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Joints. Classification of Joints  Functional classification (Focuses on amount of movement)  Synarthroses (immovable joints)  Amphiarthroses (slightly.

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Presentation on theme: "Joints. Classification of Joints  Functional classification (Focuses on amount of movement)  Synarthroses (immovable joints)  Amphiarthroses (slightly."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints

2 Classification of Joints  Functional classification (Focuses on amount of movement)  Synarthroses (immovable joints)  Amphiarthroses (slightly movable joints)  Diarthroses (freely movable joints)  Structural classification (Based on the material binding them and presence or absence of a joint cavity)  Bony fusion  Fibrous  Cartilagenous  Synovial

3 Table of Joint Types Functional across Structural down Synarthroses (immovable joints) Amphiarthroses (some movement) Diarthroses (freely movable) Bony FusionSynostosis (frontal=metopic suture; epiphyseal lines) FibrousSuture (skull only) -fibrous tissue is continuous with periosteum Gomphoses (teeth) -ligament is periodontal ligament Syndesmoses -ligaments only between bones; here, short so some but not a lot of movement (example: tib-fib ligament) Syndesmoses -ligament longer (example: radioulnar interosseous membrane) Cartilagenous (bone united by cartilage only) Synchondroses -hyaline cartilage (examples: manubrium-C1, epiphyseal plates) Sympheses -fibrocartilage (examples: between discs, pubic symphesis SynovialAre all diarthrotic

4 Fibrous joints  Bones connected by fibrous tissue: dense regular connective tissue  No joint cavity  Slightly immovable or not at all  Types  Sutures  Syndesmoses  Gomphoses

5 Sutures  Only between bones of skull  Fibrous tissue continuous with periosteum  Ossify and fuse in middle age: now technically called “synostoses”= bony junctions

6 Syndesmoses  In Greek: “ligament”  Bones connected by ligaments only  Amount of movement depends on length of the fibers: longer than in sutures

7 Gomphoses  Is a “peg-in-socket”  Only example is tooth with its socket  Ligament is a short periodontal ligament

8 Cartilagenous joints  Articulating bones united by cartilage  Lack a joint cavity  Not highly movable  Two types  Synchondroses (singular: synchondrosis)  Sympheses (singular: symphesis)

9 Synchondroses  Literally: “junction of cartilage”  Hyaline cartilage unites the bones  Immovable (synarthroses)  Examples:  Epiphyseal plates  Joint between first rib’s costal cartilage and manubrium of the sternum

10 Sympheses  Literally “growing together”  Fibrocartilage unites the bones  Slightly movable (amphiarthroses)  Resilient shock absorber  Provide strength and flexibility  Hyaline cartilage on articular surfaces of bones to reduce friction  Examples  Intervertebral discs  Pubic symphysis of the pelvis

11 Synchondroses and sympheses Also pubic symphsis

12 Synovial joints  Include most of the body’s joints  All are diarthroses (freely movable)  All contain fluid-filled joint cavity

13 General Structure of Synovial Joints 1.Articular cartilage  Hyaline  Spongy cushions absorb compression  Protects ends of bones from being crushed 2.Joint (synovial) cavity  Potential space  Small amount of synovial fluid

14 General structure of synovial joints (cont.) 3. Articular (or joint) capsule  Two layered  Outer * : fibrous capsule of dense irregular connective tissue continuous with periosteum  Inner * : synovial membrane of loose connective tissue (makes synovial fluid)  Lines all internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage * * * *

15 General structure of synovial joints (cont.) 4. Synovial fluid  Filtrate of blood  Contains special glycoproteins  Nourishes cartilage and functions as slippery lubricant  “Weeping” lubricatioin 5. Reinforcing ligaments (some joints)  Capsular (most) – thickened parts of capsule  Extracapsular  Intracapsular

16 General structure of synovial joints (cont.) 6. Nerves  Detect pain  Monitor stretch (one of the ways of sensing posture and body movements) 7. Blood vessels  Rich blood supply  Extensive capillary beds in synovial membrane (produce the blood filtrate)

17 General structure of synovial joints

18  Articular disc or meniscus (literally “crescent”)  Only some joints  Those with bone ends of different shapes or fitting poorly  Some to allow two kinds of movement (e.g. jaw)  Of fibrocartilage  Examples: knee TMJ (temporomandibular joint) sternoclavicular joint Some joints…

19 Bursae and tendon sheaths  Contain synovial fluid  Not joints but often associated with them  Act like ball bearings  Bursa means “purse” in Latin  Flattened sac lined by synovial membrane  Where ligaments, muscles, tendons, or bones overlie each other and rub together  Tendon sheath  Only on tendons subjected to friction

20 Bursae and tendon sheaths

21 Joint stability  Articular surfaces  Shape usually plays only minor role  Some deep sockets or grooves do provide stability  Ligaments  Usually the more, the stronger the joint  Can stretch only 6% beyond normal length before tear  Once stretched, stay stretched  Muscle tone  Constant, low level of contractile force  Keeps tension on the ligaments  Especially important at shoulders, knees, arches of foot

22 Movements allowed by synovial joints  Gliding  Angular movements:  or  the angle between two bones DO TOGETHER  Flexion  Extension  Abduction  Adduction  Circumduction  Rotation  Special movements

23 Special movements  Pronation  Supination  Dorsiflexion  Plantar flexion  Inversion  Eversion  Protraction  Retraction  Elevation  Depression  Opposition

24 Joint movements pics (from Marieb, 4 th ed.)






30 Synovial joints classified by shape (of their articular surfaces)  Plane (see right)  Hinge (see right)  Pivot  Condyloid  Saddle  Ball-and-socket


32 Shoulder (glenohumeral) joint  Stability sacrificed for mobility  Ball and socket: head of humerus with glenoid cavity of scapula  Glenoid labrum: rim of fibrocartilage  Thin, loose capsule  Strongest ligament: coracohumeral  Muscle tendons help stability  Disorders Selected synovial joints Rotator cuff muscles add to stability Biceps tendon is intra-articular

33 Elbow joint  Hinge: allows only flexion and extension  Annular ligament of radius attaches to capsule  Capsule thickens into:  Radial collateral ligament  Ulnar collateral ligament  Muscles cross joint  Trauma

34 Wrist joint Two major joint surfaces Several ligaments stabilize 1.Radiocarpal joint  Between radius and proximal carpals (scaphoid and lunate)  Condyloid joint  Flexion extension adduction, abduction, circumduction 2.Intercarpal or midcarpal joint  Between the proximal and distal rows of carpals

35 Hip (coxal) joint  Ball and socket  Moves in all axes but limited by ligaments and deep socket  Three ext. ligaments “screw in” head of femur when standing  Iliofemoral  Pubofemoral  Ischiofemoral

36  Acetabular labrum diameter smaller than head of femur  Dislocations rare  Ligament of head of femur supplies artery  Muscle tendons cross joint  Hip fractures common in elderly because of osteoporosis

37 Right hip, AP view

38 Knee joint  Largest and most complex joint  Primarily a hinge  Compound and bicondyloid: femur and tibia both have 2 condyles  Femoropatellar joint shares joint cavity  At least a dozen bursae  Prepatellar  Suprapatellar

39  Lateral and medial menisci  “torn cartilage”  Capsule absent anteriorly  Capsular and extracapsular ligaments  Taut when knee extended to prevent hyperextension

40  Patellar ligament  Continuation of quad tendon  Medial and lateral retinacula  Fibular and tibial collateral ligaments  Called medial and lateral  Extracapsular  Oblique popliteal  Arcuate popliteal

41 Cruciate ligaments  Cross each other (cruciate means cross)  Anterior cruciate (ACL)  Anterior intercondylar area of tibia to medial side of lateral condyl of femur  Posterior cruciate  Posterior intercondylar area of tibia to lateral side of medial condyl  Restraining straps  Lock the knee

42 Cruciate ligaments

43 Knee injuries  Flat tibial surface predisposes to horizontal injuries  Lateral blow: multiple tears  ACL injuries  Stop and twist  Commoner in women athletes  Heal poorly  Require surgery

44 Ankle joint  Hinge joint  Distal tibia and fibula to talus  Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion only  Medial deltoid ligament  Lateral ligaments: 3 bands  Anterior talofibular  Posterior talofibular  Calcaneofibular  Anterior and posterior tibiofibular (syndesmosis)

45 Right ankle, lateral view



48 Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)  Head of mandible articulates with temporal bone  Disc protects thin mandibular fossa of temporal bone  Many movements Demonstrate movements together  Disorders common

49 Sternoclavicular joint  Saddle joint  Only other example is trapezium and metacarpal 1 (thumb), allowing opposion  Sternum and 1 st costal (rib) cartilage articulate with clavicle  Very stable: clavicle usually breaks before dislocation of joint  Only bony attachment of axial skeleton to pectoral girdle Demonstrate movements together

50 Disorders of joints  Injuries  Sprains  Dislocatios  Torn cartilage  Inflammatory and degenerative conditions  Bursitis  Tendinitis  Arthritis  Osteoarthritis (“DJD” – degenerative joint disease)  Rheumatoid arthritis (one of many “autoimmune” arthritites)  Gout (crystal arthropathy)

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