2Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, so or, nor, yet, forCorrelative, or paired conjunctions:both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor
3Coordinating and correlative conjunctions join: WordsMais and Yuri fled the war in Armenia.The book is neither well written nor interesting.PhrasesThey are glad to be in the United States but are still homesick.Both students who won awards and the teachers who taught them were at the awards ceremony.ClausesIf you have a 4.0 GPA and if you graduate on time, many good companies will hire you.They had to flee their country, for they had no future there.
4Use a comma when two independent clauses are joined by a coordinating or correlative conjunction. Students write during class time, and they also write at home.Not only is he a good student, but he is also a nice person.
5Do not use a comma when two phrases or words are joined. Computer scientists and engineers need to be good writers.Both lunch and dinner will be served.Neither the campus bookstore nor the downtown bookstore has good prices.
6The subject closer to the verb determines if the verb is singular or plural in sentences with correlative conjunctions.Not only my best friend but my parents are also here.Not only my parents but my best friend is also here.
7Do not join coordinating conjunctions with other conjunctions within the same sentence. IncorrectAlthough he got a B on test, but he is still not happy.CorrectHe got a B on the test, but he is still not happy.
8Each coordinating conjunction has a different use.
9Use and to add information. We are going to write essays and read many articles in this class.
10Use but to show contrast. We will work hard, but it will be fun to learn a lot.
11Use or to give a choice.The first assignment will be a narrative or an argumentative essay.
12Use yet to show contrast. The teacher is a hard grader, yet her scores are always fair.
13Use so to show a result.She got A grades on all of her work, so she hopes to get an A in the class.
14He will pass the class, for he worked hard and got good grades. Use for to show a reason.He will pass the class, for he worked hard and got good grades.Note: The conjunction for means because, but it is not used very often to express this meaning. The preferred connector is because.
15Use both…and or not only…but also to add emphasis. Both solar and wind energy are alternatives to oil and coal.Computer hackers not only slow business but also damage computer systems.
16Use neither…nor to emphasize both are negative. Neither students nor teachers look forward to the start of the school year.
17Use either…or to express choice. He wants a computer made by either Dell or IBM.
18Correct the errors in coordination. We worked all night, so we didn’t meet our deadline.I finished the coffee, it was bitter.My group worked hard, that we finished the project early.The food tasted bad but we still ate it.Neither my sister nor my friends is here.
19When joining words, phrases, or clauses with coordinating conjunctions, they must be parallel or the same grammatical structure.
20Nouns:Russian cosmonauts, American astronauts, and private citizens are now in the International Space Station.
21Adjectives:Their experiments are expensive but important for advancing our knowledge.
22Infinitives:The astronauts try to exercise or to work out on a treadmill every day while they are in space.
23Gerunds:Working, eating, and sleeping in such a small space require cooperation.
24Prepositional Phrases: The results of the experiments will be used in many industries, on numerous advances, and for years to come.
25Clauses:Astronauts train for emergencies, but they rarely have to use this information.
26Note:When you write more than two parallel items, use commas to separate them. The comma before the conjunction is optional but often preferred in academic writing.It is difficult to work, study, and take care of small children at the same time.
27Words, phrases, or clauses must be parallel when they are joined by not only…but also, both…and, either…or, or neither…nor.Not only ranchers but also farmers are affected by government policies.Both Jenny and Judy play water polo.We will either see a movie or go out to dinner tonight.My son was neither anxious nor upset at the dentist’s office.
28Not only…but alsoRegular word order: Debbie not only likes to swim, but she also likes to run.Inverted word order: Not only does Debbie like to swim, but she also likes to run.Regular word order: There is not only a test tomorrow, but there is also an essay due.Inverted word order: Not only is there a test tomorrow, but there is also an essay due.
29Correct the errors in parallel structure. Vicki improved her writing by learning grammar rules, and she edits carefully.Ms. Lee is searching for a new job and moves to a new house at the same time.My best friend is good at listening, solving problems, and he always gives good advice.My roommate was neither anxious nor relaxing before her exams.I will either study painting or sculpture.