Presentation on theme: "Angela Brown. Bellringer: Jot down a list of items that the federal government singles out for taxation. Do you think these taxes are fair? Do you."— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer: Jot down a list of items that the federal government singles out for taxation. Do you think these taxes are fair? Do you feel they restrict individual freedom in any way? Explain. Vocabulary: Pontiac’s Rebellion Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Boycott Boston Massacre First Continental Congress Battles of Lexington and Concord Revolutionary War
1. Explain how and why British policies in the colonies changed after Summarize the causes and effects of the Stamp Act. 3. Describe how rising tensions in the colonies led to fighting at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts.
George III became King at age 22. He replaced William Pitt, as prime minister with his personal adviser, John Stewart, Earl of Bute. The stubborn and insecure king promised a quick end to the long and expensive war with France. Lord Bute accomplished in the Treaty of Paris of time.com
As the end of the war approached, British traders and land speculators showed interest in the Great Lakes region and the Ohio River Valley. NA became alarmed. The British colonists as farmers, represented a greater threat to Indian lands and resources. General Jeffrey Amherst, the British military commander in NA, despised the Indians. He ended the flow of trade goods the NA had come to depend on under French rule.
Ottawa, Huron, Potawatomi, and other Indians in the regions rebelled against British rule in the spring of Europeans named the uprising Pontiac’s Rebellion, after one of its Ottawa leaders. NA destroyed every British fort in the area west of the Appalachians except Fort Pitt and Fort Detroit. Some 2,000 colonists had been killed or captured and thousands fled.
In October, King George issued the Proclamation of This closed the region west of the Appalachian Mountains to all settlement by colonists. The British government then signed peace treaties with the Indians. Colonists continued to move west. Britain’s failure to halt the migration further undermined its authority in America. mrbaileyqrmhs.weebly.com
By 1763 the British were among the most heavily taxed people in the world. The costs of governing and defending Britain’s vast empire contributed to the burden. In 1763 a new tax on cider caused riots throughout the apple – grounding regions of England. worldatlas.com
In April, Lord Bute resigned and finance minister George Grenville became the prime minister. Grenville was a brilliant money manager but was self-centered and rude. The king hated him and he had few political friends. xtimeline.com
While Britain struggled with its heavy debts and taxes, its colonies in America were prospering. Grenville asked, why shouldn’t the colonist pay some of the costs of their own government and defense. nps.gov
The passage of the Sugar Act in 1764 marked the start of a new British policy designed to raise more income from the colonies. The law actually cut the duty on foreign molasses in half. Grenville predicted that the lower tax would encourage Americans to buy imported molasses and pay the tax rather than risk smuggling as they had been doing. He hoped it would increase tax collections.
Ship owners were told their ships would be seized if they “forgot” to pay their tax. The British navy patrolled the cost to discourage smuggling. Most upsetting to colonists smuggling cases were to be heard in British court rather than colonial. They were decided by a judge alone…no jury. The judge received a 5% commission on all illegal cargoes and fines.
Another reform of Grenville’s was the Quartering Act passed in This law required the colonies to provide housing and supplies for the British troops in America after the French and Indian War. Colonists complained about the taxes but most went along with them. timerime.com
In March of 1765 the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act placing a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and most other printed materials. It required a special stamp to show the tax had been paid. Grenville estimated that this tax would raise enough money to pay the cost of keeping troops in America. keep3.sjfc.edu
The Stamp Act marked the first time that the British government had taxed the colonists for the purpose of raising money. The Sugar Act had been presented to the colonists as a way to regulate trade rather than its true purpose of raising money. People in England had been paying a stamp tax since The law represented a radical change for the colonists. Grenville was cautious about introducing the tax, talking to agents of the colonies and giving them time to make suggestions. He was unprepared for the protest that followed.
This measure touched almost all Americans in every colony. It affected some of the most powerful people in the colonies – printers, merchants, and lawyers. In October 1765, delegates from seven colonies met in New York to hold a meeting known as the Stamp Act Congress. James Otis from Mass., the main organizer of the meeting had claimed since 1761 that Britain had no right to force laws on the colonies, because the colonists had no representatives in the British Parliament. Otis and other delegates made this argument again in petitions, or letters sent to the King and Parliament.
The claimed the colonists should have the same rights and liberties that the people of GB enjoyed. Merchants and others organized a boycott of British goods. A boycott is a refusal to buy certain products or use certain services. The Sons and Daughters of Liberty sprang up throughout the colonies to enforce the boycott and organize other ways to resist British policies.
Boston Sons of Liberty was the most active under the leadership of one of its founders Samuel Adams. In August, members called on the stamp distributor and warned him to resign or his home would be destroyed and his life in danger. Several nights later a mob attacked the home of his brother-in-law, Thomas Hutchinson, lieutenant governor of the colony. He and his family were told to leave or be killed, then they destroyed or took everything that was inside.
By November 1765 the Stamp Act took effect but most stamp distributors had resigned or fled, leaving no one to sell the stamps. British merchants protested as the boycott threatened their profitable trade with America. After Grenville was forced from power, Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in March 1766.
The colonist celebrated the repeal of the Stamp Act. The larger issue of taxation had not gone away. Few people noticed that Parliament addressed it the day they repealed the Stamp Act. They passed the Declaratory Act stating that Parliament had the authority to make laws that applied to the colonists “in all cases whatsoever”.
In 1767 Parliament passed this act placing duties on certain imported goods, including glass and tea. Named after the chief financial officer, Charles Townshend who hoped to satisfy the colonists by raising money through duties rather than direct taxes. It stated that the money would be used for “the support of civil government” in the colonies.
The colonists were being taxed without their consent. Britain would use the money to pay the salaries of royal governors in America, who then would not have to turn to colonial legislatures for their pay. The would weaken the legislatures and undermine self-government in the colonies.
Boycott that had proven so successful against the stamp act was renewed. Women pledged to weave cloth rather than buy cloth made in England. Many also boycotted British tea. dipity.com
Britain sent troops to put down the violence due to the Townshend Acts. On the evening of March 5, 1770, an unruly crowd threatened a squad of British soldiers. The soldiers opened fire on the crowd. AA Crispus Attucks and four other colonists were killed. ushistory.org
The next day a British officer and 8 soldiers were arrested and charged with murder. Samuel Adam’s cousin, John Adams, and another lawyer agreed to defend them. John Adams, a harsh critic of British policy, believed they had a right to a fair trial. answers.com
Two were convicted of lesser crimes. Their thumbs were branded as punishment and they were released. Parliament soon canceled the Townshend taxes. It kept its duty on tea as a reminder of British authority The general boycott of British goods collapsed and only the boycott of British tea remained.
The colonies entered a quiet period. Yet Samuel Adams and other Boston leaders reminded citizens of British offenses. In 1772 they formed the C of C to coordinate resistance throughout the colonies. By 1774 nearly all the colonies had such committees. alexkyriakis.edu.glogster.com
In May of 1773, to help the struggling British East India Company, Parliament passed the Tea Act. The company could sell its teas in America without paying the normal taxes. It would make the East India tea less expensive than the smuggled tea the colonists had been buying driving the American tea merchants out of business. factsnotfantasy.blogspot.com
Colonist protested. The BEIC’s sales agents in America were pressured to resign. Nov. 1773, several colonial port cities refused to let the ships dock in their harbors. On the night of Dec. 16, 1773, a group of colonists disguised as Indians boarded three tea ships in Boston. As a large crowd watched, they broke open every crate on board and threw the tea into the harbor. therealrevo.com
To punish Boston and all of Mass., in the spring of 1774 Parliament passed a series of laws known as the Coercive Acts. The measures seemed so harsh the colonists labeled them the Intolerable Acts. Not part of the Coercive Acts, another new law extended Canada’s boundary south to the Ohio River. This stripped Mass., Conn., and Virginia of their claims to western lands. usfca.edu
General Thomas Gage, the commander of British forces in America, was named the new governor of Mass. Committees of Correspondence in several colonies called for a meeting to plan a united response. This became known as the First Continental Congress. mrberlin.com
On September 5, 1774, 56 delegates met at Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia. Delegates came from every colony but Georgia. George Washington, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee were leading figures. Samuel Adams was the most rebellious. John Dickinson and John Jay were moderates. georgiainfo.galileo.usg.edu
They renewed the boycott and called all colonists to arm themselves and form militias. They made an appeal to the King, outlining their grievances and asking for understanding On October 26 the Congress ended vowing to meet again in the spring George III remained stubborn and declared the colonies in rebellion on November 18. whenintime.com
Mass. Patriots formed militias and began to gather guns and ammunition. A major stockpile of weapons was stored in Concord, a town about 20 miles from Boston. Late at night on April 18, 1775, a force of 700 British troops moved out of Boston and marched toward Concord with orders to seize these supplies. The plan was supposed to be secret but Boston Patriots learned of it. Paul Revere, William Dawas, and Dr. Samuel Prescott rode to get the news to Patriots.
The British reached Lexington at dawn on April 19. They encountered 70 armed militia, minutemen, blocking their path on the village green. The colonists were ordered to put down their weapons and began to obey, then someone fired a shot. The troops fired a volley into the militia. 8 colonists were killed and 10 were wounded within minutes. The Shot Heard Round the World!
At Concord, the troops burned the militias stockpile of supplies. 4,000 Patriots gathered to fire upon the troops from behind trees on the road back to Boston. More than 70 British soldiers were killed and 170 wounded. The Revolutionary War that would last until 1783 had begun.
1. Summarizing the Main Idea: Why did the colonists protest new British taxes, and in what ways did they protest? 2. Create a graphic organizer outlining the causes and effects of the Stamp Act. 3. How was the fighting at Lexington and Concord related to the First Continental Congress? 4. Why did Britain change its colonial policies after 1763? What alternative policies, if any, might Britain have adopted?