Presentation on theme: "The Silent Way Tell me and I forget Teach me and I remember"— Presentation transcript:
1The Silent Way Tell me and I forget Teach me and I remember Involve me and I learnBenjamin Franklin
2IntroductionLearning theories and educational philosophiesTeaching materials and demosTeaching principlesConclusion
3Caleb Gattegno and the Silent way The silent way(SW), a method of language teaching, originated in the early 1970s and introduced by Caleb Gattegno, who, an Europe educator, is well known for the use of colored sticks called cuisenaire rods and for his approach to the teaching of initial reading in which sounds are taught by colors.
4Basic Premises for SWThe method is based on the premise that teacher should be silent as much as possible and the learners should be encouraged to produce language as much as possible.The SW assumes that learners work with resources and nothing else, as they are solely responsible for what they learn.
5Basic Premises for SW “Teaching should be subordinated to learning.” Silence makes students to concentrate on what is to be learned.
6Learning HypothesesLearning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learnedLearning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objectsLearning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned.
7Theory of LearningA successful learning involves commitment of the self to language acquisition through the use of silent awareness and then active trial.Silent Way learners acquire “inner criteria”.The Silent Way student is expected to become independent, autonomous and responsible.
8Independent LearnersIndependent learners are aware that they must depend on their own resources and realize that they can use the knowledge of their own language to open up some things in a new language.
9Autonomous LearnersAutonomous learners choose proper expressions in a given set of circumstances and situations.
10Responsible LearnersResponsible learners know that they have free will to choose among any set of linguistic choices, the ability to choose intelligently and carefully is said to be evidence of responsibility.
11Goals of the Silent Way Teacher Students are able to use the language for self-expression.They need to develop independence from the teacher, to develop their own criteria for correctness.They become independent by relying on themselves.The teacher should give them only what they absolutely need to promote their learning.
12Characteristics of the Teaching Process The teacher sets up situations that focus on the structures of the language. These are introduced through a language-specific sound-color chart.
13Characteristics of the Learning Process Student begin their study of the language through its sounds.The students receive a great deal of practice with a given target language structure without repetition for its own sake.
14Nature of Student-teacher Interaction The teacher is silent. He is still very active, however-setting up situations to”force awareness,” listening attentionally to students’ speech, and silently working with them on their production through the use of nonverbal gestures and the tools he has available.
15Nature of Student-Student Interaction Student-student verbal interaction is desirable (students can learn from one another) and is therefore encouraged.
16How to Deal with Feeling of Students? When their feelings interfere, the teacher tries to find ways for the students to overcome them.Through feedback sessions at the end of the lessons, students have an opportunity to express how they feel.It is hoped that a relaxed, enjoyable learning environment will be created.
17How to Accomplish Evaluation? Although the teacher may never give a formal test, he assesses student learning all the time.Since “teaching is subordinated to learning,” the teacher must be responsive to immediate learning needs.The teacher’s silence frees him to attend to his students and to be aware of these needs.
18The learning hypotheses Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned.Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects.Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned.
19Theory of learningA successful learning involves commitment of the self to language acquisition through the use of silent awareness and then active trial.Silent Way learners acquire “inner criteria”.The Silent Way student is expected to become independent, autonomous and responsible.
20Independent learnersIndependent learners are aware that they must depend on their own resources and realize that they can use the knowledge of their own language to open up some things in a new language.
21Autonomous learnerAutonomous learners choose proper expressions in a given set of circumstances and situations.
22Responsible learnersResponsible learners know that they have free will to choose among any set of linguistic choices, the ability to choose intelligently and carefully is said to be evidence of responsibility.
23The syllabus Structural syllabus Language items The imperative Numeration and prepositions of locationVocabulary
25Types of learning & teaching activities The teacher models a word, phrase, or sentence and then elicits learner responses.Learners then go on to create their own utterances by putting together old and new information.Charts, rods, and other aids may be used to elicit learner responses.Teacher modeling is minimal, although much of the activity may be teacher directed.
29The principlesSilence is a tool. It helps to foster autonomy, or the exercise of initiative. The teacher should give only what help is necessary. Students need to develop their own inner criteria for correctness. Students should rely on each other and themselves. The teacher’s silence encourages group cooperation.
30The principles The teacher works with the students while the students work on the language.The teacher is responsible for creating an environment that encourages student risk taking and that facilitating learning. He is a neutral observer, neither pleased by correct performance nor discouraged by error. Errors are important and necessary to learning. They show the teacher where things are unclear. At the beginning, the teacher needs to look for progress, not perfection. Learning takes place in time. Students learn at different rates.
31The principles Students should receive a great deal without repetition. The elements of the language are introduced logically, expanding upon what students already know. The teacher can gain valuable information from student feedback. Students learn how to accept responsibility for their own learning.
32The principles Some learning takes place naturally as we sleep. Students will naturally work on the day’s lesson then. The syllabus is composed of linguistic structures. The skills of speaking, reading, and writing reinforce one another.
333. Students need to develop their own inner criteria for correctness. The teacher should give only whathelp is necessary.to observe their students at work in order to learn how to work with themto evaluate progress from moment to momentto provide non-repetitive and motivating practiceto provide meaning through direct perception, not through translationto create a relaxed atmosphere of mutual cooperationto take into account students' individual needs and varying levels of competence
34The Silent Way respects The learners and their learning processes - Because students have already mastered their native language, they are treated as sophisticated language learners.The impacts of teaching upon learning - The Silent Way techniques are designed to allow teachers to intervene without interfering with the learning processes.The language being learned - The materials and techniques are designed to bring students into contact the totality and complexity of the new language. Yet, used in specific ways, they provide opportunities for working analytically on very pinpointed issues.