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New Imperialism (1800-1914).

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Presentation on theme: "New Imperialism (1800-1914)."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Imperialism ( )

2 What is Imperialism? Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.

3 4 Major forms of Imperial Rule:
Colonies = A country or territory governed internally by a foreign power. Direct Rule = Officials from the imperial nation are actually present in, and rule the colony themselves. - French Indirect Rule = Use of local rulers to manage the colonies. Encouraged the education of local leaders so colony could eventually run itself. - British Protectorates Country with it’s own government, but under the control of an outside power. Sphere of Influence Region claimed by imperial nation for exclusive investment or trading privileges. Economic Imperialism An independent but less developed country controlled by private business interests Which form of rule do you believe most effective? Direct or Indirect? Most involved  least involved


5 Causes: Industrial Revolution: Nationalism: Balance of Power:
Need for raw materials Need for foreign markets Nationalism: Build pride in the ‘Mother Country’ Balance of Power: Once the race for colonies began, nations were compelled to enter the race for fear of being left in the dust. Humanitarian: Missionaries – Spread of Christianity Social Darwinism – “White Man’s Burden” N: European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world. As European nations became competitive with one another, there was an increased pressure to practice imperialism in order to maintain a balance of power in Europe. H: The Europeans’ sense of superiority made them feel obligated to “civilize the heathen savages” they encountered. The “linear” theory of human evolution. This belief doomed those outside of the western realm to be labeled ‘savage’ and thought to be inferior to White Europeans.

6 Read Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” and discuss as a class.

7 Reasons Given vs. Actual reasons
“White Man’s Burden” Desire to make the world a better place Duty to spread Christianity Wish to civilize lesser races Responsibility to spread medicinal knowledge/aid Reasons Given vs. Desire to obtain more land Need for raw materials Convenience of cheap labor $$$$ Nationalism Glory Need for strategic trade and market ports Are there instances in which nationalism can be both a positive and negative motivator? Do you think it’s possible that there were some who actually believed they were making the world a better place by spreading western civilization? Do you think they were the majority? Actual reasons

8 NonWestern disadvantages Vs. Western Advantages
Older civilizations already in decline: Ottoman in Middle East, Mughal India, Qing China. In West Africa, the slave trade and local wars left kingdoms and city-states weakened = unable to resist the Imperialists. NonWestern disadvantages Vs Western Advantages Strong economies Well organized governments Powerful military Superior technology and weaponry New medicines

9 Extent of Colonialism (1939)
****** Great Britain France Belgium Netherlands Germany (1914) Area in Square Miles 94,000 212,600 11,800 13,200 210,000 Population 45,500,100 42,000,000 8,300,000 8,500,000 67,500,000 Area of Colonies 13,100,000 4,300,000 940,000 790,000 1,100,000 Population of Colonies 470,000,000 65,000,000 13,000,000 66,000,000 SOURCE: Mary Evelyn Townsend, European Colonial Expansion Since 1871 (Chicago: J.P. Lippincott Company, 1941), p. 19

10 Africa “The Dark Continent”
different language groups, and 2000 cultural groups Diverse geography = diverse cultures Great Rift Valley  Home to the world’s oldest artifacts and human remains.

11 Early African Empires (Review!)
Ghana & Mali = Gold and Salt Trade Mansa Musa = Pilgrimage to Mecca Songhai = Timbuktu, Trade, University

12 Transatlantic Slave Trade
Africans, Americans, Arabs, Europeans involved in slave trade Middle Passage = 50 million dead Result = African tradition and culture undermined, racism promoted Left many empires and city-states weakened and vulnerable to Imperialist conquests With the abolition of the slave trade, African economies that had become dependent on it completely collapsed, or had to then shift their dependency onto European Imperialist nations.

13 The Scramble for Africa (1850-1914)
From the 1500s – 1800s, European traders sold African slaves and traded along the coast In the 1870s, the Belgian King Leopold sent emissaries to establish trade with native Africans in the Congo. This single act began a flurry of imperialistic activity as the other nations of Europe, including: France, Great Britain, Germany, Spain, Italy, and Portugal. Christian missionaries tried to convert African people and replace native culture with their own “White Man’s Burden”

14 3 Major Accomplishments:
The Berlin Conference 3 Major Accomplishments: Any sovereign power which wanted to claim any territory should inform the other powers “in order to ... make good any claim of their own.” Any such annexation should be validated by effective occupation. Treaties with African rulers were to be considered a valid title to sovereignty. - Use this info for slide

15 Within 20 years of the Berlin Conference the entire continent, with the exception of Liberia and Ethiopia, was partitioned among the European powers.

16 Percentage of Africa Controlled by European Countries in 1913


18 Effects: New boundary lines – “Scramble for Africa”
Positives Population growth due to European medicines and improved nutrition = increase in life span. Improved transportation and communication systems Small percentage of population benefits from improved education and economic opportunities Nationalism – United against foreign (Western) nations Negatives New boundary lines – “Scramble for Africa” Tribes divided/combined – Berlin Conference Traditions lost, cultures disregarded Resulting tribal clashes continue into present Taxes – Africans forced to pay Exploitation of colonies and people = Workers subjected to long hours, low pay, mistreatment (human rights violations) Best land taken by Europeans Africans become economically dependent on European nations Africans treated as inferiors = racism promoted Tribalism

19 Tribalism = Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes
Because European nation carved Africa up without regard for traditional tribal boundaries, Africa still suffers from tribalism. Modern African nations often contain several different tribes that harbor ill feelings towards one another. Inter-tribal conflict is common in Africa, often leading to civil wars and power struggles within national governments. Tribalism = Feelings of loyalty to individual tribes

20 The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire



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