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Chapter 16 Cornell Notes Key

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1 Chapter 16 Cornell Notes Key

2 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction
Reconstruction: Period of rebuilding after the Civil War Although Texas had been spared, much of South lay in ruins Money was scarce

3 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction
Juneteenth Emancipation Proclamation of 1863: Freed slaves in the Confederate South General Gordon Granger: June 19, 1865, troops landed in Galveston and their first act was to issue a proclamation declaring that all enslaved Texans were free (this was 2 years after the Emancipation Proclamation) Juneteenth: Holiday was a time to “express to young and old the fact that African Americans are proud of their past, present, and future contributions to American society.

4 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction
Two Presidential Plans Nullify – cancel President Abraham Lincoln President Andrew Johnson Wanted to restore the union as quickly as possible Reconstruction policy “with malice toward none, with charity toward all” Modeled his plan after Lincoln Set up provisional governments in Southern states All Southern states must nullify slavery to be readmitted into Union Oath of allegiance Write new Constitutions and elect new representatives

5 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction
Governor Hamilton Works to Restore Statehood Hamilton – Provisional Governor of Texas His Goal: Return statehood to Texas as quickly and as peacefully as possible

6 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction
The Freedmen’s Bureau Assists Freed Texans Freedmen: Former slaved Bureaus job: provide relief to the thousands of people who were left homeless after the war and to supervise the affairs of newly freed slaves in the Southern states and to manage Confederate lands seized Oliver O. Howard: Headed Freedmen’s Bureau nationally General G.M. Gregory: Headed the Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas

7 Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction
Government Restored in 1866 Fall of 1865: Texans elected delegates to the convention in Feb 1866 to write a new Constitution Where: Austin How Long: 2 Months Finished version - Secession was illegal Slavery was abolished State war debts were cancelled Provided schools for African American children Extended certain legal rights to African Americans DID NOT give former slaves full legal status and the right to vote

8 Section 2: Congress Takes Control
Texas Elects Confederates to Office Ratify – to approve Amendments – changes to the Constitution What troubling actions did Texas Legislatures take regarding the 13th and 14th Amendment? Rejected them 13th Amendment – Abolished slavery 14th Amendment – Granted citizenship to former enslaved people Black Codes: laws limiting the rights of African Americans, differed from state to state

9 Section 2: Congress Takes Control
Radical Republicans Take Charge Radical Republicans: Republicans in Congress who disagreed with President Johnson Radical Republican Plans Set stricter standards for admitting the Southern states Protect the freedmen in Southern states Veto – an action refusing to approve a law February 1868: House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson by charging him with misconduct President tried before Senate Senate failed by one vote to convict him, but the rest of his term he had lost a lot of influence

10 Section 2: Congress Takes Control
New Requirements for Statehood Major General Philip Sheridan: Commanded the district made up of Texas and Louisiana after Congress divided up the South into 5 districts 15th Amendment: Guaranteed African American men the right to vote and states also had to repeal with black codes

11 Section 2: Congress Takes Control
Southerners Oppose Reconstruction Scalawags: Southern whites who supported Reconstruction Carpetbaggers: Northerners who often came to South during the period of Reconstruction African Americans and Unionists Former Confederates and former Secessionists Pleased these groups    Believed it was too harsh

12 Section 2: Congress Takes Control
A New Constitution and Elections Constitution of 1869 No one could be excluded from voting based on race and color Provide more support for public education Extended rights to African Americans Protected public lands Expanded power of governor and legislature March 30, 1870: President Grant signed a proclamation that Reconstruction in Texas was ended

13 Section 2: Congress Takes Control
A Republican Governor Edmund J. Davis ‘s term was viewed as the darkest period of Reconstruction by his opponents Changes Reactions State Policy Claims that police threatened opponents, resentment towards Tejanos and African Americans Legislative Power Claims that Davis used them to restrict opponents activities Public Schools Resentment of higher taxes

14 Section 2: Congress Takes Control
A Democratic Challenge Worthwhile project completed during Davis’s Terms Improved roads Built forts Passed new Homestead Act Set up free public education Richard Coke: Democratic candidate that ran for office when Davis ran for reelection in 1873 Outcome of election: Democrats win

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