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Expressing Contrast Although, in spite of, but, however…

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Presentation on theme: "Expressing Contrast Although, in spite of, but, however…"— Presentation transcript:

1 Expressing Contrast Although, in spite of, but, however…

2 Connectors of contrast Although / though / even though In spite of / despite However But Nevertheless Yet On the contrary Whereas / while

3 Connectors of contrast We use although or though or even though to connect contrasting ideas. Used to introduce a dependent clause, which is joined to form a complex sentence. Position: use a comma if the SC comes before the MC; do not use a comma if the SC comes after the MC. Although the companys sale increased last year, its net profit declined. The companys net profit declined last year although its sales increased.

4 Connectors of contrast Though/ although/ even though+ clause [subj + verb] = in spite of/ despite the fact that + clause [subj + verb] = in spite of/ despite + Noun phrase or V-ing Examples: Even though he is a millionaire, he is very mean. In spite of the fact that he is a millionaire, he is very mean. In spite of being a millionaire, he is very mean.

5 Connectors of contrast Although I hate computers, my teacher makes me use them. Despite the fact that I hate computers, my teacher makes me use them. Despite hating computers, my teacher makes me use them.

6 Connectors of contrast Although it was very cold, we went to the beach. In spite of the fact that it was very cold, we went to the beach. In spite of the cold weather, we went to the beach. Use only a noun phrase Dont use a complete sentence here

7 Connectors of contrast Exercises: 1) There was a terrible traffic jam. However, he arrived on time (Although …) 2) He searched everywhere, but he couldnt find the ticket (Although...) 3) Despite the age of the house, we managed to sell it (Although…) 4) Despite the doctors advice, he played football last week (Even though…) 5) Although he has an English name, he is in fact German (Despite…) 6) Although her friends advised her not to do it, she would not listen (Despite…)

8 Connectors of contrast 7) Although MN is very famous in Spain, she isnt widely known abroad (In spite of…) 8) We lost the match although we were the better team (Despite…) 9) We all enjoyed the walk, even though it rained heavily (In spite of…) 10) The dog barked all night, but we still managed to sleep (Despite…) 11) He is extremely rich, but very mean (In spite of…) 12) Mrs. Jones is 70, but she still goes for a run every day (In spite of…)

9 Connectors of contrast Answer KEY 1) There was a terrible traffic jam. He arrived on time (Although …) Although there was a terrible traffic jam, he arrived on time. 2) He searched everywhere, but he couldnt find the ticket (Although... Although he searched everywhere, he couldnt find the ticket. 3) Despite the age of the house, we managed to sell it (Although…) Although it was a very old house, we managed to sell it. 4) Despite the doctors advice, he played football last week (Even though…) He played football last week even though the doctor advised him not to do it. 5) Although he has an English name, he is in fact German (Despite…) Despite having an English name/ his English name, he is in fact German. 6) Although her friends advised her not to do it, she would not listen (Despite…) Despite her friends advice not to do it, she would not listen.

10 Connectors of contrast 7) Although MN is very famous in Spain, she isnt widely known abroad (In spite of…) In spite of MN being very famous in Spain, she isnt widely known abroad. In spite of MNs popularity in Spain, she isnt widely known abroad. 8) We lost the match although we were the better team (Despite…) Despite being the better team, we lost the match. 9) We all enjoyed the walk, even though it rained heavily (In spite of…) In spite of the heavy rain, we all enjoyed the walk. 10) The dog barked all night, but we still managed to sleep (Despite…) Despite the dogs barking all night, we still managed to sleep. 11) He is extremely rich, but very mean (In spite of…) In spite of being extremely rich/ his big fortune, hes very mean. 12) Mrs. Jones is 70, but she still goes for a run every day (In spite of…) In spite of Mrs. Jones being 70, she still goes for a run every day.

11 Connectors of contrast BUT (pero, sino) HOWEVER (sin embargo) NEVERTHELESS (sin embargo, no obstante) YET (aún así) Examples: Katty couldnt cash her paycheck... Katty no pudo cobrar el cheque de su sueldo... However, she managed to buy a new TV set. Sin embargo consiguió comprarse un televisor nuevo. but she managed to buy a new TV set. Pero consiguió comprarse un televisor nuevo. nevertheless, she managed to buy a new TV set. No obstante consiguió comprarse un televisor nuevo. yet she managed to buy a new TV set. Aun así consiguió comprarse un televisor nuevo.

12 Connectors of contrast BUT (pero) o He spoke clearly, but I didn't understand him. Habló claramente pero no lo entendí o She saw me, but she didn't recognize me. Ella me vió pero no me reconoció. o I want to study art, but my parents want me to become an engineer. o I have studied the textbook, but I am still confused. (I have studied and I am)

13 Connectors of contrast HOWEVER ( sin embargo) They were not having fun; however they stayed until the party was over. Ellos no se estaban divirtiendo; sin embargo se quedaron hasta que la fiesta terminó. He doesn't study much; however he gets good grades at school. El no estudia mucho; sin embargo obtiene buenas notas en la escuela.

14 Always use However, at the start of a sentence Wrong: I dont like to use computers, however I have to use them for English class. Correct: I dont like to use computers. However, I have to use them for English class. Wrong! Dont use however after a comma.

15 Two simple sentences, however as adverb in one I have studied the textbook; however, I am still confused. I am confused. I have, however, studied the textbook. however is an adverb two simple sentences the adverb is interrupting material that requires a pair of commas

16 Connectors of contrast NEVERTHELESS ( sin embargo) It was very stormy; nevertheless we went fishing. Estaba muy tormentoso; sin embargo fuimos de pesca. Dont use nevertheles s after a comma.

17 Connectors of contrast YET - sin embargo o He wanted to reply to that accusation, yet he didn't. El quería contestar a esa acusación; sin embargo no lo hizo. o Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age 12, yet he became a famous inventor. Thomas Edison abandonó los estudios a la edad de 12 años, sin embargo, se convirtió en un famoso inventor.

18 Connectors of contrast ON THE CONTRARY - por el contrario The boy is not dumb; on the contrary, he's very smart for his age. El muchacho no es tonto; al contrario él es muy inteligente para su edad. Condors are solitary birds. On the contrary, seagulls live in flocks. Los cóndores son aves solitarias. Por el contrario, las gaviotas viven en bandadas.

19 Connectors of contrast WHEREAS/ WHILE = but on the other hand While and whereas are used to show direct contrast: "this" is exactly opposite of "that." While and whereas may be used with idea of either clause with no difference in meaning. Whereas mostly occurs in formal written English. Note: A comma is usually used even though the adverb clause comes second EXAMPLES: I like to go swimming, whereas Sheila likes to sail.

20 Connectors of contrast One arrived promptly, whereas the others hung back. He is quite shy, whereas his sister is lively and talkative. Mary is rich, whereas/ while John is poor. John is poor, whereas/ while Mary is rich.

21 Connectors of contrast (A) CONCESSION Although Though Even though (B) ADVERSATIVE However But Nevertheless Yet On the contrary Whereas / while

22 Connectors of contrast REPHRASING 1) A lot of people prefer a PDA to a desk computer although the screen size is very small. Even though... 2) She had very good qualifications.However, she wasn't offered very high wages Despite... 3) Internet is very popular. Nevertheless, a lot of people do not know how to use it. Even though... 4) Bob had a considerable amount of experience but the job went to a junior colleague. Although... 5) Bob did his best in the final examination although he was suffering from a heavy cold. Despite...

23 Connectors of contrast 6) Her writing style is elegant but her power of description is limited. While... 7) He was much criticised but he kept on behaving the way he used to. Despite... 8) The job market was difficult last summer. Nevertheless, Bill got a job soon after graduation. Although... 9) He made a positive impression during the interview, but he wasn't offered a permanent job. Even though... 10) Studying on the Internet has a lot of advantages but it may not always be as effective as face to face study. In spite...

24 Connectors of contrast 1) A lot of people prefer a PDA to a desk computer although the screen size is very small. Even though... Even though the screen size is very small, a lot of people prefer a PDA to a desk computer. 2) She had very good qualifications. However, she wasn't offered very high wages Despite... Despite having very good qualifications, she wasn't offered very high wages. 3) Internet is very popular. Nevertheless, a lot of people do not know how to use it. Even though... Even though internet is very popular, a lot of people do not know how to use it. 4) Bob had a considerable amount of experience but the job went to a junior colleague. Although... Although Bob had a considerable amount of experience, the job went to a junior colleague. 5) Bob did his best in the final examination although he was suffering from a heavy cold. Despite... Despite suffering from a heavy cold, Bob did his best in the final examination.

25 Connectors of contrast 6) Her writing style is elegant but her power of description is limited. While... Her writing style is elegant while her power of description is limited. 7) He was much criticised but he kept on behaving the way he used to. Despite... Despite being much criticised, he kept on behaving the way he used to. 8) The job market was difficult last summer. Nevertheless Bill got a job soon after graduation. Although... Although the job market was difficult last summer, Bill got a job soon after graduation. 9) He made a positive impression during the interview, but he wasn't offered a permanent job. Even though... Even though he made a positive impression during tjhe interview, he wasn't offered a permanent job. 10) Studying on the Internet has a lot of advantages but it may not always be as effective as face to face study. In spite... In spite of its many advantages, studying on the Internet may not always be as effective as face to face study.


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