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What is the difference between the African coastline and the coastline of Britain?

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Presentation on theme: "What is the difference between the African coastline and the coastline of Britain?"— Presentation transcript:

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3 What is the difference between the African coastline and the coastline of Britain?

4 Africa Before Imperialism Industrialization had not occurred in Africa – Regular coastline made it difficult for African nations to compete in world trade

5 Africa Before Imperialism Lack of Unity in Africa – Africa was divided into hundreds of ethnic groups – 1,000 different languages spoken Ranged from large empires to independent towns Large trade networks existed in Africa

6 Africa Before Imperialism Slave Trade had attracted Europeans to West Africa in the 1500’s-1600’s – By the late 1800’s, must European countries and United States had end slavery

7 Africa Before Imperialism Geographic barriers had limited European colonization of Africa – Inland travel was difficult Sahara Desert Highlands, steep cliffs Europeans could not navigate rivers – Many waterfalls and rapids – Presence of diseases such as Malaria

8 Tools of European Imperialism SteamshipsSteamships Drug that was developed to protect against Malaria QuinineQuinine Superior Military technology Improved Communications Allowed Europeans to travel up rivers Small European forces could defeat much larger numbers of Africans Maintain close contact between colony and controlling nation

9 European Interest in Africa Missionaries and anti-slavery groups traveled into interior Africa – Dr. David Livingstone traveled to the Congo Disappeared for several years Newspaper reporter Henry Stanley sent to find him Story increased interest in Africa

10 European Interest in Africa King Leopold II of Belgium negotiated with tribal leaders to gain control of land in the Congo in 1872 – Rich supplies of rubber and other natural resources – Belgian companies abused and forced local people to collect rubber

11 European Interest in Africa Belgian presence in Congo increased interest of other European nations Attracted by large supply of natural resources – diamonds, gold, oil, copper, tin, rubber

12 The Berlin Conference Meeting held in 1844 to divide up Africa among the European powers Did not consider impact on Africans – African leaders not included in the conference Placed most of Africa under European control

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14 Points of Discussion What was the purpose of the Berlin Conference? What was the impact of the Berlin Conference on Africa?

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16 The Berlin Conference Meeting held in 1844 to divide up Africa among the European powers Did not consider impact on Africans – African leaders not included in the conference Placed most of Africa under European control

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18 The Berlin Conference Failed to consider traditional African ethnic boundaries

19 Berlin Conference Divides Africa between European Powers Ignores traditional African ethnic boundaries African nations eventually gain independence in 2 nd half of 20 th century Conflicts and Civil Wars

20 Imperial Management Methods Indirect Control Local government officials used Limited self-rule Government institutions are based on European styles but may have some local rules Direct Control Foreign officials brought in to rule No self-rule Government institutions are based only on European styles

21 Points of Discussion What was one long lasting effect of the Berlin Conference? What impact did European imperialism in Africa have on Africans?

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23 British Interests in Africa Suez Canal – Egypt built a canal connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea Reduced time to travel from Europe to the Indian Ocean – Egyptian government was unstable Britain made Egypt a protectorate to protect their interests in the canal

24 British Interests in Africa Cecil Rhodes – Supporter of British imperialism in Africa – Started the DeBeers Diamond company – Used money and influence to help Britain colonize Africa Rhodesia – Today known as Zimbabwe and Zambia

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26 African Resistance Shaka Zulu created the Zulu nation in Southern Africa resisted attempts by Europeans to colonize southern Africa – The Boers Dutch farmers in southern Africa – The British British crushed Zulu resistance with superior military technology (1879)

27 African Resistance Most attempts to resist European imperialism failed Exceptions: – Ethiopians defeated Italians & stayed independent

28 The Boer War War fought between Boers (Dutch farmers) and British in Southern Africa – British won war – Established the Union of South Africa

29 Points of Discussion What impact did European imperialism in Africa have on Africans? Why were attempts by Africans to resist European imperialism unsuccessful?


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