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Nouns and Articles (Los sustantivos y los artículos) It is often said that a noun is a person, place or thing. That is true but, in fact, a noun is anything.

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Presentation on theme: "Nouns and Articles (Los sustantivos y los artículos) It is often said that a noun is a person, place or thing. That is true but, in fact, a noun is anything."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nouns and Articles (Los sustantivos y los artículos) It is often said that a noun is a person, place or thing. That is true but, in fact, a noun is anything we can put a name on. Therefore, even words that refer to abstract concepts such as love, life, anger, and so on, are nouns. In Spanish, one of the words for noun is nombre, which simply means name.

2 In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine Masculine nouns To identify our masculine nouns, we will start with the indefinite masculine article un, which in English is a or an un libro un reloj a book a watch un menúa menu un rubía ruby Normally, nouns ending in o, í, ú or a consonant are masculine. Of course, there are exceptions. One is una mano. Note: The fact that a noun is masculine, other than those that denote human beings, has nothing whatever to do with sexual attributes.

3 Words ending in í or ú (accented) are fairly rare in Spanish and, as mentioned, are normally masculine. un iglú an igloo un colibría hummingbird un menúa menu un gurúa guru un esquí a ski un rubía ruby Words ending in i or u (unaccented) are even more rare, and may be masculine or feminine. una tribua tribe un/una cursia pretentious person (male/female) In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine

4 Masculine nouns To identify our masculine nouns, we will start with the indefinite masculine article un, which in English is a or an un hombre un doctor a man a doctor (m) un profesora professor (m) un muchachoa boy In addition, nouns that denote male persons are normally masculine. In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine

5 Feminine nouns To identify our feminine nouns, we will start with the indefinite feminine article una, which in English is a or an una mesaa table una nacióna nation una ciudada city Normally, nouns ending in a, ad, ción, or sión are feminine. Two exceptions are un mapa and un día. Note: Again, the fact that a noun is feminine, other than those that denote human beings, has nothing to do with sexual attributes. In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine

6 Feminine nouns To identify our feminine nouns, we will start with the indefinite feminine article una, which in English is a or an una mujer una doctora a woman a doctor (f) una profesoraa professor (f) una muchachaa girl In addition, nouns that denote female persons are normally feminine or have a feminine form that is the counterpart of the masculine. In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine

7 Nouns ending in o, í, ú, or a consonant are normally masculine nouns ending in e Words that end with e are suspect, that is, they may be masculine or they may be feminine un cochea car un bachea pothole un botea can When in doubt about the gender of a noun ending in e, or any noun, ask a native speaker or your teacher, or look it up in a dictionary. una nochea night una llavea key una callea street un frentea frontuna frentea forehead un batea bat (baseball)una pestea plague MasculineFeminine Remember! Nouns ending in a, ad, ción, or sión are normally feminine

8 Words that end with -ma are usually masculine un problemaun aroma un temaun programa un clima un diagramaun sistema un diploma But there are a few exceptions: una diademauna tramauna estratagema

9 Definite and indefinite articles Es un libro. The indefinite article (un, una) refers to a non-specific item. Its a book, any old book. The definite article (el, la) refers to a specific item. Es el libro que usamos en la clase de español. Its the book we use in the Spanish class.

10 Definite and indefinite articles Es una silla. The indefinite article (un, una) refers to a non-specific item. Its a chair, any old chair. The definite article (el, la) refers to a specific item. Es la silla que usamos en la clase de español. Its the chair we use in the Spanish class.

11 Definite and indefinite articles Hay unos libros en la sala de clase. The plural indefinite article (unos, unas) can be translated as some or a few. There are a few books in the classroom. Hay unas sillas también. There are some chairs, too.

12 Definite and indefinite articles Son los libros para la clase de español. The plural definite article (los, las), just like the singular, refers to specific things. Theyre the books for the Spanish class. Son las sillas para los estudiantes. Theyre the chairs for the students.

13 Summary of definite and indefinite articles un The masculine indefinite articles are: unos a, an some, a few un libro = a book unos libros = some books The masculine definite articles are: el los the the (English has no plural form for the) el libro = the book los libros = the books

14 Summary of definite and indefinite articles una The feminine indefinite articles are: unas a, an some, a few una silla = a chair unas sillas = some chairs The feminine definite articles are: la las the la silla = the chair las sillas = the chairs

15 Pluralization (La pluralización) Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. If a noun ends in a, á, e, é, o, ó, i or u, we simply add s. libro SingularPlural libros casacasas llave llaves tributribus mamá mamás café cafés dominó dominós cursi cursis

16 Pluralization (La pluralización) Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. The rare word that ends in í or ú can be pluralized by adding either s or es. SingularPlural esquíesquís/esquíes rubírubís/rubíes menúmenús/menúes tabútabús/tabúes colibrícolibrís/colibríes iglúiglús/iglúes

17 Pluralization (La pluralización) If a noun ends in a consonant, we add es. papel SingularPlural papeles borradorborradores ordenórdenes Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. paredparedes relojrelojes señorseñores

18 Pluralization (La pluralización) SingularPlural Polysyllabic words that end in s, and are stressed on any syllable except the last one, maintain the same form in the plural as in the singular. We show that they are plural by using the plural article. el oasislos oasis el luneslos lunes Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. la tesislas tesis If stressed on the last syllable, they are pluralized normally. el autobúslos autobuses

19 Pluralization (La pluralización) Generally, adjectives are pluralized just like nouns. If an adjective ends in a vowel, we simply add s. SingularPlural bonitobonitos inteligenteinteligentes If an adjective ends in a consonant, we add es. fácilfáciles comúncomunes

20 Pluralization (La pluralización) When a noun or an adjective ends in z, we must change the z to c before adding es. SingularPlural lápizlápices luzluces felizfelices audazaudaces nouns adjectives

21 FIN


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