2 Approach: Is defined as a theory of the nature of language and the nature of language learning.Approaches to the nature of the language :1. The traditional App.2. The structural App..3. The generative App4. The functional App.
3 1. The traditional approach: * Its origin in the study of Latin And Greek(the languages of religion, literature and philosophy of the time.) * Analysis of formal written language and ignore spoken communication. * The formulated the standards of correctness.
4 2. The structural approach: * At the end of the 19 century attention was on spoken language and emphases was on pronunciation *the analysis of sentence structure and the sequence in which elements in a sentence could occur.
5 3. The generative approach: * In this approach a distinction is made between linguistic competence (knowledge of the language in the speaker’s mind) and linguistic performance( how a speaker uses this knowledge in producing sentences.)In 1957 Noam Chomsky rejected the structural approach. because the structural approach only emphasized the performance .* He believed that with in a limited number of rules a speaker is able to create an infinite number of sentences.
6 There are two types of rules in this approach : 1. Generative or PSR 2 * There are two types of rules in this approach : 1. Generative or PSR 2. transformational rules Forms the deep structure changes the deep st.to surface.st Chomsky argued that human beings possess a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) *UG: many aspects of grammar are common to many languages
7 4. The functional approach: *In the late 1920s attentions were drown to the social aspects of language. *Language was an instrument of social interactions. *In 1962 it was proved that Chomsky’s idea of competence did not account for the social and functional rules of the language . *the study of sociolinguistics aspects of language.
8 Approaches to language learning: Faculty psychology :Believed in exercising the mind to make it develop by necessary mind training exercises such as: memorization of the vocabulary and grammatical rules, huge amount of transition to.2. Behavioristic psychology:attempts to discover the rules that govern the formation of the relationships between stimuli and responses (condition responses)
9 3. Cognitive psychology: This model distinguishes three types of information storage: Sensory memory , short term memory and long term memory in order to let the learners acquire, process, store , and retrieve information. Deductive and inductive learning: Deductive learning: Moving from rules and principles and then applying the rules to examples. Inductive learning: Arriving at rules and principles by studying examples.
10 4. Humanistic psychology : 4. Humanistic psychology : * concern with human’s worth , individuals right to determine personal needs , interests and actions. * Relationship with other learners * Emphasize on feeling and thinking
11 Methods:GTM:(Grammar Translation Method) LA: traditional LLA faculty psychology Main purpose: reading, writing and translation Materials: reading passages, literary textes Memorizing the vocabulary with there equivalents in there mother tongue. Knowing parts of speech and rules of word formation.
12 Activities: Making sentences with given words Emphasis on grammar which is taught deductivelyTranslation provides useful mental exerciseNo practice on listening and speakingActivities:Making sentences with given wordsAnswering comprehensions questionsWriting dictationsWriting summaries about reading passagesWriting compositions
13 Teachers in GTM: Supervise all the class activities Teaching grammatical rules deductivelyProviding L1 definitionsCorrecting the learner’s written workHaving accurate knowledge of L1 and L2
14 The reform movement:(1889-1892) Language as a means for communication rather than a tool of the access to literature Pay special attention to pronunciation and spoken language This movement paved the way for a lot of new methods
15 DM( direct method)1892LA : The structural approach LLA: behavioristic psychology * Training language learners to communicate in the target language * Having an acceptable pronunciation * Being familiar with the culture of the target community Material : in the form of dialogs and reading passages about a situation or topic including the vocabulary and structure used in every day language. Presented in context graded from simple to complex
16 No transition and native language *No transition and native language *target language should be learnt in the same way the first language is acquired *grammar is taught inductively *emphasize on oral work *learners imitate and practice until they become fluent *they learn to think in the target language *teacher: Make the meaning clear with the help of gestures, pictures, drawings an demonstrations . Encourages students to ask questions from him and from each other
17 ALM(audiolingual method)1950s LA: structural approach LLA: behavioristic psychology *During world war II gaining a high degree of oral skill *The sequence of skills : listening, speaking, reading and writing( the order children aquaria their L1. *Grammar: inductively *Over learning by memorization and repetition *Imitating the teacher and tapes as a model
18 *Activities: repetition , substitution , backward build up ,game and chain drill