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Chapter 16: Texas History

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1 Chapter 16: Texas History
Reconstruction Chapter 16: Texas History

2 Presidential Reconstruction
Reconstruction: The Civil War was followed by a period in which Southern states were brought back in to the Union. This period is known as reconstruction Most of the south was in ruins There were many problems facing the south during reconstruction There was a scarcity of money A bitterness between those in the north and those in the south Lack of food and shelter for the freedmen


4 Juneteenth Juneteenth: June 19, 1865 was the day most enslaved Texans celebrated their freedom The Emancipation Proclamation officially freed the enslaved in 1863 On June 19, Union troops led by General Gordon Granger declared all enslaved people free, after landing in Galveston with 1,800 Union troops. Juneteenth has become a holiday to celebrate the past, present and future contributions of African Americans in the United States


6 Two Presidential Plans
By 1865, over 50,000 Union troops were in Texas to patrol the U.S. and Mexico border, and to bring order to the state Brigadier General George A. Custer occupied Austin, the capital of Texas President Lincoln wanted the confederate states to rejoin the union peacefully, and without major consequence Abraham Lincoln was assassinated shortly after, and the task of reconstruction passed on to Andrew Johnson


8 Set up a provisional government in every southern state
President Johnson was from the south, and set up a reconstruction policy that was similar to Lincoln’s. Set up a provisional government in every southern state Appointed officers and ordered federal troops to protect them and their offices Set up conditions for readmission in to the United States Prohibit slavery and nullify their order to secede from the United States Citizens had to take an oath of allegiance to the United States in order to vote again Leaders of the Confederacy and the wealthy had to seek a special pardon from the President Once all were complete, each state could write a new constitution and elect their own representatives

9 Restoring Statehood and Assisting Freed Texans
June of 1865: Andrew Hamilton was named provisional governor of Texas Hamilton had sympathy for the people of Texas, and wanted a quick return to the Union Many supported Hamilton, but others openly opposed him The Freedman’s Bureau helped many African Americans living in the south Former slaves were known as freedmen Their main job was to help blacks and whites who were left homeless after the Civil War


11 Nationally, the Freedman’s Bureau was led by Oliver W. Howard
In Texas, it was led by General E.M. Gregory Operated for nearly 5 years Helped find jobs for those that had been freed Issued food and clothing for the sick, poor and elderly Provided education for the African Americans in the United States By 1870, over 100 schools offered education to the African Americans Most were closed after the Freedman’s Bureau no longer operated

12 Government Restored in 1866
By November of 1865, most white males had taken the oath of allegiance to the United States, allowing them to vote again Elected delegates to a convention to write a new constitution A new Texas constitution was created, and the amendments were ratified in June of 1866. Most who wrote the constitution were supporters of the Confederacy State secession was illegal Slavery was abolished State war debts were forgiven African Americans were provided schools and certain legal rights Denied the right to vote to African Americans

13 Texas Elects Ex- Confederates to Office
Texans elected many former Confederate officials to top governments posts Governor James W. Throckmorton had served as commanding general for the frontier district of the Confederacy Southern legislatures also took actions that troubled many Refused to ratify, or approve, the 13th and 14th amendment 13th amendment abolished slavery 14th amendment granted citizenship to former slaves Set up Black Codes African Americans were not allowed to vote Could not testify against whites or serve on a jury African Americans without jobs were forced to work for plantation owners.


15 Immigration from Europe continued during reconstruction
People on the Move Many African Americans began to search Texas, and other parts of the United States, for family members they were separated from during their time as a slave. Over 100,000 people also came from other confederate states in search of farmland Immigration from Europe continued during reconstruction Others emigrated, or moved out of the state Several Confederate leaders refused to take the oath of allegiance to the United States, and moved to Brazil where slavery was still legal.

16 Radical Republicans Take Charge
Republicans in office often disagreed with President Johnson, and drew up their own plan for reconstruction Radical Republicans had their own goals Wanted stricter standards for rejoining the Union Wanted to protect the freedoms of African Americans in the south Received the votes of many African Americans Former Confederates believed the plan was too harsh Radical Republicans won control of the House and the Senate in 1866, and promised to override any presidential veto In Feb. 1868, they then tried to impeach President Johnson The Senate failed to convict him on charges of misconduct, and Johnson served the remaining years of his term. Johnson ultimately lost most of his influence as a result

17 New Requirements for Statehood
In March of 1867, Congress divided the south into five districts Louisiana and Texas made up one district, commanded by Major General Philip Sheridan Under this plan, martial law would rule until the states met certain requirements States had to write a new constitution and approve the 14th amendment African Americans had to be given the right to vote and hold office Had to ratify the 15th amendment, guaranteeing the right to vote for African American men States had to repeal the Black Codes Voters had to take the Ironclad Oath Stated they had not served in the Confederate army or given aid to the Confederacy Kept thousands of southerners from voting


19 Southerners Oppose Reconstruction
July 30, 1867: General Sheridan removed Governor Throckmorton from office for not placing reconstruction laws in to effect. Elisha M. Pease was appointed as the next governor Southern whites who supported Reconstruction were called Scalawags, and northerners who came to the south were called Carpetbaggers Organizations against reconstruction often turned to violence and threats to prevent African Americans from voting Ku Klux Klan Hid their identities while hanging and whipping African Americans



22 A New Constitution and Elections
February, 1868: Texans voted in new delegates to a convention to create a new constitution Stated that no person could be excluded from voting because of race or color The Constitution of 1869 provided more support for public education Extended numerous rights to African Americans Protected public lands in Texas In 1869, a new governor and other state officials, including 11 African Americans, were elected Edmund J. Davis, a Radical Republican, won the 1869 election for the Governor of Texas March 30, 1870: President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation ending reconstruction

23 Governor Davis was often seen as controversial by many Texans
A Republican Governor Governor Davis was often seen as controversial by many Texans Only allowed state police, including Tejanos and African Americans Used military in times of civil disobedience Postponed several elections and raised taxes He improved roads, built forts, passed a new Homestead Act and set up free public schools Attendance to school was compulsory, or required The tax system provided funding for education

24 A Democratic Challenge
1872: Anti-Davis Democrats won a majority of seats in the state legislature 1872: Davis ran for re-election against Richard Coke, a Democrat who was a former Confederate officer The election became bitter and violent Coke appealed to white businessmen, immigrants and farmers Democrats used threats and violence to keep African Americans from voting for Davis Richard Coke won the election by twice as many votes Democrats won every other major state office

25 Reconstruction Ends From Dec to January 1874, Texas was in crisis over the date that Coke would take over The Texas Supreme Court declared Coke’s win as unconstitutional, but eventually Coke forced his way in as Governor. Militias and soldiers vowed to defend Davis and Coke Troops brought in by Davis changed sides, and granted their support to Coke Had the potential to become violent After President Grant refused to send troops to support Davis, David left office on January 17, 1874 Brought an end to Republican rule in Texas

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