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HS: Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 First and Second Language Acquisition Tatiana Prozorova (HS/TN) Irina Novikava (HS/TN) Alexandra Wolek.

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Presentation on theme: "HS: Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 First and Second Language Acquisition Tatiana Prozorova (HS/TN) Irina Novikava (HS/TN) Alexandra Wolek."— Presentation transcript:

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2 HS: Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 First and Second Language Acquisition Tatiana Prozorova (HS/TN) Irina Novikava (HS/TN) Alexandra Wolek (HS/LN) Vanessa Hollands (HS/LN) Verena Scheulen (HS/LN) Nadiya Sowa (HS/LN) Kirsten Leicht (HS/TN)

3 Overview Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Variation in Child Language Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Social and Discourse Aspects of Interlanguage Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage Contrastive Linguistics

4 Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Tatiana Prozorova Irina Novikava

5 Structure main theories dealing with instruction in L2 acquisition effectiveness of instruction key principles for an effective instruction instructions appropriate to each acquisition stage ten things the teacher can do to improve instruction for ELL students

6 Introduction Grammar Translation Method non-communicative approach that relies on reading and translation, mastery of grammatical rules and accurate writing Audiolingual Method non-communicative approach that involves heavy use of mimicry, imitations and drill. Speech, not writing is emphasised Communicative Language Teaching is based on the assumption that learners do not need to be taught grammar before they can communicate but will acquire it naturally as part of the process of learning to communicate

7 Basic theories of L2 acquisition "Comprehensible Input" hypothesis (by Stephen Krashen) learners acquire language by "intaking" and understanding language that is a "little beyond" their current level of competence "Comprehensible Output" hypothesis (by Merrill Swain and others) providing learners with opportunities to use the language and skills they have acquired, at a level in which they are competent, is almost as important as giving students the appropriate level of input Affective Filter hypothesis (by Krashen and Terrell) individual’s emotions can directly assist in the learning of a new language

8 Basic theories of L2 acquisition Basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) Context-embedded communication provides several communicative supports to the listener or reader(objects, gestures, vocal inflections) Context-reduced communication provides fewer communicative clues to support understanding Cognitively undemanding communication requires a minimal amount of abstract or critical thinking Cognitively demanding communication requires a learner to analyze and synthesize information quickly and contains abstract or specialized concepts

9 Four key principles for an effective instruction Increase Comprehensibility involves the ways in which teachers can make content more understandable to their students Increase Interaction language skills are used in real-life situations Increase Thinking/Study Skills advanced thinking skills are developed Use a student’s native language to increase comprehensibility

10 Examples of Instructional Strategies Silent/ Receptive Stage I Use of visual aids and gestures Slow speech emphasizing key words Do not force oral production Write key words on the board with students copying them as they are presented Use pictures and manipulatives to help illustrate concepts Use multimedia language role models Use interactive dialogue journals Encourage choral readings Use Total Physical Response (TPR) techniques

11 Examples of Instructional Strategies Early Production Stage II Engage students in charades and linguistic guessing games Do role-playing activities Present open-ended sentences Promote open dialogues Conduct student interviews with the guidelines written out Use charts, tables, graphs, and other conceptual visuals Use newspaper ads and other mainstream materials to encourage language interaction Encourage partner and trio readings

12 Examples of Instructional Strategies Speech Emergence Stage III Conduct group discussions Use skits for dramatic interaction Have student fill out forms and applications Assign writing compositions Have students write descriptions of visuals and props Use music, TV, and radio with class activities Show filmstrips and videos with cooperative groups scripting the visuals Encourage solo readings with interactive comprehension checks

13 Examples of Instructional Strategies Intermediate /Advanced Proficiency Stages IV & V Sponsor student panel discussions on the thematic topics Have students identify a social issue and defend their position Promote critical analysis and evaluation of pertinent issues Assign writing tasks that involve writing, rewriting, editing, critiquing written examples Encourage critical interpretation of stories, legends, and poetry Have students design questions, directions, and activities for others to follow Encourage appropriate story telling

14 Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve Instruction 1.Enunciate clearly, but do not raise your voice. Add gestures, point directly to objects, or draw pictures when appropriate 2.Write clearly, legibly, and in print—many ELL students have difficulty reading cursive 3.Develop and maintain routines. Use clear and consistent signals for classroom instructions 4.Repeat information and review frequently. If a student does not understand, try rephrasing or paraphrasing in shorter sentences and simpler syntax. Check often for understanding, but do not ask "Do you understand?" Instead, have students demonstrate their learning in order to show comprehension

15 Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve Instruction 5.Try to avoid idioms and slang words 6.Present new information in the context of known information 7.Announce the lesson’s objectives and activities, and list instructions step-by-step 8.Present information in a variety of ways 9.Provide frequent summations of the salient points of a lesson, and always emphasize key vocabulary words 10.Recognize student success overtly and frequently. But, also be aware that in some cultures overt, individual praise is considered inappropriate and can therefore be embarrassing or confusing to the student

16 Conclusion The main theories dealing with instructions in L2 acquisition have been considered Instruction can be both successful and non-successful Four key principles for an effective instruction have been pointed out Examples of concrete instructions appropriate to each acquisition stage have been introduced

17 Rod Ellis Second Language Acquisition. Oxford University Press Thank you for your attention!

18 NEXT PART

19 Language and the Brain Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 Variation in child language Aleksandra Wolek (Hauptstudium LN)

20 Content: Characteristics considering first language acquisition Basic requirements for first language acquisition Variation in child language Variation in rate Variation in route Types of variation Direct & indirect influences Summary Conclusion

21 Characteristics considering first language acquisition :  It is remarkable for its speed  In normal conditions language acquisition generally occurs  Small differences in a range of social and cultural factors have, according to various studies, no meaning  Belief that there is some “innate” predisposition of human child to acquire language exists TRUTH: each human child posses a language - faculty

22 Basic requirements for first language acquisition  Biological aspects must be fulfilled  This process requires interaction  Language must be culturally trasmitted

23 Variation in child language  Variation in rate  Variation in route

24 Types of variation: Child's linguistic behaviour Inherited attributes: Sex, intelligence, personality and learning style Situation: setting, activity, number of participants Style of linguistic interaction: interpersonal relations etc. Social background: Family structure, cultural environment, social group affiliation

25 Direct & indirect influences Indirect influence: Social background Direct influences: Inherited attributes Situation Style of linguistic interaction

26 Inherited attributes: Sex no genetic superiority of girls Intelligence correlation between language and intelligence strongly related to environmental variation Personality and learning style no strong evidence for such relationship, still demands researching

27 Situation:  Setting  Activity  Number of participants all factors are very significant for child's linguistic behaviour

28 Style of linguistic interaction :  Interpersonal relations  Parental child-rearing methods relationship between experience of linguistic interaction and patters of language learning is very complex and variable

29 Social background:  Family structure  cultural environment  social group affiliation child's linguistic behaviour depends, for sure, on all these factors, however, the size and nature of this variation is unknown

30 Summary:  Characteristics considering first language acquisition  Basic requirements  Review of the major dimensions of variation in child's language behaviour  Evaluation of significance of these factors

31 Conclusion: It is still a “young” discipline There is a need for further research There is a need for a theory or theories integrating all observations and results

32 References: Wells, Gordon, “Variation in child language”, In: Fletcher, Paul and Garman, Michael Language Acquisition. Cambridge: University Press. Yule, George The study of language. Cambridge: University Press.

33 THE END!!! Thank you for your attention!

34 Vanessa Hollands (Hs/LN) Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition

35 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Content Introduction Piaget‘s Theory Vygotsky‘s Theory Conclusion

36 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Introduction Language acquisition does not take place in a vacuum. As children acquire language, they acquire a sign system which bears important relationships to both cognitive and social aspects of their life.

37 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Introduction Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition are mainly concerned about how language, thought and social interaction interrelate in the child‘s development. Does social interaction influence the child’s language acquisition?

38 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory Piaget focuses on the child’s cognitive development, which he describes as resulting from the internalization of the means-ends organization of the sensorimotor activity achieved in early development.

39 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory He sees the children’s use of language as one among many behavoirs following principles of organization and mechanisms of development which are themselves autonomous. autonomy and causal priority cognitive development is in principle both autonomous from language development and causal prior to it

40 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory The nature of children’s language at any particular time is explained as being merely one of the many symptoms which reflect a particular stage in their underlying cognitive structure. language as one phenomena among others, which can be explained in biological principles

41 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory The child’s cognitive development is relatively autonomous, not only independent from language, but also from social interaction. social interaction as secondary social interaction explained in logico- mathematical principles

42 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory Critique Adult-child interaction can affect children’s reasoning about social or nonsocial objects. There are reasoning processes in adult-child interaction, which cannot be reduced to individual units.

43 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Piaget’s Theory Egocentricity The child’s egocentricity results from his lack of decentering. His language, having private characteristics, is at first not adapted to social communicative situations. It becomes socialized at a later point in development as in decentering the child’s cognitive organization allows him to participate in social interaction. child talks about what he does and is not concerned about being understood speech does not seem to have a real function

44 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory Vygotsky’s approach to the inter-relations of language, thought and social interaction is to view language as a multifunctional and context- dependent system mediating simultaneously cognitive and social development.

45 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory Vygotsky defines language as primary, context- dependent and social natured. Language development is the principal motor of development, as it mediates the child’s participation in both the intellectual and social life surrounding him. cognitive development is not independent from signs

46 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory He sees a constant interaction between language development and cognitive development, such that thought is neither autonomous from language nor causally prior To it. The use of a sign system such as language are necessary for the development of uniquely higher mental functions.

47 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory The cognitive development is necessary dependent on the fact that language is multifunctional: It’s a sign system which is simultaneously used for abstract representation and for social interactive contexts. The context-dependent indicatory aspects of communication in social interaction are primary and constitute the foundation for the development of abstract reference-and-predication.

48 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory Zone of proximal development It can be generally described in terms of the processes of social interaction between adults and children which allow children to organize complex series of actions in problem-solving situations before they have the mental capacities to decide on the actions on their own. shift from interpsychological to intrapsychological function

49 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory How does this shift in function take place? According to Vygotsky’s principle of semiotic mediation, there are specifically communicative processes, and most importantly the processes that involve language, which make this shift possible.

50 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Vygotsky’s Theory Egocentricity At first, speech accompanies ongoing actions in the context of utterance, serving as a means of social contact with others. At a later point, when speech has been differentiated it forms a system which is multifunctional for the adult: used externally - social function used internally – mental function change in different functions

51 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Conclusion Contrast between Piaget and Vygotsky: Whether or not they give language development a special status in relation to other aspects of developments Whether or not they see language as inherently social or more precisely as multifunctional

52 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Thanks for your attention!

53 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition Literature Maya Hickmann, “Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition”, In: Paul Flether &Garmen, Language Acqusition,

54 Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 06 Social and Discourse aspects of interlanguage Verena Scheulen Hauptstudium LN

55 Social aspects Socio-cultural models seek to explain Speed of learning Ultimate level of proficiency … in everyday communication

56 Accomodation Theory (Giles) Convergence  Divergence Speakers indicate cohesiveness or distinctiveness from a social group L2 acquisition = long-term convergence Acculturation model (Schumann) Willingness or ability to become part of the new culture Social distance How do the L2 group and the target language group see each other? Are they equal? Does the target language group want the L2 group to become a part? Etc. See also stylistic continuum (Tarone) and Social Identity (Peirce)

57 Social aspects influence The opportunity for conversations The kind of conversations The commitment to learning the language

58 Discourse aspects - the role of input and interaction Foreigner talk Ungrammatical Often implies lack of respect Certain grammatical features are left out, such as be, modal verbs (can, must), base forms instead of past tense, etc. Grammatical Slower pace Simplified: e.g. shorter sentences, avoidance of subordinate clauses, no complex grammatical forms, lengthening of phrases, etc.

59 Examples: Baseline talk„You won‘t forget to buy ice- cream on your way home, will you?“ Ungrammatical Foreigner talk „No forget buying ice-cream, eh?“ Grammatical foreigner talk „The ice-cream – you will not forget to buy it on your way home – get it when you are coming home. All right?“

60 Negotiation of meaning Example: „And then he put it in his knee.“ „He put it on his knee?“

61 The relevance for L2 learning: - Foreigner talk = comprehensible input - Negotiation of meaning  negative evidence  corrected input  concerns aspects they have not mastered yet - See also theories by Krashen (Input hypothesis), Long (interaction hypothesis), Hatch and the ‚activity theory‘ based on Vygotsky

62 Conclusion Social aspects determine Extent/kind of contact Commitment Discourse aspects may contribute Modified input Negotiation of meaning

63 References Ellis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: University Press.

64 Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage Nadiya Sowa (Hauptstudium LN)

65 Overview  introduction  acquisition models  two types of computational model  conclusion  references

66 Introduction  Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental structures and processes involved in the acquisition and use of language.  L1 transfer  the role of consciousness  processing operations  communication strategies

67 L1 transfer  L1 transfer refers to the influence of the learner’s L1 on the acquisition of a L2. The learner’s L1 is one of the sources of error in learner language, this influence is called negative transfer  Nevertheless, in some cases, L1 makes an acquisition of L2 less difficult. Example: The man whom I spoke to him is a teacher  positive transfer  The influence of L1 can also result in avoidance Example: Chinese and Japanese languages don’t contain relative clauses  Japanese and Chinese learners of English avoid the usage of these structures  On the other hand, L1 transfer may be reflected in the overuse of some forms Example: Chinese learners tend to overuse expressions of regret in English, because of norms of their mother tongue

68 L1 transfer  Influence of behaviourism: it was believed that habits of the L1 prevent the learner from learning the habits of the L2  contrastive analysis  In the early 1970s behaviourism falls out of favour – two developments  The first one – some theorists try to play down the role of L1  The other one (represented by Larry Selinker) – learners don’t construct rules in vacuum, they work with whatever information is at their disposal. Knowledge of L1 is included. Selinker identifies language transfer as one of the mental processes responsible for fossilization  According to Eric Kellerman, learners are able to distinguish between potentially transferable and non-transferable features Example: Hij brak zijn been. (He broke his leg.) Het ondergrondse verset werd gebroken. (The underground resistance was broken.)

69 The Role of Consciousness  Stephen Krashen distinguishes between “acquired” L2 knowledge and “learned”. The first one is developed subconsciously through comprehending input during the act of communication, the second one is developed consciously through deliberate study of the L2  Richard Schmidt distinguishes between consciousness as “intentionality” and consciousness as “attention”  noticing  awareness

70 Processing Operations  operating principles  Avoidance of interruption and rearrangement of linguistic units  Avoidance of exceptions Example: My brother made me to give him some money.  Roger Anderson defines “macro principles” Example: “no+verb” –negatives to perform statements “don’t+verb” – negatives to perform commands  processing constraints multidimensional model  developmental axis Example: Gestern ich gehe ins Kino. (Yesterday I go to the cinema.) Gestern gehe ich ins Kino. (Yesterday go I to the cinema.)  variational axis socio-psychological factors

71 Communication Strategies  model of speech production  a planning phase  an execution phase

72 Two Types of Computational Model  serial procesing (presupposes „rule“ or „strategy“)  parallel distributed processing (rejects the whole notion of „rule“)

73 Conclusion  L1 influences the acquisition of L2 (positive and negative)  the role of consciousness is one of the most controversial issues in SLA  all acquisition models represent more theoretical material than practical application and demand further investigation

74 References  Ellis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: University Press.

75 Thank you for your attention!

76 Language and the mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 Contrastive Linguistics Kirsten Leicht TN Hauptstudium

77 Introduction What I am going to tell you…. -What is ‘Contrastive Linguistics’? -Interference -Differences in special areas: -Phonology -Morphology -Nominal area -Syntax -Semantics -Idioms and Collocations -Pragmatics -Conclusion

78 What is ‘Contrastive Linguistics’? - it means comparing the structures of two present-day languages - goal is an immediate desire like improving instruction in one of the languages examined - it is: - synchronically oriented - not concerned with genetic similarities - two languages - bound to a particular linguistic theory - divided into applied and theoretical sections - we will focus on the applied sections

79 Interference -transferring of structural features of one’s native language when learning a second language -positive and negative transfer -negative transfer is called interference -four main types of interference: -substitution: a learner uses an already acquired element for one he does not yet possess, e.g. [w] for [r] in [wein] rain -over-and under-differentiation: in early language acquisition clause types are under-differentiated, as more parataxis than hypotaxis is used; over- differentiation: use of several different verbs by English speakers of German, where Germans would just have machen -Over-indulgence and under-representation: repeated use of structures, words,…; lack of special structures, words,… -over-generalisation: e.g. Mama comed home

80 Contrastive Phonology - tradition of incorrect pronunciation, e.g. /berlin vs. ber/lin; pronounced consistently in an incorrect manner - transfer from principle in German to English, although it is incorrect; e.g. voiced vs. voiceless s after n,l,r – conversation - mixed pronunciation, e.g. Hifi [haifi] vs. [haifai] - allophonic differences, e.g. (ch) in Buch or Pech - contrastive stress -phenomenon of level stress in English where two or more elements have equal stress -e.g. /Second/World/War vs. \Zweiter/Welt\Krieg /Hong/Kong /Hong\Kong -different stress in noun and adjective, e.g. /content (noun) and con/tent (adjective)

81 Contrastive morphology - comparative forms of adjectives: in English: Romanic vs. Germanic, e.g. tall taller- tallest vs. terrible-more terrible-most terrible - two cases in English vs. four cases in German - affixation in German vs. Lexicalisation in English: e.g. ver- used as a prefix to indicate a reversal in meaning, in English different words mieten-vermietenrent-let kaufen-verkaufen buy-sell - compounding: German favours compounding whereas the English equivalents are lexicalised or arrived at by paraphrase, e.g. - snow-sleet vs. Schnee-Schneeregen - cup-saucer vs. Tasse-Untertasse - bissfeste Kartoffeln – crunchy potatoes - ein schmerzarmer Tag – a day with little pain one should resist to translate piece by piece

82 Differences in the nominal area - use of the definite article: not used with abstract terms, only if a qualifying clause or element follows, e.g. She is interested in philosophy. vs. The philosophy of Kant. - singular and plural: - formation of plurals in English, e. g. knife – knives or thief – thieves - formal plurals with singular meaning, e.g. contents – der Inhalt or means – das/die Mittel - Informationen – information, Verwirrungen – confusion - differences in singular and plural requirements, e.g. Hose – trousers, Schere – scissors, die Möbel – furniture - prepositional usage: no hard and fast rule, e.g. on foot – zu Fuss, by train – mit dem Zug to fill in – ausfüllen to stand out - auffallen

83 Contrastive Syntax - different complement types: complements are parts of a sentence which follow a verb e.g. He wants her to sing a song. (infinitive complement) Er will, dass sie ein Lied singt. (causal complement) He saw him running away. (participle construction) Er sah ihn weglaufen. (infinitive complement) - passive constructions: in some passive sentences English allows the original direct object to remain in its slot and only shifts the indirect object to subject position. e.g. They gave him the book. - He was given the book. i.o. d.o. Sie gaben ihm das Buch. - Er wurde das Buch gegeben. In German this is strictly forbidden.

84 Contrastive Syntax - prepositions: - preposition vs. no preposition e.g. Er ist Freitag abgereist. – He departed on Friday ist er nach München gezogen. – He moved to Munich in prepositional distinctions; e.g. in time: rechtzeitig, on time: zur rechten Zeit

85 Contrastive Semantics - unusualness of English words: many words are not very common in everyday usage, e.g. sibling vs. brothers and sisters - differing range: e.g. Freundin – female friend, girlfriend - false friends: a word in the native language sounds similar to one in the foreign language; different meaning e.g. aktuell‘topical’actual‘tatsächlich’ dumm‘stupid’dumb‘stumm’ Gift‘poison’gift‘Geschenk’ sensibel‘sensitive’‘sensible’‘vernünftig’ - equivalents: one word in German often has more than one equivalent in English and the other way round, e.g. glücklichhappy, lucky seitfor, since dressKleidung, Kleid gogehen, fahren

86 Idioms and Collocations - collocation: a sequence of words or terms which co-occur more often than would be expected - equivalents can have different collocations: e.g. krönend – crowning A crowning achievment. Eine Spitzenleistung Der krönende Abschluss.The final flourish. Ein preisgekröntes Buch.An award-winning book. A crowning achievment. Eine Spitzenleistung Der krönende Abschluss.The final flourish. Ein preisgekröntes Buch.An award-winning book. dictionaries don’t provide enough information on the usage of the words - idioms: - small number of idioms which are identical, e.g. Too many cooks spoil the broth. - idioms which are not quite the same, i.e. they are similar in their content, but slightly different in their form e.g. Zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe schlagen To kill two birds with one stone.

87 Idioms and Collocations die Daumen drücken keep your fingers crossed ganz Ohr sein to be all ears Eulen nach Athen tragen to bring coals to Newcastle - rhyme-motivated compounds vs. alliterations e.g. leagle eagle – StaranwaltKind und Kegel shop till you dropüber Stock und Stein,… dream-team,…

88 Contrastive Pragmatics - use of discourse particles, e.g. oder? in German as a discourse particle is not or? in English - third person reference: In England it is regarded as very impolite to refer to a third person who is present by means of a pronoun. In German it is quite acceptable.

89 Conclusion - in Contrastive Linguistics the structures of two present-day languages are compared to achieve an immediate aim - in many respects (phonology, morphology, syntax,…) English and German differ in their structure - learners should be constantly aware of these differences to avoid too much interference - teachers should be aware of the danger of interference and should prevent this by naming the differences and talking about them in class, so that pupils cannot make up negative transfer on their own

90 References - ELE Multimedia, Version April Crystal, D. (1997) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Second Edition. Cambridge University Press. - Fisiak, J. (1981) Contrastive Linguistics and the Language Teacher. Oxford: Pergamon Institute of English.


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