve life Aims of first aid 2. Limit worsening of the condition 3. Promote recovery

13 Assess Airway Breathing Chest Compressions Control Bleeding Aims of first aid 1. Preserve life

14 Examination of the casualty Make diagnosis Give priority to seriously injured Treat multiple injuries in order of priority Consider possibility of secondary condition 2. Limit the worsening of the condition Aims of first aid

15 Relieve discomfort, pain or anxiety Reassure Get medical aid 3. Promote recovery Aims of first aid

16 Safety Assess Diagnose Treat After Care Report Responsibilities of the first aider 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

17 Secondary survey History Symptoms Signs External clues Mechanics of injury

18 > Wash your hands > Wear disposable gloves > Use a yellow 'clinical waste' bag for used dressings > Wear waterproof dressings over cuts and grazes > Use purpose made cleaning agents for cleaning up body fluid spillages > If you regularly deal with bodily fluids, ask your doctor about Hepatitis B vaccinations Basic hygiene

19 > Easily identifiable waterproof box > 20 individually wrapped sterile adhesive dressings (plasters) assorted sizes > 6 medium sterile dressings > 2 large sterile dressings > 2 sterile eye pads > 6 triangular bandages > 6 safety pins > Disposable gloves First aid kit contents (HSE suggested)

20 Unconscious, head wound - workplace

21 Unconscious, head wound

22 Recovery position

23 The respiratory system

24 Insufficient oxygen reaching the body tissues from the blood Hypoxia

25 > Insufficient oxygen > Airway obstruction > Conditions affecting chest wall > Impaired lung function > Damage to brain or nerves that control respiration > Impaired oxygen uptake by the tissues Causes of hypoxia

26 The circulatory system

27 The heart – blood flow

28 Blood vessels

29 Chain of survival

30 5.If not breathing, phone for help 6.Give chest compressions 7.30:2 cycle 8.Continue with CPR until help arrives Resuscitation - treatment 1.Check for danger 2.Check for a Response 3.Open the airway 4.Check for normal Breathing

31 1.Give five initial rescue breaths before starting chest compressions…then 2.Continue at the ratio of 30 compressions to 2 breaths 3.If you are on your own perform resuscitation for about 1 minute before going for help 4.Compress the chest by about one-third of its depth Resuscitation - children and infants

32 For a baby under 1 year, use two fingers to compress the chest by about one third of its depth For a child over 1 year, use one or two hands, as appropriate, to compress the chest by about one third of its depth

33 Objects may cause either mild or severe airway obstruction. It is important to ask the conscious casualty ‘Are you choking?’ Choking General signs of choking > Attack occurs while eating > Casualty may clutch his/her neck Signs of MILD airway obstruction Response to question ‘Are you choking?’ > Casualty speaks & answers ‘yes’ Other signs > Casualty is able to speak, cough, and breathe Signs of SEVERE airway obstruction Response to question ‘Are you choking?’ > Casualty unable to speak > Casualty may respond by nodding Other signs > Casualty is unable to breathe > Breathing sounds wheezy > Attempts at coughing are silent > Casualty may be unconscious

34 1. Encourage coughing 2. Up to 5 back blows 3. Check Mouth 5. Check Mouth 4. Up to 5 abdominal thrusts >Repeat sequence 3 times - 999/112 - Repeat sequence< Choking - treatment

35 Assess severity Severe airway obstruction (ineffective cough) Mild airway obstruction (effective cough) Unconscious > Start CPR Conscious > 5 back blows > 5 abdominal thrusts Encourage cough Continue to check for deterioration to ineffective cough or relief of obstruction

36 Lacerated IncisedGraze Bruise Puncture Gunshot Types of wound

37 Laceration to fingers

38 Laceration to eye/face

39 Amputation of fingers

40 Puncture wound

41 1. Sit or lie down 2. Examine 3. Pressure 4. Elevate Treatment of bleeding

42 Blood loss & shock - recognition > History > Pale skin > Cool and moist skin > Fast & weak pulse > Fast & shallow breathing > Nausea & vomiting > Thirsty > Anxious > Level of response drops

43 Treat The Cause (if possible) Protection from Shock > Give reassurance > Protect from heat loss > Get medical aid > Nil by mouth > No Smoking Blood loss & shock - treatment

44 Penetrating chest wound

45 SCALD ize ause ge ocation epth Severity of burns

46 SuperficialPartialFull Depth of burns

47 > All burns involving the feet, hands, face or genital area > All burns that extend around a limb > Superficial burns above 5% > Partial thickness burns above 1% > All full thickness burns > Burns with a mixed pattern of depth > If you are unsure about the extent or severity > Children Burns and scalds (when to go to hospital)

48 1. Cool the burn 4. Seek medical advice 3. Once cooled cover with a sterile dressing 2. Remove any clothing not sticking to the burn Burns - treatment

49 Do NOT: > Apply creams or lotions > Burst blisters > Place ice on the burn > Remove clothing sticking to the burn Burns - treatment

50 Impaired consciousness is a result of an interruption of normal brain activity leading to a loss of awareness of surroundings Impaired consciousness

51 > Check response and re-check the level of response. Initial assessment: A --Alert V --Response to Voice P --Response to Pain U --Unresponsiveness Impaired consciousness - treatment > Ensure the airway is open and clear

52 > Do they open spontaneously? > Do they open to speech? > Do they open to painful stimulus? > Is the casualty unresponsive? Level of responsiveness Note the time and response of the eyes

53 > Does the casualty move on command? > Does the casualty move in response to painful stimuli? > Is the casualty unresponsive? Level of responsiveness Note the following time and response to movement

54 > Is the response to a question or conversation normal? > Is the casualty confused? > Does the casualty use inappropriate words? > Does the casualty make incomprehensible sounds? > Is the casualty unresponsive? Level of responsiveness Note the time and response to voice

55 FISH Causes of unconsciousness ainting mbalance of body heat hock ead injury SHAPED troke ypoxia naphylaxis oisoning pilepsy iabetes

56 > Pale skin > Cold & clammy > Slow pulse > Brief loss of consciousness Temporary reduction of blood to brain: Fainting - recognition

57 > Reassure > Check for any injuries > Sit the casualty up gradually Fainting - treatment

58 Compression Pressure on the brain

59 Concussion Shaking of the brain

60 Head injuries ConcussionCompression Initial Brief period of impaired consciousness Recent head injury with apparent recovery Response Short term memory loss Confusion / irritability Levels of response deteriorate Headache MildSevere Skin Pale and clammyFlushed & dry Breathing Shallow / normalDeep/noisy/slow Pulse Rapid and weakSlow and strong Eyes Normal pupils, reacting to light One or both pupils dilated Recovery? Yes but possible nausea or vomiting No. Condition worsens Possible seizures

61 Headache Confused Mental State Signs Of Weakness Dribbling From Mouth Slurred Speech Loss Of Movement Unequal Pupils Stroke

62 > Persistent chest pain > Difficulty in breathing > Irregular or unusually fast or slow pulse > Profuse sweating > Moist, pale skin Heart attack Recognition:

63 Heart attack > Position > Dial 999/112 > Get AED if available > Monitor Treatment:

64 Hypoglycaemia > Pale, cold skin > Sweating > Aggressive > Unusual behaviour > Acting as if drunk > Muscle tremors Recognition:

65 > Excessive sweating > Recreational drug use, e.g. ecstasy > Pale and clammy skin > Rapid weakening pulse > Overheating > Hot, flushed dry skin > Headache > Full bounding pulse > Slow, weakening pulse Extremes of body temperature Heat exhaustion: Heat-stroke:

66 > Abnormally low body temperature > Cold, pale, dry skin > Lethargy > Slow, weakening pulse Extremes of body temperature Hypothermia:

67 How poisons enter the body

68 > Call for ambulance > Remember your own safety! > Protect casualty’s airway > Establish cause > Monitor very closely > Be ready to resuscitate Poisons – generic treatment

69 the skeleton The skeleton

70 the spine The spine

71 Closed Open Complicated Green Stick Types of fracture

72 Fractures LIP oss of power rregularity ain DUST eformity nnatural movement welling or bruising enderness

73 Fractured wrist

74 open fracture Open fracture

75 Dislocated kneecap Normal Dislocated

76 > Provide support to the injured area > Expose the site of the injury > Treat any wounds > Immobilize effectively > Reassure and monitor Fractures - treatment

77 Ambulance Imminent Fractured leg

78 Ambulance Delayed Fractured leg

79 Strains & sprains

80 Strains & sprains treatment RICE est ce ompression levation

81 Asthma

82 Possible signs & symptoms include: > Twitching of the face > Lip smacking > Jerking of an individual limb Epilepsy Minor seizures Also know as ‘absence seizures’ or ‘petit mal’ The person may appear to be day dreaming and this may last just a few seconds before recovery

83 Major seizures A major disturbance in the brain Possible signs & symptoms include: > Aura > Tonic phase > Clonic phase > Recovery phase A major seizure usually goes through this pattern Epilepsy

84 Body temperature





89 Diabetes – low blood sugar Low blood sugar Onset Levels of response Skin Breathing Pulse Other symptoms Fast Deteriorate rapidly Pale, cold, sweaty Shallow, rapid Rapid May be confused with drunkenness

90 Diabetes – high blood sugar Low blood sugarHigh blood sugar Onset Fast Levels of response Deteriorate rapidly Skin Pale, cold, sweaty Breathing Shallow, rapid Pulse Rapid Other symptoms May be confused with drunkenness Slow Deteriorate slowly Dry, warm Deep, sighing breaths Rapid Excessive urination Very thirsty Hunger Fruity smell on breath

91 Rid R eporting of i njuries, d iseases and dor d angerous o ccurrences r egulations R.I.D.D.O.R

92 Poisonous substancesSubstances liable to ignite spontaneously Flammable substances Radioactive substancesCompressed gasesCorrosive substances Hazardous Substances

93 Hazardous substances

94 Are you complying with the regulations? First aid What is your company's attitude to first aid?

95 Accident book

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