Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction of the South 1865-1877 AP U.S. History."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction of the South 1865-1877 AP U.S. History
Devastated South Robbed of property. Wealth diminishes from 25% (1860) to 12% (1870). More racist than ever. Notions of class & honor are altered.
Plans for Reconstruction: Lincoln 1863: “Ten Percent Plan” Respected private property Opposed harsh punishment for rebellion. –Full pardon & restoration of property after swearing an oath of allegiance to US and ALL laws. –After 10% of the voters take the oath in that state they could establish a state government. Goal: Get white support for EP and shorten reconstruction period. Angers radical republicans. –AR and LA follow the 10% and congress refuses to seat their reps. in congress
Wade-Davis Bill-1864(Congressional Plan) Radical Republicans: Lincoln is being too soft. –50% before they can have a state convention to rewrite the constitution. –Transform southern society. –Give blacks equality but not suffrage. Lincoln pocket vetoes.
Plans for “Restoration”: Johnson Blame planter elite and not the whole state for the war. Mild reentry terms for states. Amnesty and pardon (1865, Spring) restoration of property to all who pledged to US. –Southerners, mostly major confederate officials and wealthy land owners were excluded but could apply for a pardon. –Averages 100 pardons a day (90% of those who apply). Congress was not in session when he instituted this plan. –Restoration: Fall, 1865, 10 of eleven states claim to have followed his orders. –Congress is angry.
Plans for Reconstruction: Radical Republicans Reconstruction is congresses job. –Career has been shaped by the slave controversy. Alter society of South. –Confiscate 400 million acres and redistribute to freed men and yeoman farmers. –If you leave your job before contract expires you can be arrested by any white person. –Free labor, universal education and equal rights. –Johnson’s plan has allowed elite to take hold. –Black codes reinforce discrimination.
Radical Republicans (Cont.) Spring 1866 Civil Rights Bill: Full citizenship for blacks, overturned Dred and black codes. –Equal protection under the law. –Johnson vetoes bill. Government lacks jurisdiction over the 11 unrepresented states. –Congress overrides vetoes. Freedman's Bureau –Aid refugees (slaves & poor whites). –Controlled confiscated land. –Give slaves autonomy. – to provide for education, & job skills. –Hurt by budget cuts disbanded by 1872. Pass 14 th Amendment: defined citizenship.
Congressional Reconstruction Override Johnson’s vetoes and pass First Reconstruction Act. –Divides south into 5 military districts. Subject to martial law. –Call new constitutional conventions, with representatives elected by universal manhood suffrage. –Must ratify 14 th Amendment and guarantee blacks the right to vote. Eligible for readmission into the Union. Congress also empowered the military to administer voter registration and an loyalty oath to U.S.
Congress v. Johnson Tenure of Office Act: Congressional control of reappointments and successions. Johnson violates act and House votes to impeach him (1868). –Charged with 11 counts of high crimes and misdemeanors. The House wants Johnson out because he does not agree with them. –Johnson agrees to Reconstruction Acts and Senate votes 35 to 19 (one vote short). Set precedent that president may only be impeached for criminal actions, not political disagreements.
Election of 1868 Republicans nominate Ulysses S. Grant. –Campaign does not endorse black suffrage in North (fails in 8 Northern states). –Successful in IA & MN. Democrats nominate Horatio Seymour. –Goal is to overturn Reconstruction. –Get rid of Freedman’s Bureau & all “instruments of black supremacy.” KKK (1866) begins its reign of terror. –SC, AK, GA, & LA white & black Republicans are whipped and murdered to prevent them from voting.
Election of 1868 (Cont.) Grant wins by 300K votes (214 to 80). –500K blacks voted for Grant illustrating their political clout. Feb 1869: 15 th Amendment is passed. –Remaining rebel states must ratify 14 th & 15 th (MS, TX & VA). Technically Reconstruction, politically, is over.
Women Frustrated by 14 th & 15 th Amendments. S.B. Anthony, & E.C. Stanton found American Equal Rights Assoc. In 1866. –Republican Party & abolitionists remove support from women’s movement. Lucy Stone & Frederick Douglass agree that, “this hour belongs to the negro.”
Freed People 2 pillars of their life (family & church) desire economic, political & cultural autonomy. –Change gender roles. Women stay out of field work and devote more time to children. Eventually had to continue to labor to make a living. Black: Love freedom but must learn to make decisions on their own. White: Cannot understand why slaves want to leave.
Making a Living Money or share wage: Work in large gangs in a plantation and paid with a share of the crop of in cash. Sharecropping: Family is responsible for a plot of land breaking large plantations into family sized farms. –Planters like sharecropping. Stabilizes workforce. Tenant farming: paying a rent to land owner. Majority do not achieve independence or land ownership. Ultimately remain subordinate culture.
Southern Sharecropping and the Cotton Belt, 1880
Politics Inclusion is the goal of political activity. 1865-66: Mass organization: parades, meeting and participation. Delegates at statewide conventions. 1867: Registered by the military: 735K. Less than half white voters participate in statewide elections, 4/5’s of African Americans participate.
Politics (Cont.) Republicans split into African Americans, scalawags and carpetbaggers. Dominate 10 southern state constitutional conventions. Constitutions: –Political & civil rights form blacks. –Abolish property qualifications for office holding and jury duty. –State funded education, establish penitentiaries, orphanages and asylums.
The Barrow Plantation, Oglethorpe County, Georgia, 1860 and 1881
White Resistance-KKK Southerners refuse legitimacy of Republicans. Flog, beat & murder freed people. –Goal is intimidation in the name of racial order. –Easter 1873, LA: 100 African Americans murdered in courthouse during a contested election. Federal Enforcement Acts to counter racial terrorism. –KKK Act of 1871: Violent infringement on civil & political rights a federal crime. –Civil Rights Act 1875: Outlaws racial discrimination in theaters, hotels RR and public places. 1874: Democrats have majority in House for first time since 1856. –Win on platform of blaming Republicans for spending. –Begin to “redeem” one state after another. 1883: CRA is unconstitutional. Private individuals can discriminate, but states cannot. Officially ends federal attempt to protect AA rights.
Depression of 1873 Post war boom comes to a halt. Result of commercial overexpansion and speculation in the RR industry. –1876: ½ RR’s had defaulted. –Over 100 banks fold. –18,000 businesses close. Lasts 65 months. –Unemployment rises to 15%. NYC is 25%. –Public works jobs are rejected. –Workers & farmers question free-labor and class division.
Election of 1876 Grant’s administration involved in the “whiskey ring” scheme. NY Gov. Samuel Tilden wins democrat nomination. Rutherford B. Hayes runs on Republican ticket. Electoral Dispute: –Republicans dispute 20 electoral votes from FL, LA, SC & OR. –3 southern states send two different electoral votes. –OR Hayes won but the Democratic governor replaced Republican elector with a Democrat. Electoral Commission appointed & votes on partisan lines. Hayes wins by 8 to 7 Democrats threaten to filibuster.
Compromise of 1877 Federal money for southern internal improvements Noninterference or “home rule.” Southerner appointed to Hayes’ cabinet. Remove federal troops from south. –Effectively abandoned freed people, carpetbaggers, scalawags & Radicals. –Nullified 14 th & 15 th Amendments & CRA of 1866.