Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades November 27 th i n Anno Domini [Year of Our Lord] 1095
Perhaps the greatest irony of the Crusading period is that Pope Urban II, the man who cried "Dieu Le Volt : God wills it", the very words that rallied men to take up the sword in the name of Christendom, died in 1099 before hearing of the success of the First Crusade to Jerusalem. Urban II was born in 1042 CE and was crowned Pope in 1088 at the age of 46. We may never know what was said by the Pope on November 27th, 1095, as the many accounts of that speech are varied. More important, however are the reasons the crusade was called in the first place. Some possible theories are as follows:
Urban sought a reunification of the Eastern and Western Churches He wanted to make safe travel routes to and from the near East, the Holy Land, as many pilgrims were traveling to the area and being killed on route. Put an end to the fighting among land owners and feudal societies in Europe. By redirecting hostilities towards a common enemy, the Infidels, the Christians could fight a mutual cause. Assert the power of the Roman Catholic Church
1095-1096 The Peasants Crusade 1095-1099 The First Crusade 1147-1149 The Second Crusade 1189-1192 The Third Crusade 1202-1204 The Fourth Crusade 12?? - The Children’s Crusade 1218-1221 The Fifth Crusade 1228-1229 The Sixth Crusade 1248-1254 The Seventh Crusade 1270-The Eighth Crusade 1271-1272 The Last Crusade Timeline of Crusades
Results of the First Crusade! Jerusalem was captured on July 15, 1099 Almost all inhabitants killed, their blood purified the city! Death in the name of Religion! Does it still happen today? Massacred Jews graves at Worms, 6,000 killed! c. 1096
Louis VII of France Conrad III Holy Roman Emperor
This Crusade was in response to Muslim unification and taking of the first crusades lands to the east of Jerusalem Both armies failed to take back any land Crusade #2 failed
Children’s Crusade 12?? Very sketchy on details! Some say 1202 some say 1212 Children from France and Germany tried unsuccessfully to travel to the Holy Land, 1,000’s died or simply disappeared.
Other Crusades All Following crusades failed to regain the Holy land, but brought knowledge of the world outside of Europe and increased trade.
The Fifth Crusade The Fifth Crusade (1216-1220) was led by the kings of Hungary and Cyprus. Its strength was wasted in Egypt, and it resulted in nothing The Sixth Crusade The Sixth Crusade (1227-1229), headed by Frederick II. of Germany, succeeded in securing from the Saracens the restoration of Jerusalem, together with several other cities of Palestine. The Seventh Crusade The Seventh Crusade (1249-1254) was under the lead of Louis IX. Of France, surnamed the Saint. The Eighth Crusade The Eighth Crusade ( 1270 ) was incited by the fresh misfortunes that, towards the close of the thirteenth century, befell the Christian kingdom in Palestine. The leader of the eighth crusade was King Louis IX of France. King Louis IX directed his forces against the Moors about Tunis, in North Africa. Here the king died of the plague. Nothing was effected by this crusade. The Ninth and Last Crusade The Ninth Crusade (1271 - 1272) was also incited by the misfortunes that, towards the close of the thirteenth century, befell the Christian kingdom in Palestine. The leader of this crusade was Prince Edward of England, afterwards King Edward I. The English prince, was, however, more fortunate than the ill-fated King Louis IX. Edward succeeded in capturing Nazareth, and in compelling the sultan of Egypt to agree to a treaty favorable to the Christians in the Last Crusade. With this event the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem came to an end (1291). The second great combat between Mohammedanism and Christianity was over, and "silence reigned along the shore that had so long resounded with the world's debate." Other Crusades Cont.