2In Germanthere are so manywords for 'the' and 'a'
3Which one is right? m f n pl 1 der die das 2 den 3 dem ein eine ein eineneineeineinemeinereinem
4Row 1 (‘Nominative case’) Row 2 (‘Accusative case’) A noun could play one of several parts in a sentence, each represented by the word you chose for ‘the’ or ‘a’:Row 1 (‘Nominative case’)Row 2 (‘Accusative case’)Row 3 (‘Dative case’)In German the spelling of the word for ‘a’ and ‘the’ (and similar ‘initial’ words) changes depending on what part the noun plays in the sentence (what case it is).
5Row 1Nominative‘The’ from the top row is used to indicate the subject in the sentence.This is the ‘doer’ of the sentence. That is, the person or thing doing the action described by the verb.Der Mann fährt ski.To find what snaps with the verb always ask yourself: ‘Who or what’ before the verb in English?e.g. Who or what is skiing?= der Mann
6Who/what is going to school? Die Sonne scheint.Who/what is shining?= die SonneDer Vogel singt.Who/what is singing?= der VogelDer Bus fährt zur Schule.Who/what is going to school?= der Bus
7Row 1 Nominative is also used BOTH before & after these verbs: seinto bewerdento becomeheißento be called
8Row 2 Accusative Der Junge wirft den Ball. ‘The’ from the second row is used to indicate direct object of the verb.This is often the ‘receiver’ of the action or thought described by the verb.Der Junge wirft den Ball.To check always ask yourself: ‘Whom or what’ after the verb in English?e.g. Throws whom/what?= den Ball
9= die Tasche = Fußball = einen Hund Der Mann trägt eine Tasche.Carries whom/what?= die TascheDer Junge spielt Fußball.Plays whom/what?= FußballEr hat einen Hund.Has whom/what?= einen Hund
10The accusative second row is also required after these prepositions: f u d g e b o w= für(for)= um(at/about)= durch(through)= gegen(against)= entlang(along)= bis(until)= ohne(without)= wider(against)
11Row 3Dative‘The’ from the third row is used to to express the idea of ‘to’ or ‘for’ someone or something. This is usually the person or thing to whom something is offered, given, etc.Der Junge gibt dem Mann ein Geschenk.‘The boy gives a present to the man.’or‘The boy gives the man a present.’The English equivalent is ‘to…’ but this idea is often hidden (but understood) in English.
12The third row is also required after these prepositions: a b g m n s v z= aus(from, out of)= bei(at)= gegenüber(opposite)= mit(with)= nach(to, after)= seit(since)= von(from, of)= zu(to)
13Know gender first (column)... ...then case (row)GendermfnplNom casederdiedasAcccasedenDatdemeineineeineineneineeineinemeinereinem