2 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction Reconstruction: Period of rebuilding after the Civil WarAlthough Texas had been spared, much of South lay in ruinsMoney was scarce
3 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction JuneteenthEmancipation Proclamation of 1863: Freed slaves in the Confederate SouthGeneral Gordon Granger: June 19, 1865, troops landed in Galveston and their first act was to issue a proclamation declaring that all enslaved Texans were free (this was 2 years after the Emancipation Proclamation)Juneteenth: Holiday was a time to “express to young and old the fact that African Americans are proud of their past, present, and future contributions to American society.
4 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction Two Presidential PlansNullify – cancelPresident Abraham LincolnPresident Andrew JohnsonWanted to restore the union as quickly as possibleReconstruction policy “with malice toward none, with charity toward all”Modeled his plan after LincolnSet up provisional governments in Southern statesAll Southern states must nullify slavery to be readmitted into UnionOath of allegianceWrite new Constitutions and elect new representatives
5 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction Governor Hamilton Works to Restore StatehoodHamilton – Provisional Governor of TexasHis Goal: Return statehood to Texas as quickly and as peacefully as possible
6 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction The Freedmen’s Bureau Assists Freed TexansFreedmen: Former slavedBureaus job: provide relief to the thousands of people who were left homeless after the war and to supervise the affairs of newly freed slaves in the Southern states and to manage Confederate lands seizedOliver O. Howard: Headed Freedmen’s Bureau nationallyGeneral G.M. Gregory: Headed the Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas
7 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction Government Restored in 1866Fall of 1865: Texans elected delegates to the convention in Feb 1866 to write a new ConstitutionWhere: AustinHow Long: 2 MonthsFinished version -Secession was illegalSlavery was abolishedState war debts were cancelledProvided schools for African American childrenExtended certain legal rights to African AmericansDID NOT give former slaves full legal status and the right to vote
8 Section 2: Congress Takes Control Texas Elects Confederates to OfficeRatify – to approveAmendments – changes to the ConstitutionWhat troubling actions did Texas Legislatures take regarding the 13th and 14th Amendment?Rejected them13th Amendment – Abolished slavery14th Amendment – Granted citizenship to former enslaved peopleBlack Codes: laws limiting the rights of African Americans, differed from state to state
9 Section 2: Congress Takes Control Radical Republicans Take ChargeRadical Republicans: Republicans in Congress who disagreed with President JohnsonRadical Republican PlansSet stricter standards for admitting the Southern statesProtect the freedmen in Southern statesVeto – an action refusing to approve a lawFebruary 1868:House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson by charging him with misconductPresident tried before SenateSenate failed by one vote to convict him, but the rest of his term he had lost a lot of influence
10 Section 2: Congress Takes Control New Requirements for StatehoodMajor General Philip Sheridan: Commanded the district made up of Texas and Louisiana after Congress divided up the South into 5 districts15th Amendment: Guaranteed African American men the right to vote and states also had to repeal with black codes
11 Section 2: Congress Takes Control Southerners Oppose ReconstructionScalawags: Southern whites who supported ReconstructionCarpetbaggers: Northerners who often came to South during the period of ReconstructionAfrican Americans and UnionistsFormer Confederates and former SecessionistsPleased these groupsBelieved it was too harsh
12 Section 2: Congress Takes Control A New Constitution and ElectionsConstitution of 1869No one could be excluded from voting based on race and colorProvide more support for public educationExtended rights to African AmericansProtected public landsExpanded power of governor and legislatureMarch 30, 1870: President Grant signed a proclamation that Reconstruction in Texas was ended
13 Section 2: Congress Takes Control A Republican GovernorEdmund J. Davis ‘s term was viewed as the darkest period of Reconstruction by his opponentsChangesReactionsState PolicyClaims that police threatened opponents, resentment towards Tejanos and African AmericansLegislative PowerClaims that Davis used them to restrict opponents activitiesPublic SchoolsResentment of higher taxes
14 Section 2: Congress Takes Control A Democratic ChallengeWorthwhile project completed during Davis’s TermsImproved roadsBuilt fortsPassed new Homestead ActSet up free public educationRichard Coke: Democratic candidate that ran for office when Davis ran for reelection in 1873Outcome of election: Democrats win
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.