Presentation on theme: "Nouns and Articles (Los sustantivos y los artículos)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nouns and Articles (Los sustantivos y los artículos) It is often said that a noun is a person, place or thing. That is true but, in fact, a noun is anything we can put a name on. Therefore, even words that refer to abstract concepts such as love, life, anger, and so on, are nouns. In Spanish, one of the words for noun is nombre, which simply means name.
2 In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine To identify our masculine nouns, we will start with the indefinite masculine article un, which in English is a or anMasculine nounsun libroa bookNormally, nouns ending in o, í, ú or a consonant are masculine.un rubía rubyun menúa menuOf course, there are exceptions. One is una mano.un reloja watchNote: The fact that a noun is masculine, other than those that denote human beings, has nothing whatever to do with sexual attributes.
3 In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine Words ending in í or ú (accented) are fairly rare in Spanish and, as mentioned, are normally masculine.un colibría hummingbirdun gurúa guruun esquía skiun iglúan iglooun rubía rubyun menúa menuWords ending in i or u (unaccented) are even more rare, and may be masculine or feminine.un/una cursia pretentious person (male/female)una tribua tribe
4 In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine To identify our masculine nouns, we will start with the indefinite masculine article un, which in English is a or anMasculine nounsun hombrea manIn addition, nouns that denote male persons are normally masculine.un muchachoa boyun profesora professor (m)un doctora doctor (m)
5 In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine To identify our feminine nouns, we will start with the indefinite feminine article una, which in English is a or anFeminine nounsuna mesaa tableNormally, nouns ending in a, ad, ción, or sión are feminine.una ciudada cityTwo exceptions are un mapa and un día.una nacióna nationNote: Again, the fact that a noun is feminine, other than those that denote human beings, has nothing to do with sexual attributes.
6 In Spanish, nouns are classified into two groups: masculine and feminine To identify our feminine nouns, we will start with the indefinite feminine article una, which in English is a or anFeminine nounsIn addition, nouns that denote female persons are normally feminine or have a feminine form that is the counterpart of the masculine.una mujera womanuna muchachaa girluna profesoraa professor (f)una doctoraa doctor (f)
7 Remember! nouns ending in e un coche a car una noche a night un bote Nouns ending in o, í, ú, or a consonant are normally masculineNouns ending in a, ad, ción, or sión are normally feminineWords that end with e are suspect, that is, they may be masculine or they may be femininenouns ending in eMasculineFeminineun cochea caruna nochea nightun botea canuna callea streetun frentea frontuna frentea foreheadun batea bat (baseball)una pestea plagueun bachea potholeuna llavea keyWhen in doubt about the gender of a noun ending in e, or any noun, ask a native speaker or your teacher, or look it up in a dictionary.
8 Words that end with -ma are usually masculine un problemaun aromaun temaun programaun sistemaun diagramaun diplomaun climaBut there are a few exceptions:una tramauna diademauna estratagema
9 Definite and indefinite articles The indefinite article (un, una) refers to a non-specific item.Es un libro.It’s a book, any old book.The definite article (el, la) refers to a specific item.A!RIBEs el libro que usamos en la clase de español.Puntos de partidaIt’s the book we use in the Spanish class.
10 Definite and indefinite articles The indefinite article (un, una) refers to a non-specific item.Es una silla.It’s a chair, any old chair.The definite article (el, la) refers to a specific item.Es la silla que usamos en la clase de español.It’s the chair we use in the Spanish class.
11 Definite and indefinite articles The plural indefinite article (unos, unas) can be translated as “some” or “a few.”Hay unos libros en la sala de clase.There are a few books in the classroom.Hay unas sillas también.There are some chairs, too.
12 Definite and indefinite articles The plural definite article (los, las), just like the singular, refers to specific things.A!RIBSon los libros para la clase de español.They’re the books for the Spanish class.Son las sillas para los estudiantes.They’re the chairs for the students.
13 Summary of definite and indefinite articles The masculine indefinite articles are:una, anun libro = a bookunossome, a fewunos libros = some booksThe masculine definite articles are:eltheel libro = the booklosthe (English has no plural form for the)los libros = the books
14 Summary of definite and indefinite articles The feminine indefinite articles are:unaa, anuna silla = a chairunassome, a fewunas sillas = some chairsThe feminine definite articles are:lathela silla = the chairlasthelas sillas = the chairs
15 Pluralization casa casas mamá mamás llave llaves café cafés libro (La pluralización)Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English.If a noun ends in a, á, e, é, o, ó, i or u, we simply add s.SingularPluralcasacasasmamámamásllavellavescafécaféslibrolibrosdominódominóscursicursistributribus
16 Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English. Pluralization(La pluralización)Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English.The rare word that ends in í or ú can be pluralized by adding either s or es.SingularPluralcolibrícolibrís/colibríesesquíesquís/esquíesrubírubís/rubíesiglúiglús/iglúesmenúmenús/menúestabútabús/tabúes
17 Pluralization borrador borradores orden órdenes papel papeles pared (La pluralización)Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English.If a noun ends in a consonant, we add es.SingularPluralborradorborradoresordenórdenespapelpapelesparedparedesrelojrelojesseñorseñores
18 Pluralization el lunes los lunes el oasis los oasis la tesis las tesis (La pluralización)Nouns are pluralized differently in Spanish than in English.Polysyllabic words that end in s, and are stressed on any syllable except the last one, maintain the same form in the plural as in the singular. We show that they are plural by using the plural article.SingularPluralel luneslos lunesel oasislos oasisla tesislas tesisIf stressed on the last syllable, they are pluralized normally.el autobúslos autobuses
19 Pluralization bonito bonitos inteligente inteligentes fácil fáciles (La pluralización)Generally, adjectives are pluralized just like nouns.If an adjective ends in a vowel, we simply add s.SingularPluralbonitobonitosinteligenteinteligentesIf an adjective ends in a consonant, we add es.fácilfácilescomúncomunes
20 Pluralization lápiz lápices luz luces feliz felices audaz audaces (La pluralización)When a noun or an adjective ends in z, we must change the z to c before adding es.SingularPlurallápizlápicesnounsluzlucesfelizfelicesadjectivesaudazaudaces
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