Presentation on theme: "14: THE TEACHING OF GRAMMAR Should grammar be taught? When? How? Why? Grammar teaching: Any strategies conducted in order to help learners understand,"— Presentation transcript:
14: THE TEACHING OF GRAMMAR Should grammar be taught? When? How? Why? Grammar teaching: Any strategies conducted in order to help learners understand, comprehend, and produce and internalize it Presentation & Practice; Practice Discovery of grammatical rules Exposure to target structures Corrective feedback Krashen (1981); Corder (1967) Naturalistic L2 acquisition: natural order and sequence of acquisition (universal order) Grammar syllabus
Teaching Grammar …….. Other studies (e.g. Pica, 1983; Long, 1983) Naturalistic learners vs instructed learners What Grammar should be taught Linguistic forms and meanings; errors made by learners What grammatical features should be taught Only simple grammar rules Metalinguistic knowledge Whole grammar Ellis (2006) Contrastive analysis: L1 & L2 Marked (frequent, basic) and Unmarked forms (infrequent, unnatural)
Teaching Grammar………… WHEN? Early stages: to avoid incorrect habit, learners lacking of L2 knowledge, understanding grammatical features facilitates language learning Meaning first and grammar later (interlanguage) Immersion program-> proficiency for fluent communication Ready made chunks Task-based approach
Teaching Grammar ……… HOW? Massed: short period Distributed: over a longer period Intensive: a single or a pair (contrasted) of structures Time consuming Less time for practice Extensive: a whole of structures Large number of grammatical structures Errors analyses May not provide in-depth practice
Teaching Grammar…….. EXPLICIT GRAMMATICAL KNOWLEDGE Awareness of how language features work and possess metalinguistic ability Krashen: use the knowledge when they monitor Dekeyser (1998): explicit becomes implicit when learners have plentiful communicative practice IMPLICIT GRAMMATICAL KNOWLEDGE Kept unconsciously Available in fluent communication Competence in L2 as the result of implicit knowledge When learners perform language tasks: which knowledge to employ??????
Teaching Grammar ……… SEPARATE LESSONS Focus on Forms Focus on accuracy INTEGRATED INTO COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES Focus on Meaning to form communicative activity Planned: predetermined grammatical structures Incidental: learners’ linguistic needs In communication, Learners should be able to connect grammatical forms to meanings One approach to teach grammar The acquisition of L2 grammar is complex Personal theory development?
PERSPECTIVES ON TEACHING FOUR SKILLS CURRENT PERSPECTIVES (1990s/2000s) on L2 teaching Decline of methods Roles of teachers and learners Learning goals (i.e. social, cultural, political) Situational language pedagogy Prescribed set of classroom procedures Bottom-up approach and top-down approach Accuracy and fluency Bottom-up and Top-down approach in teaching 4 skills
Teaching Four Skills ……… Knowledge About English (refinement in language theories Corpus analyses to identify variations of language features: i.e. morphological, syntactic, pragmatic, and discoursal EFL learners dealing with linguistic features in Native Speaker Corpora Integrated and Multiple Skills Taught in Context All communicative elements should be integrated: e.g. in conversation -> speaking and comprehending, Oral skills-> pronunciation and vocabulary Models of integrated teaching: e.g. task-based, genre-based, content-based (i.e. in EFL situations)
Teaching Four Skills……. TEACHING SPEAKING Type of Subskills in Oral Production: e.g. content and sound system, morphosyntax, lexis, discourse for accuracy and fluency Speaking and Pronunciation Native-like accent -> intelligibility Issues of segmental clarity: e.g. articulation, word stress, pauses Intonation and pronunciation taught in context Speaking and Pragmalinguistic skills Social status, social distance, and spoken register (casual and formal) Communicative strategies, discourse, conversational routines
Teaching Four Skills …… TEACHING LISTENING Linguistic Aspects -> Top-down processing (i.e. activating schemata: cultural constructs, topic familiarity, discourse clues, pragmatic conventions ) Authentic listening constraints: colloquial expressions, incomplete sentences, ellipses Techniques: i.e. Prelistening, making predictions, listening intensively, making inferences Integrated Approaches: Task-based, Content-based instruction Teaching Strategies: Metacognitive strategy, Top- down and Bottom-up
Teaching Four Skills ……… TEACHING READING Bottom-up and Top-down Skills Bottom-up: cognitive subskills (i.e. word recognition, spelling, phonological processing, morphosyntactic parsing, lexical recognition Reading fundamentals placed before Top-down instruction Reading and Vocabulary 5000 base words Teaching vocabulary: avoid incidental learning!, interest, deliberate intention, repetition, words used in context
Teaching Four Skills ……. TEACHING WRITING L2 Writing Pedagogy requires systematic and special approaches (i.e. cultural, rhetorical, linguistic differences of L1 and L2) L2 writers have limited lexical and syntactic repertoire Bottom-up and Top-down skills Explicit pedagogy in grammatical and lexical features Teaching Writing to Young Learners Proficiency in spelling, letter, and word recognition Emotive writing -> complex tasks
Teaching Four Skills …….. Integrated and Content-based Teaching of Writing Grammar and vocabulary in conjunction with reading of genres How grammar and lexis employed in texts Situational variables used in contexts: e-mail messages, news reports, academic writing