21st European ContactNorth Africa existed for centuries along the Mediterranean SeaSub-Saharan African contact began in the 1400’s with Portuguese sailors
3WHY GO TO AFRICA? Europe wanted easier access to West Africa gold Needed to find a shorter route to IndiaConvert people to ChristianityAfter the Portuguese…the Dutch, French and British followed.
4SLAVE TRADE The slave trade was as old as civilization Common in ancient China, Greece, Rome and elsewhere BEFORE the Europeans come to AfricaArabs and Egyptians held slavesSlave caravans were commonin W. Africa and Sahara
5NUMBERS OF SLAVES10-20 MILLION slaves left Africa during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade in the 15th-19th century.
6HOW THE SLAVE TRADE WORKED… Obtaining slaves:Traders organized their own slave raidsBought slaves from African kings and chiefs (captured during war or tribal raids without concern for family ties)FACT: Europeans mainly stayed near the coasts until the late 1800’s with little knowledge of interior African kingdoms.
7PARTITIONING OF AFRICA 1884 Berlin Conference held to set rules to divide Africa between European nations to create colonies.FACT: European conquest for African lands was not smooth, battles and struggles continued until the early 20th century.
9COLONIAL RULE…WHY? Acquire power Exploit resources (GOLD) Convert people to Christianity and “civilize” themHave a market for European products
104 METHODS OF COLONIAL RULE 1. Private Companies: Given large areas and allowed to set up administrative system and local populations were used as labor force.2. Direct Rule:Divided into districts governed by EuropeansGOAL: to civilize them and to discourage “backward” customs.PROBLEM: Not enough Europeans, hard to control remote areas, lack of understanding for customs and languageBritish East Africa Company and British South Africa Company
11Idea for people to have same rights as the Europeans Assimilation:Idea for people to have same rights as the Europeans(ex. France and Portugal)Indirect Rule:Use of local chiefs who reported back to colonial government (ex. Britain and Spain)FACT: No matter what type of rule that was used, the political and economic development of the colony was NOT a priority!
13PHASE ONE (start to 1920’s)Improve transportation and communication to gain resources and improve the life for EUROPEANS there. Health, housing and education only came from missionaries and companies to help the businessesGerman missionaries in Africa
19The Empires crumble…Wars drained Europe-by 1945 Africans realized Europeans lacked the resources to hold on.Transition of power went smoothly.Creation of independent self-sufficient nations was a difficult processSince independence-coups (gov’t taken over by force), internal disagreements, dictatorships created.
20Very little political stability RESULT…Very little political stability