2 What is Imperialism?Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.
3 4 Major forms of Imperial Rule: Colonies = A country or territory governed internally by a foreign power.Direct Rule = Officials from the imperial nation are actually present in, and rule the colony themselves. - FrenchIndirect Rule = Use of local rulers to manage the colonies. Encouraged the education of local leaders so colony could eventually run itself. - BritishProtectoratesCountry with it’s own government, but under the control of an outside power.Sphere of InfluenceRegion claimed by imperial nation for exclusive investment or trading privileges.Economic ImperialismAn independent but less developed country controlled by private business interestsWhich form of rule do you believe most effective? Direct or Indirect? Most involved least involved
5 Causes: Industrial Revolution: Nationalism: Balance of Power: Need for raw materialsNeed for foreign marketsNationalism:Build pride in the ‘Mother Country’Balance of Power:Once the race for colonies began, nations were compelled to enter the race for fear of being left in the dust.Humanitarian:Missionaries – Spread of ChristianitySocial Darwinism – “White Man’s Burden”N: European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world. As European nations became competitive with one another, there was an increased pressure to practice imperialism in order to maintain a balance of power in Europe.H: The Europeans’ sense of superiority made them feel obligated to “civilize the heathen savages” they encountered. The “linear” theory of human evolution. This belief doomed those outside of the western realm to be labeled ‘savage’ and thought to be inferior to White Europeans.
6 Read Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” and discuss as a class.
7 Reasons Given vs. Actual reasons “White Man’s Burden”Desire to make the world a better placeDuty to spread ChristianityWish to civilize lesser racesResponsibility to spread medicinal knowledge/aidReasons Given vs.Desire to obtain more landNeed for raw materialsConvenience of cheap labor$$$$NationalismGloryNeed for strategic trade and market portsAre there instances in which nationalism can be both a positive and negative motivator? Do you think it’s possible that there were some who actually believed they were making the world a better place by spreading western civilization? Do you think they were the majority?Actual reasons
8 NonWestern disadvantages Vs. Western Advantages Older civilizations already in decline: Ottoman in Middle East, Mughal India, Qing China.In West Africa, the slave trade and local wars left kingdoms and city-states weakened = unable to resist the Imperialists.NonWestern disadvantages Vs Western AdvantagesStrong economiesWell organized governmentsPowerful militarySuperior technology and weaponryNew medicines
9 Extent of Colonialism (1939) ******Great BritainFranceBelgiumNetherlandsGermany (1914)Area in Square Miles94,000212,60011,80013,200210,000Population45,500,10042,000,0008,300,0008,500,00067,500,000Area of Colonies13,100,0004,300,000940,000790,0001,100,000Population of Colonies470,000,00065,000,00013,000,00066,000,000SOURCE: Mary Evelyn Townsend, European Colonial Expansion Since 1871 (Chicago: J.P. Lippincott Company, 1941), p. 19
10 Africa “The Dark Continent” different language groups, and 2000 cultural groupsDiverse geography = diverse culturesGreat Rift Valley Home to the world’s oldest artifacts and human remains.
11 Early African Empires (Review!) Ghana & Mali = Gold and Salt TradeMansa Musa = Pilgrimage to MeccaSonghai = Timbuktu, Trade, University
12 Transatlantic Slave Trade Africans, Americans, Arabs, Europeans involved in slave tradeMiddle Passage = 50 million deadResult = African tradition and culture undermined, racism promotedLeft many empires and city-states weakened and vulnerable to Imperialist conquestsWith the abolition of the slave trade, African economies that had become dependent on it completely collapsed, or had to then shift their dependency onto European Imperialist nations.
13 The Scramble for Africa (1850-1914) From the 1500s – 1800s, European traders sold African slaves and traded along the coastIn the 1870s, the Belgian King Leopold sent emissaries to establish trade with native Africans in the Congo. This single act began a flurry of imperialistic activity as the other nations of Europe, including: France, Great Britain, Germany, Spain, Italy, and Portugal.Christian missionaries tried to convert African people and replace native culture with their own“White Man’s Burden”
14 3 Major Accomplishments: The Berlin Conference3 Major Accomplishments:Any sovereign power which wanted to claim any territory should inform the other powers “in order to ... make good any claim of their own.”Any such annexation should be validated by effective occupation.Treaties with African rulers were to be considered a valid title to sovereignty.- Use this info for slide
15 Within 20 years of the Berlin Conference the entire continent, with the exception of Liberia and Ethiopia, was partitioned among the European powers.
16 Percentage of Africa Controlled by European Countries in 1913
18 Effects: New boundary lines – “Scramble for Africa” PositivesPopulation growth due to European medicines and improved nutrition = increase in life span.Improved transportation and communication systemsSmall percentage of population benefits from improved education and economic opportunitiesNationalism – United against foreign (Western) nationsNegativesNew boundary lines – “Scramble for Africa”Tribes divided/combined – Berlin ConferenceTraditions lost, cultures disregardedResulting tribal clashes continue into presentTaxes – Africans forced to payExploitation of colonies and people = Workers subjected to long hours, low pay, mistreatment (human rights violations)Best land taken by EuropeansAfricans become economically dependent on European nationsAfricans treated as inferiors = racism promotedTribalism
19 Tribalism = Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes Because European nation carved Africa up without regard for traditional tribal boundaries, Africa still suffers from tribalism.Modern African nations often contain several different tribes that harbor ill feelings towards one another.Inter-tribal conflict is common in Africa, often leading to civil wars and power struggles within national governments.Tribalism = Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes