2¿Qué son las frases relativas? Son aquellas frases relativas a o relacionadas con algo o alguien, al cual o al que estas frases van subordinadas mediante un pronombre relativo: que, quien, el cual, cuyo, etc.¿Quién es María?María es la chica que vino ayer(Frase relativa)“…que vino ayer” o “…la cual vino ayer” tiene relación o dice algo de la chica para identificarla. Ya sabemos que María no es otra si no la chica que vino ayer.
3Relative clausesMaría is the girl who came yesterday or María is the girl that came yesterdayThis is the house which I bought last weekorThis is the house that I bought last week
4Relative clauses Two types of Relative clauses: Restrictive: closely connected with the antecedentThis is not something that would disturb meNon-restrictive: Nouns which are already definite. They add something to the noun by given more information about it. They are not essential and can be omitted. The non-restrictive relative clauses are always between commasIt’s all based on violence, which I hate
5Frases Relativas (explicación en español) Dos tipos de frases relativas:Restrictive (frases especificativas en español): Aquellas frases estrechamente conectadas con su antecedente.Antecedente: nombre con el que la frase relativa está relacionado (puede ser una persona o una cosa)La chica que vino ayer es MaríaLa mesa que pintaste era la míaNon-restrictive (frases explicativas en español): Son aquellas frases que normalmente dicen algo de la persona o cosa con las que van relacionadas pero no son importantes y por lo tanto se pueden omitir sin que la frase principal pierda sentido. Usualmente van entre comas.Juan, que usa muletas, se ha vuelto a caer
6Restrictive clauses Relative Pronouns PERSONAL ANTECEDENTAccording to the function in the sentences we have:(según la función que desempeñen dentro de la frase)subject : WHOobject : WHO/WHOMgenitive: WHOSE (personal/non-personal antecedent)(they can be changed by THAT except WHOSE)(se pueden cambiar por THAT excepto WHOSE)SUBJECTThis is the man who came yesterday (formal)that (Informal)OBJECTThis is the man whom you should know (formal)who (formal)that (Informal)GENITIVEThis is the man whose wife works with you
7Restrictive clauses using preposition Las preposiciones pueden ser usadas delante o detrás de los pronombres relativos. Si escribimos la preposición delante del relativo sólo podemos usar WHOM. Pero las preposiciones se pueden escribir detrás de su verbo, entonces podemos usar otros pronombres relativos. to whom you spoke. This is the man whom you spoke to. who you spoke to that you spoke tomuy formalformalinformal
8Restrictive clauses Relative Pronouns NON-PERSONAL ANTECEDENT:subject / object : WHICH(it can be substituted by THAT)genitive: WHOSESUBJECT There's still one thing which is not explained that OBJECT The house which you bought was my family’s
9Non- restrictive Relative pronouns "It's all based on violence, which I hate" Subject: WHOObject: WHOM / WHO(They cannot be substituted by “that”)Tom, who I haven’t seen for ages, is coming next weekHis house, which is enormous, has no running water
10Relative adverbs WHEN = in/on which (time) (cuando) WHERE = in which (place) (donde)WHY = for which (reasons) (por lo que/ por la razón que...)WHAT = that which (lo que...)The year in which he died = The year when he diedThe day on which she arrived = The day when she arrivedThe house in which he lived = The house where he lived has no running water."What I mean is this..."
11ACTIVITIES JOIN THE SENTENCES BY USING A RELATIVE PRONOUN The woman is coming soon. Her husband is in the prison.Yesterday I met a man. He was wearing in red.That's Tom's sister. I spoke to her yesterday.I bought a car..... has two doors.I met a man..... is blue-eyed.I live in a house.... roof is being mended.
12MORE ACTIVITIES JOIN BY MEANS OF A RELATIVE PRONOUNS This man is my uncle. He came yesterday.That is the boy. His father made him study for two hours.The book is very interesting. You bought it yesterday.I want to know it. My friends told you.She was dancing with a student. He had a slight limp.I am looking after some children. They are very spoilt.The bed has no mattress. I slept on this bed.Romeo and Juliet were two lovers. Their parents hated each other.There wasn't any directory in the telephone box. I was phoning from this box.I was sitting on a chair. It suddenly collapsed.This is the story of a man. His wife suddenly loses her memory.I met Mary. She asked me to give you this.I met Mary,Tom, was driving all day, was tired and wanted to stop.I was waiting for a man. He didn't turn up.The firm is sending me to New York. I work for this firm.