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Lección 11: Gramática 1.Introducción al modo subjuntivo 2.El subjuntivo con verbos que indican voluntad o deseo 3.El subjuntivo con verbos que expresan.

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Presentation on theme: "Lección 11: Gramática 1.Introducción al modo subjuntivo 2.El subjuntivo con verbos que indican voluntad o deseo 3.El subjuntivo con verbos que expresan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lección 11: Gramática 1.Introducción al modo subjuntivo 2.El subjuntivo con verbos que indican voluntad o deseo 3.El subjuntivo con verbos que expresan emoción 4.Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en

2 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (1) The indicative is used to express factual, definite events. By contrast, the subjunctive is used to reflect the speaker’s feelings or attitudes toward events, or when the speaker views events as uncertain, unreal, or hypothetical. Because expressions of volition, doubt, surprise, fear, and the like all represent reactions to the speaker’s perception of reality, they are followed in Spanish by the subjunctive.

3 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (2) Present subjunctive forms of regular verbs To form the present subjunctive, add the following endings to the stem of the first- person singular of the present indicative, after dropping the o. Note that the endings for the - er and -ir verbs are identical.

4 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (3)

5 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (4) The following table shows how to form the first-person singular of the present subjunctive.

6 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (5) Present subjunctive forms of stem-changing and irregular verbs Verbs ending in -ar and -er undergo the same stem changes in the present subjunctive as in the present indicative.

7 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (6)

8 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (7) For verbs ending in -ir, the three singular forms and the third-person plural form undergo the same stem changes in the present subjunctive as in the present indicative. However, in addition, observe that unstressed e changes to i and unstressed o changes to u in the first- and second-person plural forms.

9 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (8)

10 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (9) The following verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive.

11 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (10) Uses of the subjunctive The Spanish subjunctive is used in subordinate, or dependent, clauses. The subjunctive is also used in English, although not as often as in Spanish. For example: Sugiero que llegue mañana. I suggest that he arrive tomorrow. Main clause Dependent clause

12 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (11) The expression that requires the use of the subjunctive is in the main clause, I suggest. The subjunctive appears in the dependent clause, that he arrive tomorrow.

13 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (12) There are four main conditions that call for the use of the subjunctive in Spanish. 1.Volition: demands, wishes, advice, persuasion, and other impositions of will Ella quiere que yo lo llame. She wants me to call him. Te aconsejo que no vayas a ese viaje. I advise you not to go on that trip.

14 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (13) 2. Emotion: pity, joy, fear, surprise, hope, and so on Me sorprende que llegues tan temprano. I am surprised that you are arriving so early.

15 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (14) 3. Unreality: expectations, indefiniteness, uncertainty, nonexistence ¿Hay alguien aquí que hable español? “Is there anyone here who speaks Spanish?” No, no hay nadie que lo sepa. No, there is no one who knows it.”

16 Introducción al modo subjuntivo (15) 4. Doubt and denial: negated facts, disbelief No es verdad que Rosa sea azafata. It isn’t true that Rosa is a flight attendant. Dudo que tengas dinero. I doubt that you have money. Roberto niega que ella sea su esposa. Roberto denies that she is his wife.

17 El subjuntivo con verbos que indican voluntad o deseo (1) All expressions of will require the use of the subjunctive in subordinate clauses. Note that the subject in the main clause must be different from the subject in the subordinate clause.

18 El subjuntivo con verbos que indican voluntad o deseo (2) Some verbs of volition that require the use of the subjunctive are: Aconsejar mandar querer Decirnecesitarrecomendar Desearpedirsugerir

19 El subjuntivo con verbos que indican voluntad o deseo (3) Ejemplos: ¿Qué quieres que haga? “What do you want me to do?” Quiero que vayas al aeropuerto. “I want you to go to the airport.”

20 El subjuntivo con verbos que indican voluntad o deseo (4) Necesito hablar con un médico. “I need to talk with a doctor.” Te sugiero que hables con el Dr. Paz. “I suggest that you talk with Dr. Paz.” Note that the infinitive is used following verbs of volition if there is no change of subject: Quiero comer.

21 El subjuntivo con verbos que indican voluntad o deseo (5) Certain verbs of volition (mandar, sugerir, aconsejar, and pedir) are often preceded by an indirect object pronoun, which indicates the subject of the verb in the subjunctive. Te sugiero que vayas al médico. I suggest that you go to the doctor. Le aconsejo que venga temprano. I advise you to come early.

22 El subjuntivo con verbos que expresan emoción (1) In Spanish, the subjunctive mood is always used in the subordinate clause when the verb in the main clause expresses the emotions of the subject, such as fear, joy, pity, hope, regret, sorrow, surprise, and anger. Again, the subject in the subordinate clause must be different from the subject in the main clause for the subjunctive to be used.

23 El subjuntivo con verbos que expresan emoción (2) Some verbs of emotion that call for the subjunctive are temer esperar alegrarse (de) sentir Mañana salgo para Quito. “Tomorrow I leave for Quito.” Espero que te diviertas mucho. “I hope you have a very good time.”

24 El subjuntivo con verbos que expresan emoción (3) - Temo no poder ir de vacaciones con ustedes este verano. “I’m afraid that I cannot go on vacation with you this summer.” - Espero que puedas ir con nosotros el verano que viene. “I hope that you can go with us next summer.”

25 El subjuntivo con verbos que expresan emoción (4)

26 El subjuntivo con verbos que expresan emoción (5) If there is no change of subject, the infinitive is used. Temo no poder ir. I’m afraid that I cannot go. The expression ojalá always takes the subjunctive. Ojalá que puedas venir. I hope you can come.

27 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (1) The preposition a (to, at, in) expresses direction toward a point in space or a moment in time. It is used for the following purposes: 1. To indicate the time (hour) of day A las cinco salimos para Lima. At five we leave for Lima.

28 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (2) 2. After verbs of motion, when followed by an infinitive, a noun, or a pronoun Siempre vengo a comprar aquí. I always come to buy here.

29 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (3) 3. After the verbs empezar, comenzar, enseñar, and aprender, when followed by an infinitive Ellos empezaron a salir. They began to go out. Te enseñé a bailar el tango. I taught you to dance the tango.

30 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (4) 4. After the verb llegar Cuando él llegó a su casa, le dieron los pasajes. When he arrived at his house, they gave him the tickets.

31 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (5) 5. Before a direct object noun that refers to a specific person. It may also be used to personify an animal or a thing Yo no conozco a ese médico. I don’t know that doctor. Bañé a mi perro. I bathed my dog. If the direct object is not a definite person, the personal a is not used. Busco un buen médico. I’m looking for a good doctor.

32 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (6) The preposition de (of, from, about, with, in) indicates possession, material, and origin. It is also used in the following ways: 1. To refer to a specific period of the day or night when telling time El sábado trabajé hasta las ocho de la noche. On Saturday I worked until 8 P.M.

33 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (7) 2. After the superlative to express in or of Orlando es el más simpático de la familia. Orlando is the nicest in the family.

34 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (8) 3. To describe personal physical characteristics Es morena, de ojos negros. She is brunette, with dark eyes.

35 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (9) 4. As a synonym for sobre or acerca de (about) Hablaban de todo menos del viaje. They were talking about everything except about the trip.

36 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (10) The preposition en (at, in, on, inside, over) in general situates someone or something within an area of time or space. It is used for the following purposes: 1. To refer to a definite place Él siempre se queda en casa. He always stays at home.

37 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (11) 2. As a synonym for sobre (on) Está sentada en la silla. She is sitting on the chair.

38 Algunos usos de las preposiciones a, de y en (12) 3. To indicate means of transportation Nunca he viajado en ómnibus. I have never traveled by bus.


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