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HS: Language and the Mind. Prof. R. Hickey. SS 2006

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1 HS: Language and the Mind. Prof. R. Hickey. SS 2006
HS: Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS First and Second Language Acquisition Tatiana Prozorova (HS/TN) Irina Novikava (HS/TN) Alexandra Wolek (HS/LN) Vanessa Hollands (HS/LN) Verena Scheulen (HS/LN) Nadiya Sowa (HS/LN) Kirsten Leicht (HS/TN)

2 Overview Instruction and Second Language Acquisition
Variation in Child Language Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Social and Discourse Aspects of Interlanguage Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage Contrastive Linguistics

3 Instruction and Second Language Acquisition
Tatiana Prozorova Irina Novikava

4 Structure main theories dealing with instruction in L2 acquisition
effectiveness of instruction key principles for an effective instruction instructions appropriate to each acquisition stage ten things the teacher can do to improve instruction for ELL students

5 Introduction Grammar Translation Method Audiolingual Method
non-communicative approach that relies on reading and translation, mastery of grammatical rules and accurate writing Audiolingual Method non-communicative approach that involves heavy use of mimicry, imitations and drill. Speech, not writing is emphasised Communicative Language Teaching is based on the assumption that learners do not need to be taught grammar before they can communicate but will acquire it naturally as part of the process of learning to communicate

6 Basic theories of L2 acquisition
"Comprehensible Input" hypothesis (by Stephen Krashen) learners acquire language by "intaking" and understanding language that is a "little beyond" their current level of competence "Comprehensible Output" hypothesis (by Merrill Swain and others) providing learners with opportunities to use the language and skills they have acquired, at a level in which they are competent, is almost as important as giving students the appropriate level of input Affective Filter hypothesis (by Krashen and Terrell) individual’s emotions can directly assist in the learning of a new language

7 Basic theories of L2 acquisition
Basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) Context-embedded communication provides several communicative supports to the listener or reader(objects, gestures, vocal inflections) Context-reduced communication provides fewer communicative clues to support understanding Cognitively undemanding communication requires a minimal amount of abstract or critical thinking Cognitively demanding communication requires a learner to analyze and synthesize information quickly and contains abstract or specialized concepts

8 Four key principles for an effective instruction
Increase Comprehensibility involves the ways in which teachers can make content more understandable to their students Increase Interaction language skills are used in real-life situations Increase Thinking/Study Skills advanced thinking skills are developed Use a student’s native language to increase comprehensibility

9 Examples of Instructional Strategies
Silent/ Receptive Stage I Use of visual aids and gestures Slow speech emphasizing key words Do not force oral production Write key words on the board with students copying them as they are presented Use pictures and manipulatives to help illustrate concepts Use multimedia language role models Use interactive dialogue journals Encourage choral readings Use Total Physical Response (TPR) techniques

10 Examples of Instructional Strategies
Early Production Stage II Engage students in charades and linguistic guessing games Do role-playing activities Present open-ended sentences Promote open dialogues Conduct student interviews with the guidelines written out Use charts, tables, graphs, and other conceptual visuals Use newspaper ads and other mainstream materials to encourage language interaction Encourage partner and trio readings

11 Examples of Instructional Strategies
Speech Emergence Stage III Conduct group discussions Use skits for dramatic interaction Have student fill out forms and applications Assign writing compositions Have students write descriptions of visuals and props Use music, TV, and radio with class activities Show filmstrips and videos with cooperative groups scripting the visuals Encourage solo readings with interactive comprehension checks

12 Examples of Instructional Strategies
Intermediate /Advanced Proficiency Stages IV & V Sponsor student panel discussions on the thematic topics Have students identify a social issue and defend their position Promote critical analysis and evaluation of pertinent issues Assign writing tasks that involve writing, rewriting, editing, critiquing written examples Encourage critical interpretation of stories, legends, and poetry Have students design questions, directions, and activities for others to follow Encourage appropriate story telling

13 Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve Instruction
Enunciate clearly, but do not raise your voice. Add gestures, point directly to objects, or draw pictures when appropriate Write clearly, legibly, and in print—many ELL students have difficulty reading cursive Develop and maintain routines. Use clear and consistent signals for classroom instructions Repeat information and review frequently. If a student does not understand, try rephrasing or paraphrasing in shorter sentences and simpler syntax. Check often for understanding, but do not ask "Do you understand?" Instead, have students demonstrate their learning in order to show comprehension

14 Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve Instruction
Try to avoid idioms and slang words Present new information in the context of known information Announce the lesson’s objectives and activities, and list instructions step-by-step Present information in a variety of ways Provide frequent summations of the salient points of a lesson, and always emphasize key vocabulary words Recognize student success overtly and frequently. But, also be aware that in some cultures overt, individual praise is considered inappropriate and can therefore be embarrassing or confusing to the student

15 Conclusion The main theories dealing with instructions in L2 acquisition have been considered Instruction can be both successful and non-successful Four key principles for an effective instruction have been pointed out Examples of concrete instructions appropriate to each acquisition stage have been introduced

16 Thank you for your attention!
Rod Ellis Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press Thank you for your attention!


18 Aleksandra Wolek (Hauptstudium LN)
Language and the Brain Prof. R. Hickey SS Variation in child language Aleksandra Wolek (Hauptstudium LN)

19 Content: Characteristics considering first language acquisition
Basic requirements for first language acquisition Variation in child language Variation in rate Variation in route Types of variation Direct & indirect influences Summary Conclusion

20 Characteristics considering first language acquisition :
It is remarkable for its speed In normal conditions language acquisition generally occurs Small differences in a range of social and cultural factors have, according to various studies, no meaning Belief that there is some “innate” predisposition of human child to acquire language exists TRUTH: each human child posses a language -faculty

21 Basic requirements for first language acquisition
Biological aspects must be fulfilled This process requires interaction Language must be culturally trasmitted

22 Variation in child language
Variation in rate Variation in route

23 Child's linguistic behaviour
Types of variation: Inherited attributes: Sex, intelligence, personality and learning style Social background: Family structure, cultural environment, social group affiliation Situation: setting, activity, number of participants Child's linguistic behaviour Style of linguistic interaction: interpersonal relations etc.

24 Direct & indirect influences
Social background Direct influences: Inherited attributes Situation Style of linguistic interaction

25 Inherited attributes:
Sex no genetic superiority of girls Intelligence correlation between language and intelligence strongly related to environmental variation Personality and learning style no strong evidence for such relationship, still demands researching

26 Situation: Setting Activity Number of participants
all factors are very significant for child's linguistic behaviour

27 Style of linguistic interaction :
Interpersonal relations Parental child-rearing methods relationship between experience of linguistic interaction and patters of language learning is very complex and variable

28 Social background: Family structure cultural environment
social group affiliation child's linguistic behaviour depends, for sure, on all these factors, however, the size and nature of this variation is unknown

29 Summary: Characteristics considering first language acquisition
Basic requirements Review of the major dimensions of variation in child's language behaviour Evaluation of significance of these factors

30 Conclusion: It is still a “young” discipline
There is a need for further research There is a need for a theory or theories integrating all observations and results

31 References: Wells, Gordon , “Variation in child language”, In: Fletcher, Paul and Garman, Michael Language Acquisition. Cambridge: University Press. Yule, George The study of language. Cambridge: University Press.

32 Thank you for your attention!
THE END!!! Thank you for your attention!

33 Vanessa Hollands (Hs/LN)
Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vanessa Hollands (Hs/LN)

34 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition
Content Introduction Piaget‘s Theory Vygotsky‘s Theory Conclusion

35 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Introduction
Language acquisition does not take place in a vacuum. As children acquire language, they acquire a sign system which bears important relationships to both cognitive and social aspects of their life.

36 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Introduction
Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition are mainly concerned about how language, thought and social interaction interrelate in the child‘s development. Does social interaction influence the child’s language acquisition?

37 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory
Piaget focuses on the child’s cognitive development, which he describes as resulting from the internalization of the means-ends organization of the sensorimotor activity achieved in early development.

38 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory
He sees the children’s use of language as one among many behavoirs following principles of organization and mechanisms of development which are themselves autonomous . autonomy and causal priority cognitive development is in principle both autonomous from language development and causal prior to it

39 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory
The nature of children’s language at any particular time is explained as being merely one of the many symptoms which reflect a particular stage in their underlying cognitive structure. language as one phenomena among others, which can be explained in biological principles

40 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory
The child’s cognitive development is relatively autonomous, not only independent from language, but also from social interaction. social interaction as secondary social interaction explained in logico- mathematical principles

41 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory
Critique Adult-child interaction can affect children’s reasoning about social or nonsocial objects. There are reasoning processes in adult-child interaction, which cannot be reduced to individual units.

42 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory
Egocentricity The child’s egocentricity results from his lack of decentering. His language, having private characteristics, is at first not adapted to social communicative situations. It becomes socialized at a later point in development as in decentering the child’s cognitive organization allows him to participate in social interaction. child talks about what he does and is not concerned about being understood speech does not seem to have a real function

43 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory
Vygotsky’s approach to the inter-relations of language, thought and social interaction is to view language as a multifunctional and context- dependent system mediating simultaneously cognitive and social development.

44 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory
Vygotsky defines language as primary, context- dependent and social natured. Language development is the principal motor of development, as it mediates the child’s participation in both the intellectual and social life surrounding him. cognitive development is not independent from signs

45 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory
He sees a constant interaction between language development and cognitive development, such that thought is neither autonomous from language nor causally prior To it. The use of a sign system such as language are necessary for the development of uniquely higher mental functions.

46 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory
The cognitive development is necessary dependent on the fact that language is multifunctional: It’s a sign system which is simultaneously used for abstract representation and for social interactive contexts. The context-dependent indicatory aspects of communication in social interaction are primary and constitute the foundation for the development of abstract reference-and-predication.

47 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory
Zone of proximal development It can be generally described in terms of the processes of social interaction between adults and children which allow children to organize complex series of actions in problem-solving situations before they have the mental capacities to decide on the actions on their own. shift from interpsychological to intrapsychological function

48 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory
How does this shift in function take place? According to Vygotsky’s principle of semiotic mediation, there are specifically communicative processes, and most importantly the processes that involve language, which make this shift possible.

49 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory
Egocentricity At first, speech accompanies ongoing actions in the context of utterance, serving as a means of social contact with others. At a later point, when speech has been differentiated it forms a system which is multifunctional for the adult: used externally - social function used internally – mental function change in different functions

50 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Conclusion
Contrast between Piaget and Vygotsky: Whether or not they give language development a special status in relation to other aspects of developments Whether or not they see language as inherently social or more precisely as multifunctional

51 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition
Thanks for your attention!

52 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition
Literature Maya Hickmann, “Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition”, In: Paul Flether &Garmen, Language Acqusition,

53 Verena Scheulen Hauptstudium LN
Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS Social and Discourse aspects of interlanguage Verena Scheulen Hauptstudium LN

54 Social aspects Socio-cultural models seek to explain Speed of learning
Ultimate level of proficiency … in everyday communication

55 Accomodation Theory (Giles)
Convergence  Divergence Speakers indicate cohesiveness or distinctiveness from a social group L2 acquisition = long-term convergence Acculturation model (Schumann) Willingness or ability to become part of the new culture Social distance How do the L2 group and the target language group see each other? Are they equal? Does the target language group want the L2 group to become a part? Etc. See also stylistic continuum (Tarone) and Social Identity (Peirce)

56 Social aspects influence
The opportunity for conversations The kind of conversations The commitment to learning the language

57 Discourse aspects - the role of input and interaction
Foreigner talk Ungrammatical Often implies lack of respect Certain grammatical features are left out, such as be, modal verbs (can, must), base forms instead of past tense, etc. Grammatical Slower pace Simplified: e.g. shorter sentences, avoidance of subordinate clauses, no complex grammatical forms, lengthening of phrases, etc.

58 Examples: Baseline talk
„You won‘t forget to buy ice-cream on your way home, will you?“ Ungrammatical Foreigner talk „No forget buying ice-cream, eh?“ Grammatical foreigner talk „The ice-cream – you will not forget to buy it on your way home – get it when you are coming home. All right?“

59 Negotiation of meaning
Example: „And then he put it in his knee.“ „He put it on his knee?“

60 The relevance for L2 learning:
Foreigner talk = comprehensible input Negotiation of meaning negative evidence corrected input concerns aspects they have not mastered yet See also theories by Krashen (Input hypothesis), Long (interaction hypothesis), Hatch and the ‚activity theory‘ based on Vygotsky

61 Conclusion Social aspects determine Discourse aspects may contribute
Extent/kind of contact Commitment Discourse aspects may contribute Modified input Negotiation of meaning

62 References Ellis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: University Press.

63 Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage
Nadiya Sowa (Hauptstudium LN)

64 Overview introduction acquisition models
two types of computational model conclusion references

65 Introduction Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental structures and processes involved in the acquisition and use of language. L1 transfer the role of consciousness processing operations communication strategies

66 L1 transfer L1 transfer refers to the influence of the learner’s L1 on the acquisition of a L2. The learner’s L1 is one of the sources of error in learner language, this influence is called negative transfer Nevertheless, in some cases, L1 makes an acquisition of L2 less difficult. Example: The man whom I spoke to him is a teacher positive transfer The influence of L1 can also result in avoidance Example: Chinese and Japanese languages don’t contain relative clauses Japanese and Chinese learners of English avoid the usage of these structures On the other hand, L1 transfer may be reflected in the overuse of some forms Example: Chinese learners tend to overuse expressions of regret in English, because of norms of their mother tongue

67 L1 transfer Influence of behaviourism: it was believed that habits of the L1 prevent the learner from learning the habits of the L2 contrastive analysis In the early 1970s behaviourism falls out of favour – two developments The first one – some theorists try to play down the role of L1 The other one (represented by Larry Selinker) – learners don’t construct rules in vacuum, they work with whatever information is at their disposal. Knowledge of L1 is included. Selinker identifies language transfer as one of the mental processes responsible for fossilization According to Eric Kellerman, learners are able to distinguish between potentially transferable and non-transferable features Example: Hij brak zijn been. (He broke his leg.) Het ondergrondse verset werd gebroken. (The underground resistance was broken.)

68 The Role of Consciousness
Stephen Krashen distinguishes between “acquired” L2 knowledge and “learned”. The first one is developed subconsciously through comprehending input during the act of communication, the second one is developed consciously through deliberate study of the L2 Richard Schmidt distinguishes between consciousness as “intentionality” and consciousness as “attention” noticing awareness

69 Processing Operations
operating principles Avoidance of interruption and rearrangement of linguistic units Avoidance of exceptions Example: My brother made me to give him some money. Roger Anderson defines “macro principles” Example: “no+verb” –negatives to perform statements “don’t+verb” – negatives to perform commands processing constraints multidimensional model developmental axis Example: Gestern ich gehe ins Kino. (Yesterday I go to the cinema.) Gestern gehe ich ins Kino. (Yesterday go I to the cinema.) variational axis socio-psychological factors

70 Communication Strategies
model of speech production a planning phase an execution phase

71 Two Types of Computational Model
serial procesing (presupposes „rule“ or „strategy“) parallel distributed processing (rejects the whole notion of „rule“)

72 Conclusion L1 influences the acquisition of L2 (positive and negative)
the role of consciousness is one of the most controversial issues in SLA all acquisition models represent more theoretical material than practical application and demand further investigation

73 References Ellis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: University Press.

74 Thank you for your attention!

75 Language and the mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 Contrastive Linguistics
Kirsten Leicht TN Hauptstudium

76 Introduction What I am going to tell you….
What is ‘Contrastive Linguistics’? Interference Differences in special areas: Phonology Morphology Nominal area Syntax Semantics Idioms and Collocations Pragmatics Conclusion

77 What is ‘Contrastive Linguistics’?
it means comparing the structures of two present-day languages goal is an immediate desire like improving instruction in one of the languages examined it is: synchronically oriented not concerned with genetic similarities two languages bound to a particular linguistic theory divided into applied and theoretical sections we will focus on the applied sections

78 Interference transferring of structural features of one’s native language when learning a second language positive and negative transfer negative transfer is called interference four main types of interference: substitution: a learner uses an already acquired element for one he does not yet possess, e.g. [w] for [r] in [wein] rain over-and under-differentiation: in early language acquisition clause types are under-differentiated, as more parataxis than hypotaxis is used; over-differentiation: use of several different verbs by English speakers of German, where Germans would just have machen Over-indulgence and under-representation: repeated use of structures, words,…; lack of special structures, words,… over-generalisation: e.g. Mama comed home

79 Contrastive Phonology
tradition of incorrect pronunciation, e.g. /berlin vs. ber/lin; pronounced consistently in an incorrect manner transfer from principle in German to English, although it is incorrect; e.g. voiced vs. voiceless s after n,l,r – conversation mixed pronunciation, e.g. Hifi [haifi] vs. [haifai] allophonic differences, e.g. (ch) in Buch or Pech contrastive stress phenomenon of level stress in English where two or more elements have equal stress e.g. /Second/World/War vs. \Zweiter/Welt\Krieg /Hong/Kong /Hong\Kong different stress in noun and adjective, e.g. /content (noun) and con/tent (adjective)

80 Contrastive morphology
comparative forms of adjectives: in English: Romanic vs. Germanic, e.g. tall taller-tallest vs. terrible-more terrible-most terrible two cases in English vs. four cases in German affixation in German vs. Lexicalisation in English: e.g. ver- used as a prefix to indicate a reversal in meaning, in English different words mieten-vermieten rent-let kaufen-verkaufen buy-sell compounding: German favours compounding whereas the English equivalents are lexicalised or arrived at by paraphrase, e.g. snow-sleet vs. Schnee-Schneeregen cup-saucer vs. Tasse-Untertasse bissfeste Kartoffeln – crunchy potatoes ein schmerzarmer Tag – a day with little pain one should resist to translate piece by piece

81 Differences in the nominal area
use of the definite article: not used with abstract terms, only if a qualifying clause or element follows, e.g. She is interested in philosophy. vs. The philosophy of Kant. singular and plural: formation of plurals in English, e. g. knife – knives or thief – thieves formal plurals with singular meaning, e.g. contents – der Inhalt or means – das/die Mittel Informationen – information, Verwirrungen – confusion differences in singular and plural requirements, e.g. Hose – trousers, Schere – scissors, die Möbel – furniture prepositional usage: no hard and fast rule, e.g. on foot – zu Fuss, by train – mit dem Zug to fill in – ausfüllen to stand out - auffallen

82 Contrastive Syntax different complement types: complements are parts of a sentence which follow a verb e.g. He wants her to sing a song. (infinitive complement) Er will, dass sie ein Lied singt. (causal complement) He saw him running away. (participle construction) Er sah ihn weglaufen. (infinitive complement) passive constructions: in some passive sentences English allows the original direct object to remain in its slot and only shifts the indirect object to subject position. e.g. They gave him the book He was given the book. i.o d.o. Sie gaben ihm das Buch Er wurde das Buch gegeben. In German this is strictly forbidden.

83 Contrastive Syntax prepositions: preposition vs. no preposition
e.g. Er ist Freitag abgereist. – He departed on Friday. 1980 ist er nach München gezogen. – He moved to Munich in 1980. - prepositional distinctions; e.g. in time: rechtzeitig, on time: zur rechten Zeit

84 Contrastive Semantics
unusualness of English words: many words are not very common in everyday usage, e.g. sibling vs. brothers and sisters differing range: e.g. Freundin – female friend, girlfriend false friends: a word in the native language sounds similar to one in the foreign language; different meaning e.g. aktuell ‘topical’ actual ‘tatsächlich’ dumm ‘stupid’ dumb ‘stumm’ Gift ‘poison’ gift ‘Geschenk’ sensibel ‘sensitive’ ‘sensible’ ‘vernünftig’ equivalents: one word in German often has more than one equivalent in English and the other way round, e.g. glücklich happy, lucky seit for, since dress Kleidung, Kleid go gehen, fahren

85 Idioms and Collocations
collocation: a sequence of words or terms which co-occur more often than would be expected equivalents can have different collocations: e.g. krönend – crowning A crowning achievment. Eine Spitzenleistung Der krönende Abschluss. The final flourish. Ein preisgekröntes Buch. An award-winning book. dictionaries don’t provide enough information on the usage of the words idioms: small number of idioms which are identical, e.g. Too many cooks spoil the broth. idioms which are not quite the same, i.e. they are similar in their content, but slightly different in their form e.g. Zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe schlagen To kill two birds with one stone.

86 Idioms and Collocations
die Daumen drücken keep your fingers crossed ganz Ohr sein to be all ears Eulen nach Athen tragen to bring coals to Newcastle rhyme-motivated compounds vs. alliterations e.g. leagle eagle – Staranwalt Kind und Kegel shop till you drop über Stock und Stein,… dream-team,…

87 Contrastive Pragmatics
use of discourse particles, e.g. oder? in German as a discourse particle is not or? in English third person reference: In England it is regarded as very impolite to refer to a third person who is present by means of a pronoun. In German it is quite acceptable.

88 Conclusion in Contrastive Linguistics the structures of two present-day languages are compared to achieve an immediate aim in many respects (phonology, morphology, syntax,…) English and German differ in their structure learners should be constantly aware of these differences to avoid too much interference teachers should be aware of the danger of interference and should prevent this by naming the differences and talking about them in class, so that pupils cannot make up negative transfer on their own

89 References ELE Multimedia, Version April 2003
Crystal, D. (1997) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press. Fisiak, J. (1981) Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English.

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