Presentation on theme: "Just about any verb can be made into a noun by capitalizing the infinitive. Such nouns are always neuter and they usually correspond to the gerund (-ing)"— Presentation transcript:
Just about any verb can be made into a noun by capitalizing the infinitive. Such nouns are always neuter and they usually correspond to the gerund (-ing) form in English. verbdefinitioninfinitive noundefinition einkaufento shopdas Einkaufenshopping flüsternto whisperdas Flüsternwhispering gehento godas Gehengoing, walking jammernto whinedas Jammernwhining lachento laughdas Lachenlaughing schwimmento swimdas Schwimmenswimming trinkento drinkdas Trinkendrinking
English typically uses such gerunds without an article, German noun gerunds are often accompanied by the definite article. Das Gehen fällt mir schwer. Walking is difficult for me. Wann werden wir mit dem Singen anfangen? These articles can change to reflect the case that the noun is used in. In this case; dative with das changing to dem When will we start singing?
There is another kind of gerund that implies disapproval of the action. The ending of this form is "-erei" ( "-lerei" or "erei" ). It does not have a plural, and its gender is feminine. arbeiten – to workdie Arbeiterei this silly working lächeln – to smile die Lächelrei this silly smiling
Another way to form a Gerund, this one also expressing disapproval, is to place the prefix ge- (after the separable prefix), if the verb doesn't have a permanent prefix, and then attach the ending -e ( -el, -er ). fahren – to driveDas Gefahre this silly driving laufen – to run Das Gelaufe this silly running
In English, we form the present progressive tense through the use of gerunds, but in German they do not. I am driving to school. Ich fahre zur Schule. This can be translated as…either… 1)I drive to school. (present tense) 2)I am driving to school. (present perfect tense)
Adjective forms can also be made in German that resemble Gerunds by adding end to the root of the verb from which it came. These adjectives will take endings to match the case of the noun they are describing. wachsen – to grow Das Wachsen – the growing wachsend - growing Der wachsende Baum wird immer größer. strahlen – to beam Das Strahlen – the beaming strahlend - beaming Ich sehe den strahlenden Stern. Baum is the subject = Nominative Case = add e to adjective. (der Baum) Stern is the direct object = Accusative Case = add en to adjective. (der Stern)