Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction Texas History Monday, February 17, 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction Texas History Monday, February 17, 2014
Reconstruction a.What is Reconstruction? i.The period at the end of the Civil War when Southern states were brought back into the Union ii.It also involved the rebuilding of areas that had been destroyed by warfare.
Reconstruction b.Much of the South lay in ruins, though Texas had largely been spared. Many people were without food and shelter, and the differences between the North and South remained. Many people were without food and shelter, and the differences between the North and South remained.
Juneteenth a.On June 19, 1865, two years after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued, General Gordon Granger landed in Galveston and declared all enslaved Texans were free. b.This day became known as Juneteenth— the day African Americans in Texas received freedom…it has since become an annual celebration in Texas.
Juneteenth c. Nearly 50,000 Union troops were stationed in Texas by the end of 1865 to ensure order.
Two Presidential Plans a.Before his death, President Lincoln wanted a moderate policy of Reconstruction—one “with malice toward none, and charity for all”. HIS GOAL? – UNITY! b.Andrew Johnson, the new president, continued this plan and set up a provisional government in each southern state and appointed officers until the state was readmitted to the Union.
Two Presidential Plans i.To be readmitted to the Union, each southern state had to abolish slavery and nullify, or cancel, its ordinance of secession. ii.To regain their right to vote, southern citizens had to take an oath of allegiance to the United States.
Governor Hamilton Works to Restore Statehood a.Andrew J. Hamilton, a Unionist who had been against secession, was named provisional governor of Texas by federal authorities in June b.He was ordered to carry out Reconstruction plans by restoring the local/state government. c.He sympathized with the people of Texas, and many pledged cooperation, but others were openly hostile toward him.
The Freedmen’s Bureau Assists Texans a.Former slaves were often referred to as freedmen. b.A new federal agency called the Freedmen’s Bureau assisted many African Americans in the South.
The Freedmen’s Bureau Assists Texans c.It operated for 5 years by: i.Helping them find jobs. ii.Issuing food and clothing to the sick, aged, and poor. iii.Establishing the first public schools in Texas for African American children. d.Many southerners accused the Freedmen’s Bureau agents of meddling in local matters, wasting taxpayers’ money, and strengthening the Republican Party.
Texas Government Restored in 1886/People Moving a. For 2 months, many former Confederate Texans met in Austin to write a new state constitution, which: i.Stated secession illegal, slavery abolished, and war debts canceled. ii.Gave certain legal rights to African Americans, but NOT the right to vote.
Texas Government Restored in 1886/People Moving b. Meanwhile, many travelers came to Texas for better lives; while radical Confederates left the state.
Texans Elect Ex-Confederates to Office a.Former Confederate commander James W. Throckmorton was elected governor; other were elected to U.S. Congress b.Meanwhile, the Texas legislature refused to ratify the 13th amendment (which abolished slavery), and the 14th amendment (which granted citizenship to former slaves.
Texans Elect Ex-Confederates to Office c.Southern states also restricted the rights of African Americans with black codes—they were not allowed to vote, testify against or marry whites, or serve on juries
Radical Republicans Take Charge a.The Radical Republicans took control of Reconstruction; and disagreed with Lincoln and Johnson’s plans. b.They pushed a plan to set stricter standards for readmitting Southern states to the Union and that would protect the freedom of African Americans in the South.
Radical Republicans Take Charge c.In the 1866 elections, they also had enough power to override presidential vetoes. d.President Johnson, a moderate Republican, fought against them and was charged with misconduct in office. He missed being impeached, or removed from office, by 1 vote.
New Requirements for Statehood a.In March 1867, Congress divided the South into 5 districts. Texas and Louisiana made up 1 district, commanded by Major General Philip Sheridan.
New Requirements for Statehood b.Until states met certain requirements, military rule continued. The requirements (or conditions)? i.Ratify the 14th amendment (see section 1) ii.Ratify the 15th amendment, which gave African American men the right to vote iii.Repeal the Black Codes iv.Take the Ironclad Oath, which said you never served in the CSA army or aided them; and allowed you to vote again!
Southerners Oppose Reconstruction a.General Sheridan appointed Unionist Elisha M. Pease, a Republican, as governor after removing Throckmorton. b.Southern white supporters of Reconstruction were called scalawags. Northerners who often came to the South for political and economic gain were called carpetbaggers. Both were Unionists.
Southerners Oppose Reconstruction c.In Texas and other Southern states, organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan used threats and violence to prevent African Americans from voting.
A New Constitution and Elections a.In November 1869, Texans who qualified to vote approved a new constitution and elected a new governor and other state officials. b.The new state constitution also stated no one should be excluded from voting because of race or color.
A New Constitution and Elections c.Edmund J. Davis, a Radical Republican, narrowly defeated former provisional governor and moderate Republican Andrew J. Hamilton.
A Republican Governor/A Democratic Challenge a.Davis was unpopular; and critics complained that he and other Republicans used their power to restrict the political activities of their opponents. b.Southern Democrats retaliated with threats and violence to keep African Americans from voting.
A Republican Governor/A Democratic Challenge c.In 1873, Richard Coke, a Democrat and ex-Confederate officer was elected governor by twice the number of votes than that of Davis.