Presentation on theme: "Hypothermia is when the core body temperature drops below 35°C. While hyperthermia is when the core body temperature is excessively higher than normal."— Presentation transcript:
Hypothermia is when the core body temperature drops below 35°C. While hyperthermia is when the core body temperature is excessively higher than normal. Under normal circumstances, the body is able to maintain its core body temperature within 1°C of 37°C.
There are several factors that can accelerate and worsen the onset of hypothermia. These include; – Conduction: Direct contacts with surfaces colder than body resulting in conductive heat loss (eg, water, snow) – Convection: Air movement blowing onto/past the body (eg, wind) – Radiation: Heat lost through exposed areas of the the body (eg, face and hands) – Evaporation: Heat lost through perspiration – Respiration: Combination of conduction and evaporation lost during breathing
Signs & Symptoms Mild 35-34°CModerate 33-30°CSevere <30°C Maximum shiveringMost shivering cease Progressive loss of consciousness Pale and cold skinIncreased muscle rigidity Cardiac arrythmias may develop Slurred speechShow and shallow breathing Pupils fixed and dilated Usually responsive, but with apathy and slowed thinking Weak, rapid and hard to detect pulse May appear dead
Management 1.DRABC 2.Urgent ambulance 000 3.Take 30-45 seconds to confirm presence or absence of pulse 4.Take off wet clothing and replace with dry (if conscious) 5.Do NOT rub or massage body 6.Do NOT give alcohol 7.Do NOT expose to excessive heat 8.Place insulating material under casualty to prevent further heat loss 9.Wrap patient (including head) in blanket, sleeping bag, thermal blanket 10.If conscious, warm sweet drinks may be given
-Hyperthermia is when the core body temperature is excessively higher than normal. -Factors that contribute to hyperthermia include: -Environmental: temperature -Exertion: the work you are doing -Dehydration: the loss of water and electrolytes -Clothing: too many layers for the weather -Age: younger and older people feel heat more -Body Build: weight or muscle bulk increase heat -Fitness Level: unfit people get hotter quicker when working -Acclimatization: moving from a cool to a hot climate -Drugs -Illness
Levels of Hyperthermia There are three levels of hyperthermia… -Heat cramps: painful muscle spasms/cramps usually in legs, arms or abdomens. -Heat exhaustion: when no action is taken when a cramp becomes evident. -Heat stroke: can cause impaired mental function, leading to unconsciousness and death.
Signs & Symptoms Heat CrampsHeat ExhaustionHeat Stroke PainNausea, Vomiting Muscle rigidityMuscle CrampsIrritable Red, Sweaty, Hot SkinPale, Cool, Clammy SkinHot, Red, Dry Skin Weak, Rapid PulsePounding, Rapid Pulse that gradually weakens Breathing Faintness, DizzinessDizziness, Delirium Headache ConfusionAltered consciousness leading to convulsions and unconsciousness Thirst
Management Heat Cramps Heat ExhaustionHeat Stroke 1.DRABC 2. Gently stretch cramp to ease 2.Remove casualty to cool area 2. Urgent ambulance, 000 3. Give casualty water to drink 3. Lay casualty down3. Loosen and remove excessive clothing 4. Loosen and remove excessive clothing 4. Cool casualty down by fanning 5. Cool casualty down by fanning 5. Give cool water to drink if conscious 6. Give cool water to drink if conscious 6. Apply wrapped ice packs to groin and armpits 7. Apply wrapped ice packs to groins and armpits 7. Monitor vital signs 8. Seek medical assistance 9. Monitor vital signs.
Today’s Tasks Complete the accompanying “Hypo- & Hyperthermia” worksheets in your workbook. Practice treating a patient with hypothermia and hyperthermia.