Presentation on theme: "HS: Language and the Mind. Prof. R. Hickey. SS 2006"— Presentation transcript:
1 HS: Language and the Mind. Prof. R. Hickey. SS 2006 HS: Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS First and Second Language AcquisitionTatiana Prozorova (HS/TN) Irina Novikava (HS/TN)Alexandra Wolek (HS/LN)Vanessa Hollands (HS/LN)Verena Scheulen (HS/LN)Nadiya Sowa (HS/LN)Kirsten Leicht (HS/TN)
2 Overview Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Variation in Child LanguagePsychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionSocial and Discourse Aspects of InterlanguagePsycholinguistic Aspects of InterlanguageContrastive Linguistics
3 Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Tatiana ProzorovaIrina Novikava
4 Structure main theories dealing with instruction in L2 acquisition effectiveness of instructionkey principles for an effective instructioninstructions appropriate to each acquisition stageten things the teacher can do to improve instruction for ELL students
5 Introduction Grammar Translation Method Audiolingual Method non-communicative approach that relies on reading and translation, mastery of grammatical rules and accurate writingAudiolingual Methodnon-communicative approach that involves heavy use of mimicry, imitations and drill. Speech, not writing is emphasisedCommunicative Language Teachingis based on the assumption that learners do not need to be taught grammar before they can communicate but will acquire it naturally as part of the process of learning to communicate
6 Basic theories of L2 acquisition "Comprehensible Input" hypothesis (by Stephen Krashen)learners acquire language by "intaking" and understanding language that is a "little beyond" their current level of competence"Comprehensible Output" hypothesis (by Merrill Swain and others)providing learners with opportunities to use the language and skills they have acquired, at a level in which they are competent, is almost as important as giving students the appropriate level of inputAffective Filter hypothesis (by Krashen and Terrell)individual’s emotions can directly assist in the learning of a new language
7 Basic theories of L2 acquisition Basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)Context-embedded communicationprovides several communicative supports to the listener or reader(objects, gestures, vocal inflections)Context-reduced communicationprovides fewer communicative clues to support understandingCognitively undemanding communicationrequires a minimal amount of abstract or critical thinkingCognitively demanding communicationrequires a learner to analyze and synthesize information quickly and contains abstract or specialized concepts
8 Four key principles for an effective instruction Increase Comprehensibilityinvolves the ways in which teachers can make content more understandable to their studentsIncrease Interactionlanguage skills are used in real-life situationsIncrease Thinking/Study Skillsadvanced thinking skills are developedUse a student’s native language to increase comprehensibility
9 Examples of Instructional Strategies Silent/ Receptive Stage IUse of visual aids and gesturesSlow speech emphasizing key wordsDo not force oral productionWrite key words on the board with students copying them as they are presentedUse pictures and manipulatives to help illustrate conceptsUse multimedia language role modelsUse interactive dialogue journalsEncourage choral readingsUse Total Physical Response (TPR) techniques
10 Examples of Instructional Strategies Early Production Stage IIEngage students in charades and linguistic guessing gamesDo role-playing activitiesPresent open-ended sentencesPromote open dialoguesConduct student interviews with the guidelines written outUse charts, tables, graphs, and other conceptual visualsUse newspaper ads and other mainstream materials to encourage language interactionEncourage partner and trio readings
11 Examples of Instructional Strategies Speech Emergence Stage IIIConduct group discussionsUse skits for dramatic interactionHave student fill out forms and applicationsAssign writing compositionsHave students write descriptions of visuals and propsUse music, TV, and radio with class activitiesShow filmstrips and videos with cooperative groups scripting the visualsEncourage solo readings with interactive comprehension checks
12 Examples of Instructional Strategies Intermediate /Advanced Proficiency Stages IV & VSponsor student panel discussions on the thematic topicsHave students identify a social issue and defend their positionPromote critical analysis and evaluation of pertinent issuesAssign writing tasks that involve writing, rewriting, editing, critiquing written examplesEncourage critical interpretation of stories, legends, and poetryHave students design questions, directions, and activities for others to followEncourage appropriate story telling
13 Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve Instruction Enunciate clearly, but do not raise your voice. Add gestures, point directly to objects, or draw pictures when appropriateWrite clearly, legibly, and in print—many ELL students have difficulty reading cursiveDevelop and maintain routines. Use clear and consistent signals for classroom instructionsRepeat information and review frequently. If a student does not understand, try rephrasing or paraphrasing in shorter sentences and simpler syntax. Check often for understanding, but do not ask "Do you understand?" Instead, have students demonstrate their learning in order to show comprehension
14 Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve Instruction Try to avoid idioms and slang wordsPresent new information in the context of known informationAnnounce the lesson’s objectives and activities, and list instructions step-by-stepPresent information in a variety of waysProvide frequent summations of the salient points of a lesson, and always emphasize key vocabulary wordsRecognize student success overtly and frequently. But, also be aware that in some cultures overt, individual praise is considered inappropriate and can therefore be embarrassing or confusing to the student
15 ConclusionThe main theories dealing with instructions in L2 acquisition have been consideredInstruction can be both successful and non-successfulFour key principles for an effective instruction have been pointed outExamples of concrete instructions appropriate to each acquisition stage have been introduced
16 Thank you for your attention! Rod Ellis Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University PressThank you for your attention!
18 Aleksandra Wolek (Hauptstudium LN) Language and the Brain Prof. R. Hickey SS Variation in child languageAleksandra Wolek (Hauptstudium LN)
19 Content: Characteristics considering first language acquisition Basic requirements for first language acquisitionVariation in child languageVariation in rateVariation in routeTypes of variationDirect & indirect influencesSummaryConclusion
20 Characteristics considering first language acquisition : It is remarkable for its speedIn normal conditions language acquisition generally occursSmall differences in a range of social and cultural factors have, according to various studies, no meaningBelief that there is some “innate” predisposition of human child to acquire language existsTRUTH: each human child posses a language -faculty
21 Basic requirements for first language acquisition Biological aspects must be fulfilledThis process requires interactionLanguage must be culturally trasmitted
22 Variation in child language Variation in rateVariation in route
23 Child's linguistic behaviour Types of variation:Inherited attributes:Sex, intelligence, personality and learning styleSocial background:Family structure, cultural environment, social group affiliationSituation: setting, activity, number of participantsChild's linguistic behaviourStyle of linguistic interaction: interpersonal relations etc.
24 Direct & indirect influences Social backgroundDirect influences:Inherited attributesSituationStyle of linguistic interaction
25 Inherited attributes: Sexno genetic superiority of girlsIntelligencecorrelation between language and intelligence strongly related to environmental variationPersonality and learning styleno strong evidence for such relationship, still demands researching
26 Situation: Setting Activity Number of participants all factors are very significantfor child's linguistic behaviour
27 Style of linguistic interaction : Interpersonal relationsParental child-rearing methodsrelationship between experience oflinguistic interaction and patters of language learning is very complexand variable
28 Social background: Family structure cultural environment social group affiliationchild's linguistic behaviour depends, for sure, on all these factors, however, the size and nature of this variation is unknown
29 Summary: Characteristics considering first language acquisition Basic requirementsReview of the major dimensions of variation in child's language behaviourEvaluation of significance of these factors
30 Conclusion: It is still a “young” discipline There is a need for further researchThere is a need for a theory or theories integrating all observations and results
31 References:Wells, Gordon , “Variation in child language”, In: Fletcher, Paul and Garman, Michael Language Acquisition. Cambridge: University Press.Yule, George The study of language. Cambridge: University Press.
32 Thank you for your attention! THE END!!!Thank you for your attention!
33 Vanessa Hollands (Hs/LN) Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS Psychosocial Aspects of Language AcquisitionVanessa Hollands (Hs/LN)
34 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition ContentIntroductionPiaget‘s TheoryVygotsky‘s TheoryConclusion
35 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Introduction Language acquisition does not take place in a vacuum. As children acquire language, they acquire a sign system which bears important relationships to both cognitive and social aspects of their life.
36 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Introduction Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition aremainly concerned about how language, thoughtand social interaction interrelate in the child‘sdevelopment.Does social interaction influence the child’s language acquisition?
37 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory Piaget focuses on the child’s cognitivedevelopment, which he describes as resultingfrom the internalization of the means-endsorganization of the sensorimotor activityachieved in early development.
38 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory He sees the children’s use of language as oneamong many behavoirs following principles oforganization and mechanisms of developmentwhich are themselves autonomous .autonomy and causal prioritycognitive development is in principle both autonomous from language developmentand causal prior to it
39 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory The nature of children’s language at anyparticular time is explained as being merely oneof the many symptoms which reflect aparticular stage in their underlying cognitivestructure.language as one phenomena among others, which can be explained in biological principles
40 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory The child’s cognitive development is relativelyautonomous, not only independent fromlanguage, but also from social interaction.social interaction as secondarysocial interaction explained in logico-mathematical principles
41 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory CritiqueAdult-child interaction can affect children’s reasoning about social or nonsocial objects.There are reasoning processes in adult-child interaction, which cannot be reduced to individual units.
42 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory EgocentricityThe child’s egocentricity results from his lack ofdecentering. His language, having privatecharacteristics, is at first not adapted to socialcommunicative situations. It becomes socialized at alater point in development as in decentering the child’scognitive organization allows him to participate in socialinteraction.child talks about what he does and is notconcerned about being understoodspeech does not seem to have a real function
43 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory Vygotsky’s approach to the inter-relations oflanguage, thought and social interaction is toview language as a multifunctional and context-dependent system mediating simultaneouslycognitive and social development.
44 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory Vygotsky defines language as primary, context-dependent and social natured.Language development is the principal motor ofdevelopment, as it mediates the child’s participation inboth the intellectual and social life surrounding him.cognitive development is not independent from signs
45 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory He sees a constant interaction betweenlanguage development and cognitivedevelopment, such that thought is neitherautonomous from language nor causally priorTo it.The use of a sign system such as language arenecessary for the development of uniquelyhigher mental functions.
46 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory The cognitive development is necessarydependent on the fact that language ismultifunctional:It’s a sign system which is simultaneously used for abstract representationand for social interactive contexts.The context-dependent indicatory aspects ofcommunication in social interaction are primary andconstitute the foundation for the development ofabstract reference-and-predication.
47 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory Zone of proximal developmentIt can be generally described in terms of theprocesses of social interaction between adultsand children which allow children to organizecomplex series of actions in problem-solvingsituations before they have the mentalcapacities to decide on the actions on theirown.shift from interpsychological to intrapsychologicalfunction
48 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory How does this shift in function take place?According to Vygotsky’s principle of semiotic mediation, there are specifically communicative processes, and most importantly the processes that involve language, which make this shift possible.
49 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory EgocentricityAt first, speech accompanies ongoing actions in the context of utterance, serving as a means of social contact with others. At a later point, when speech has been differentiated it forms a system which is multifunctional for the adult:used externally - social functionused internally – mental functionchange in different functions
50 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Conclusion Contrast between Piaget and Vygotsky:Whether or not they give language development a special status in relation to other aspects of developmentsWhether or not they see language as inherently social or more precisely as multifunctional
51 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Thanks for your attention!
52 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition LiteratureMaya Hickmann, “Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition”, In: Paul Flether &Garmen, Language Acqusition,
53 Verena Scheulen Hauptstudium LN Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS Social and Discourse aspects of interlanguageVerena Scheulen Hauptstudium LN
54 Social aspects Socio-cultural models seek to explain Speed of learning Ultimate level of proficiency… in everyday communication
55 Accomodation Theory (Giles) Convergence DivergenceSpeakers indicate cohesiveness or distinctiveness from a social groupL2 acquisition = long-term convergenceAcculturation model (Schumann)Willingness or ability to become part of the new cultureSocial distanceHow do the L2 group and the target language group see each other?Are they equal?Does the target language group want the L2 group to become a part?Etc.See also stylistic continuum (Tarone) and Social Identity (Peirce)
56 Social aspects influence The opportunity for conversationsThe kind of conversationsThe commitment to learning the language
57 Discourse aspects - the role of input and interaction Foreigner talkUngrammaticalOften implies lack of respectCertain grammatical features are left out, such as be, modal verbs (can, must), base forms instead of past tense, etc.GrammaticalSlower paceSimplified: e.g. shorter sentences, avoidance of subordinate clauses, no complex grammatical forms, lengthening of phrases, etc.
58 Examples: Baseline talk „You won‘t forget to buy ice-cream on your way home, will you?“UngrammaticalForeigner talk„No forget buying ice-cream, eh?“Grammatical foreigner talk„The ice-cream – you will not forget to buy it on your way home – get it when you are coming home. All right?“
59 Negotiation of meaning Example:„And then he put it in his knee.“„He put it on his knee?“
60 The relevance for L2 learning: Foreigner talk = comprehensible inputNegotiation of meaningnegative evidencecorrected inputconcerns aspects they have not mastered yetSee also theories by Krashen (Input hypothesis), Long (interaction hypothesis), Hatch and the ‚activity theory‘ based on Vygotsky
61 Conclusion Social aspects determine Discourse aspects may contribute Extent/kind of contactCommitmentDiscourse aspects may contributeModified inputNegotiation of meaning
62 ReferencesEllis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: University Press.
63 Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage Nadiya Sowa (Hauptstudium LN)
64 Overview introduction acquisition models two types of computational modelconclusionreferences
65 IntroductionPsycholinguistics is the study of the mental structures and processes involved in the acquisition and use of language.L1 transferthe role of consciousnessprocessing operationscommunication strategies
66 L1 transferL1 transfer refers to the influence of the learner’s L1 on the acquisition of a L2. The learner’s L1 is one of the sources of error in learner language, this influence is called negative transferNevertheless, in some cases, L1 makes an acquisition of L2 less difficult.Example: The man whom I spoke to him is a teacherpositive transferThe influence of L1 can also result in avoidanceExample: Chinese and Japanese languages don’t contain relative clausesJapanese and Chinese learners of English avoid the usage of these structuresOn the other hand, L1 transfer may be reflected in the overuse of some formsExample: Chinese learners tend to overuse expressions of regret in English, because of norms of their mother tongue
67 L1 transferInfluence of behaviourism: it was believed that habits of the L1 prevent the learner from learning the habits of the L2contrastive analysisIn the early 1970s behaviourism falls out of favour – two developmentsThe first one – some theorists try to play down the role of L1The other one (represented by Larry Selinker) – learners don’t construct rules in vacuum, they work with whatever information is at their disposal. Knowledge of L1 is included. Selinker identifies language transfer as one of the mental processes responsible for fossilizationAccording to Eric Kellerman, learners are able to distinguish between potentially transferable and non-transferable featuresExample: Hij brak zijn been. (He broke his leg.) Het ondergrondse verset werd gebroken. (The underground resistance was broken.)
68 The Role of Consciousness Stephen Krashen distinguishes between “acquired” L2 knowledge and “learned”. The first one is developed subconsciously through comprehending input during the act of communication, the second one is developed consciously through deliberate study of the L2Richard Schmidt distinguishes between consciousness as “intentionality” and consciousness as “attention”noticingawareness
69 Processing Operations operating principlesAvoidance of interruption and rearrangement of linguistic unitsAvoidance of exceptionsExample: My brother made me to give him some money.Roger Anderson defines “macro principles”Example: “no+verb” –negatives to perform statements“don’t+verb” – negatives to perform commandsprocessing constraintsmultidimensional modeldevelopmental axisExample: Gestern ich gehe ins Kino. (Yesterday I go to the cinema.)Gestern gehe ich ins Kino. (Yesterday go I to the cinema.)variational axissocio-psychological factors
70 Communication Strategies model of speech productiona planning phasean execution phase
71 Two Types of Computational Model serial procesing (presupposes „rule“ or „strategy“)parallel distributed processing (rejects the whole notion of „rule“)
72 Conclusion L1 influences the acquisition of L2 (positive and negative) the role of consciousness is one of the most controversial issues in SLAall acquisition models represent more theoretical material than practical application and demand further investigation
73 ReferencesEllis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: University Press.
75 Language and the mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 Contrastive Linguistics Kirsten Leicht TN Hauptstudium
76 Introduction What I am going to tell you…. What is ‘Contrastive Linguistics’?InterferenceDifferences in special areas:PhonologyMorphologyNominal areaSyntaxSemanticsIdioms and CollocationsPragmaticsConclusion
77 What is ‘Contrastive Linguistics’? it means comparing the structures of two present-day languagesgoal is an immediate desire like improving instruction in one of the languages examinedit is:synchronically orientednot concerned with genetic similaritiestwo languagesbound to a particular linguistic theorydivided into applied and theoretical sectionswe will focus on the applied sections
78 Interferencetransferring of structural features of one’s native language when learning a second languagepositive and negative transfernegative transfer is called interferencefour main types of interference:substitution: a learner uses an already acquired element for one he does not yet possess, e.g. [w] for [r] in [wein] rainover-and under-differentiation: in early language acquisition clause types are under-differentiated, as more parataxis than hypotaxis is used; over-differentiation: use of several different verbs by English speakers of German, where Germans would just have machenOver-indulgence and under-representation: repeated use of structures, words,…; lack of special structures, words,…over-generalisation: e.g. Mama comed home
79 Contrastive Phonology tradition of incorrect pronunciation, e.g. /berlin vs. ber/lin; pronounced consistently in an incorrect mannertransfer from principle in German to English, although it is incorrect; e.g. voiced vs. voiceless s after n,l,r – conversationmixed pronunciation, e.g. Hifi [haifi] vs. [haifai]allophonic differences, e.g. (ch) in Buch or Pechcontrastive stressphenomenon of level stress in English where two or more elements have equal stresse.g. /Second/World/War vs. \Zweiter/Welt\Krieg /Hong/Kong /Hong\Kongdifferent stress in noun and adjective, e.g. /content (noun) and con/tent (adjective)
80 Contrastive morphology comparative forms of adjectives: in English: Romanic vs. Germanic, e.g. tall taller-tallest vs. terrible-more terrible-most terribletwo cases in English vs. four cases in Germanaffixation in German vs. Lexicalisation in English: e.g. ver- used as a prefix to indicate a reversal in meaning, in English different wordsmieten-vermieten rent-letkaufen-verkaufen buy-sellcompounding: German favours compounding whereas the English equivalents are lexicalised or arrived at by paraphrase, e.g.snow-sleet vs. Schnee-Schneeregencup-saucer vs. Tasse-Untertassebissfeste Kartoffeln – crunchy potatoesein schmerzarmer Tag – a day with little painone should resist to translate piece by piece
81 Differences in the nominal area use of the definite article: not used with abstract terms, only if a qualifying clause or element follows, e.g.She is interested in philosophy. vs. The philosophy of Kant.singular and plural:formation of plurals in English, e. g. knife – knives or thief – thievesformal plurals with singular meaning, e.g. contents – der Inhalt or means – das/die MittelInformationen – information, Verwirrungen – confusiondifferences in singular and plural requirements, e.g.Hose – trousers, Schere – scissors, die Möbel – furnitureprepositional usage: no hard and fast rule,e.g. on foot – zu Fuss, by train – mit dem Zugto fill in – ausfüllento stand out - auffallen
82 Contrastive Syntaxdifferent complement types: complements are parts of a sentence whichfollow a verbe.g. He wants her to sing a song. (infinitive complement)Er will, dass sie ein Lied singt. (causal complement)He saw him running away. (participle construction)Er sah ihn weglaufen. (infinitive complement)passive constructions: in some passive sentences English allows the original direct object to remain in its slot and only shifts the indirect object to subject position.e.g. They gave him the book He was given the book.i.o d.o.Sie gaben ihm das Buch Er wurde das Buch gegeben.In German this is strictly forbidden.
83 Contrastive Syntax prepositions: preposition vs. no preposition e.g. Er ist Freitag abgereist. – He departed on Friday.1980 ist er nach München gezogen. – He moved to Munich in 1980.- prepositional distinctions; e.g. in time: rechtzeitig, on time: zur rechten Zeit
84 Contrastive Semantics unusualness of English words: many words are not very common in everyday usage, e.g. sibling vs. brothers and sistersdiffering range: e.g. Freundin – female friend, girlfriendfalse friends: a word in the native language sounds similar to one in the foreign language; different meaninge.g. aktuell ‘topical’ actual ‘tatsächlich’dumm ‘stupid’ dumb ‘stumm’Gift ‘poison’ gift ‘Geschenk’sensibel ‘sensitive’ ‘sensible’ ‘vernünftig’equivalents: one word in German often has more than one equivalent in English and the other way round, e.g.glücklich happy, luckyseit for, sincedress Kleidung, Kleidgo gehen, fahren
85 Idioms and Collocations collocation: a sequence of words or terms which co-occur more often than would be expectedequivalents can have different collocations: e.g. krönend – crowningA crowning achievment. Eine SpitzenleistungDer krönende Abschluss. The final flourish.Ein preisgekröntes Buch. An award-winning book.dictionaries don’t provide enough information on the usage of the wordsidioms:small number of idioms which are identical, e.g. Too many cooks spoil the broth.idioms which are not quite the same, i.e. they are similar in their content, but slightly different in their forme.g. Zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe schlagenTo kill two birds with one stone.
86 Idioms and Collocations die Daumen drückenkeep your fingers crossedganz Ohr seinto be all earsEulen nach Athen tragento bring coals to Newcastlerhyme-motivated compounds vs. alliterationse.g. leagle eagle – Staranwalt Kind und Kegelshop till you drop über Stock und Stein,…dream-team,…
87 Contrastive Pragmatics use of discourse particles, e.g. oder? in German as a discourse particle is not or? in Englishthird person reference: In England it is regarded as very impolite to refer to a third person who is present by means of a pronoun. In German it is quite acceptable.
88 Conclusionin Contrastive Linguistics the structures of two present-day languages are compared to achieve an immediate aimin many respects (phonology, morphology, syntax,…) English and German differ in their structurelearners should be constantly aware of these differences to avoid too much interferenceteachers should be aware of the danger of interference and should prevent this by naming the differences and talking about them in class, so that pupils cannot make up negative transfer on their own
89 References ELE Multimedia, Version April 2003 Crystal, D. (1997) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press.Fisiak, J. (1981) Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English.