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Cradle of Civilization

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1 Cradle of Civilization
IRAN (PERSIA) Cradle of Civilization PART 2

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3 General (Arteshbod) Pantea Artemis
Immortal Commander One of the All Time Greatest Persian Immortal Commanders, Persian Imperial Immortal Guards were The Elite Units of The Persian Imperial Armed Forces. Artemis (the great speaker of truth) Artemis or Artemisia, The Grand Admiral and leader of the Persian Navy during Xerxes, Xerxes' great love. A great powerful, independent and intelligent woman. Artemisia I of Halicarnassius Grand Admiral Artemis (Achaemnid Dynasty Era), Commander in Chief of the PersianNavy. You can see the spirit of Cyrus in the sky at the background of the painting. Artemisia is one of my all times favorite Iranian Military commanders. Soon I will publish her full updated biography in IPC. Artemisia was not just another Iranian Military Commander, yet she is a living legend and a role model for Persian Women. Source: historical-women/index.htm

4 Artemis, the first Persian Female Grand Admiral
Artemis was the first Persian young woman in the world who was appointed as the grand admiral of the Persian Navy by Xerxes The Great, Persian monarch, about 2,480 years ago. Artemis took part in Salamine War in 480 BC, between Persia and Greece in which she demonstrated extraordinary leadership and bravery. In one of the most difficult parts of the Salamine War, she managed to save some divisions of the Persian Navy from destruction. This resulted in being awarded the position of the Grand Admiral of the Persian Navy, by Xerxes The Great. In 484 BC, Artemis, the governor of state of Carieh, joined Persian navy with 5 warships under her command, upon Xerxes The Great’ order to initiate a war with Greeks. In this war, Persian army with 800,000 ground force (food soldiers), 80,000 mounted force (on horses), 1,200 warships, and 300 troop transport ships; prevailed and occupied Athens.  She proposed to marry Xerxes The Great, which did not materialized due to unknown reason(s). In 1960th, Imperial Iranian Navy, for the first time, named a warship as “Artemis” to commemorate her legacy, to stay guard in Persian Gulf.

5 Grand Admiral Artemisia with Xerxes The Great
Artemis or Artemisia, The Grand Admiral and leader of the Persian Navy during Xerxes, Xerxes' great love. A great powerful, independent and intelligent woman Source: historical-women/index.htm

6 Commander Apranik (Persian meaning as daughter of elder) Sassanid's Great Military Commander, daughter of Piran, the great General of Yazdgird the Third. She fought gracefully, as a resistance commander, fighting against Arabo-Islamic Invaders-oppressors during the Arab Invasion, killed many of the Arabs (Tazis) and done many damages to the Savage Arab Army. L. Apranik's famous White Horse C. Commander Apranik of Sassanid Army, Great Persian Patriot and Nationalist R. Apranik's Female Adjutantess Sepahbod Source: historical-women/index.htm


8 Mahruyeh Roxanna Shoring Purandokht
(pretty face) Shahbanu (Queen) of Iran, wife of Cambysis (Kambujiye) the Second Roxanna (very bright and beautiful) Princess of Achaemenid, daughter of Darius the Third. Shoring (sense of sweetness) Shahbanu of Iran, wife of Khosrow Parviz Sassanid Purandokht (beautiful girl) Empress of Iran, Older Sister of Azarmidokht, older daughter of Khosrow Parviz, ruled Iran. Source: historical-women/index.htm

9 Map of Persia during Sassanid Empire (226 – 651 AD)
Caspian Sea Persian Gulf Map of Persia during Sassanid Empire (226 – 651 AD) Source: World Atlas

Persian Gulf is a crescent-shape groove which has demonstrated the encroachment of the Indian Ocean waters (Gulf of Oman) in an span of 900 km long and 240 km wide in the inferior folds of southern Zagros mountains. The Persian Gulf and its neighboring countries constitute almost one ninth of the 44 million square km span of the Asian continent. The Persian Gulf has been a valuable waterway since the beginning of history and as the venue of the collision of great civilizations of the ancient east, it has a background of several millenniums. Since centuries ago, the Ilamites used the Port of Boushehr and the Kharg Island for dwelling, shipping and ruling over the coasts of the Persian Gulf as well as transaction with the West Indies and the Nile Valley. In the Latin American geography books the Persian Gulf has been referred to as More Persicum or the Sea of Pars. The Latin term "Sinus Persicus" is equivalent to "Persicher gulf“ in French, "Persico qof" in Italian, "Persidskizalir" in Russian and "Perusha Wan" that all mean "Pars". There are undeniable legal evidences and documents in confirmation of the genuineness of the term Persian Gulf. From 1507 to 1560 in all the agreements that Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch, French and Germans concluded with the Iranian government or in any other political event everywhere there is a mention of the name Persian Gulf. Even in agreements with the participation of Arabs there is a mention of "Al-Khalij al-Farsi" in the Arabic texts and "Persian Gulf" in English texts, such as the document for the independence of Kuwait which was signed between the emir of Kuwait and representatives of the British government in the Persian Gulf. The document, which was signed on June 19, 1961 by Abdullah As-Salem As-Sabah, has been registered in the Secretariat of the United Nations according to article 102 of the U.N. Charter and can be invoked at any U.N. office. …/… Source: persiangulfhistory.pdf

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the name "Persian Gulf" has been used in geography and history books with less reference to the "Fars Sea". Such a change has suggested the idea that the "Fars Sea" had been an old name substituted by a new term "Persian Gulf". Besides all the disputes that have been made over the name of the Persian Gulf, the United Nations with its 22 Arab member countries has on two occasions officially declared the unalterable name of the sea between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula as the Persian Gulf. The first announcement was made through the document UNAD, 311/Qen on March 5, 1971 and the second was UNLA (C) on August 10, 1984.Moreover, the annual U.N. conference for coordination on the geographical names has emphatically repeated the name "Persian Gulf" each year. Historical situation of Greater and Lesser Tonbs, Abu Mosa "The Greater Tonb Island is limited from north to Qeshm Island, fromwest to the Lesser Tonb, from south to Abu Mosa and Raas al-Khaima and from east to Oman. The island is called the Greater Tonb, Gap Tunb, Tonb-e Mar, Greater Tonb-e Mar, etc...". In the Islamic era up to the recent centuries the Greater Tonb Island was part of the states of Fars, Kerman, Mokran and Hormozgan. In 1884 it was part of the Persian Gulf ports. In 1949 together with 29 other islands it was a village under the district of Lengeh. In 1951, it was part of the village Mazdouqi in Lengeh district of the city of Lar. In 1954, it was a village in Abu Mosa district of Bandar Lengeh port city. In 1958, Abu Mosa and Great Tonb districts jointed together and formed a large district with Kish Island as its center. In 1976, it became part of the city of Kish. In 1982, it became part of the city of Abu Musa. In 1991, the Great Tonb Island was part of the Tonb district of the city of Bu Mosa. The Greater Tonb Island due to its far distance from the Strait of Hormoz has no strategic importance by itself. However, given Iran's strategic situation, it is considered an important link in the defensive line of Iran in the Strait of Hormoz. The Lesser Tonb Island is neighboring the city of Lengeh in the north, Abu Mosa Island in the south, the Greater Tonb Island in the east and Faroo and Faroogan islands in the west. The island is rectangular in shape. Persian Gulf for ever Source: persiangulfhistory.pdf

12 Source: &

Norouz (Persian meaning of new day) Celebration of the start of spring ("Rejuvenation"). It starts on the first day of spring (also the first day of the Iranian Calendar year) and lasts for 13 days. Sizdah - Bedar (Persian meaning of the thirteenth day to be spent in nature) Persian Festival of "Joy and Solidarity". The 13th/last day of Norouz celebration ("Getting rid of the thirteen!"). It is celebrated outdoors along with the beauty of nature. Mehregan Festival of Mehr (or Mihr). A day of "Thanksgiving". Jashne – Sade (Persian meaning of the hundred days and nights celebration) A mid-winter feast to honor fire and to "defeat the forces of darkness, frost and cold". Shabe - Yalda (sometimes also called Shabe - Chelle) (Persian meaning of the fourtieth night) The turning point. End of the longest night (darkness) of the year, and beginning of growing of the days (Lights). A celebration of Good over Evil. Sepandarmazgan Day of Love, Day of women, Friendship and Earth in ancient Persian culture. Chaharshanbe – Suri (Persian meaning of last tuesday of the year celebration) Festival of Fire, last Tuesday night in the Iranian Calendar year. It marks the importance of the light over the darkness, arrival of spring and revival of nature. Source :

14 NOROUZ FEATIVAL Haft seen (seven S’s) Table
Norouz is the Persian celebration of the first day of Spring of each year. Its origin goes back to many millinum before to Jamshid Shah Keyani. A table is to be set-up with the following Haft Seen items : sabzeh - wheat, barley or lentil sprouts growing in a dish – symbolizing Auribehesht Angel, green earth and rebuirth; samanu - a sweet pudding made from wheat germ – symbolizing affluence, Shahrivar Angle; senjed - the dried fruit of the oleaster tree - symbolizing love, Khordad Angle; sīr - garlic - symbolizing Ahuramazd (The God), Angel, Earth, Women, Humblness; sīb - apples - symbolizing Espandarmaz, beauty and health; somak - sumak berries - symbolizing (the color of) sunrise; and serkeh - vinegar - symbolizing age and patience, Mordad Angle. Rational for 7 senns on Norouz table: the 7 c’s (Haft seen) (called seven Sepantas) table was originated to symbolize Ahuramazd (the God) and six angles. The names of whom were assigned to six different Perasian months of the year. ; the 7 c’s items must have the following 5 attributes: to word must have Persian origin It must start with a Seen in the Persian Language It must have a herbal route or origin it must be edible the word must not be a compound word …/… Sources : April06/anowruzhistory.html & & 2548&getArticleCategory=56&getArticleSubCategory=24

15 NOROUZ FEATIVAL Haft seen (seven S’s)
Other items that may be included in 7c’s Table include: Sonbol - Hyacinth (plant), not considered a c and is an Arabic word; Sekkeh - Coins - representative of wealth; not considerd a c and is an Arabic word; traditional Iranian pastries such as baghlava, toot, naan-nokhodchi; Aajeel - dried nuts, berries and raisins; lit candles (enlightenment and happiness); a mirror (symbolizing cleanness and honesty); decorated eggs, sometimes one for each member of the family (fertility); a bowl of water with goldfish (life within life, and the sign of Pisces which the sun is leaving); rosewater, believed to have magical cleansing powers; the national tri-color lion and sun Iranianl flag, as a patriotic touch; a Shahnama or the Divan of Hafez); and Photos of the closed relatives, in remembrance of those who passed away The United Nations General Assembly has passed a resolution on February 25, 2010, recognizing the Persian New Year, Norouz, as an "International Day" celebrated by over 300 million people worldwide. Inviting the member states to study the history of Norouz, the General Assembly recognized the many regions that celebrate this Persian tradition, including: the Balkans, the Black Sea Basin, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Iran, the Middle East and beyond. Sources : April06/anowruzhistory.html & & 2548&getArticleCategory=56&getArticleSubCategory=24

16 Sources :
NOROUZ FEATIVAL Haji Firooz (Joyous Forecasters) Mir-e-Norouz, Atash Afrouz and Hadji Firouz, are traditional expressions that herald the joyous coming of Norouz. Hadji Firouz is regarded as the more enduring of the other two New Year announcers. According to Iranian tradition, Hadji Firouz was a man in red clothes who went from street to street singing and beating a tambourine on New Year's eve (which is also the eve of spring). He was usually accompanied by one or two other persons. It is said that he and his companions were symbols of an old custom in Azarbaijan, called "Chisdon Chikhdim," according to which Haji Firouz sang from the streets to inform people that spring had come and that winter has Gone. Sources :

17 SIZDAH - BEDAR The thirteenth day of the new year festival is Sizdah Bedar (literally meaning "passing the thirteenth day", figuratively meaning "Passing the bad luck of the thirteenth day"). This is a day of festivity in the open, often accompanied by music and dancing, usually at family picnics. Sizdah bedar celebrations stem from the ancient Persians' belief that the twelve constellations in the Zodiac controlled the months of the year, and each ruled the earth for a thousand years at the end of which the sky and earth collapsed in chaos. Hence Norouz lasts twelve days and the thirteenth day represents the time of chaos when families put order aside and avoid the bad luck associated with the number thirteen by going outdoors and having picnics and parties. At the end of the celebrations on this day, the sabzeh grown for the Haft Seen (which has symbolically collected all sickness and bad luck) is thrown into running water to exorcise the demons (divs) from the household. It is also customary for young single women to tie the leaves of the sabzeh before discarding it, so expressing a wish to be married before the next year's Sizdah Bedar. Another tradition associated with this day is Dorugh-e Sizdah, literally meaning "the lie of the thirteenth", which is the process of lying to someone and making them believe it (similar to April Fools Day). Sources: & & -of-iran.html

18 CHAHAR - SHANBE SURI The night before the last Wednesday of the year is celebrated by the Iranian people as Chahârshanbe Sûrî , the Iranian festival of fire. This festival is the celebration of the light (the good) winning over the darkness (the bad); the symbolism behind the rituals are all rooted back to Zoroastrianism. The tradition includes people going into the streets and alleys to make bonfires, and jump over them while singing the traditional song Zardî-ye man az (ane) to, sorkhî-ye to az (ane) man ("az-ane to" means belongs to you); This literally translates to "My yellowness is yours, your redness is mine," with the figurative message "My paleness (pain, sickness) for you (the fire) , your strength (health) for me. "Serving different kinds of pastry and nuts known as Ajīl-e Moshkel-Goshā (lit. problem-solving nuts) is the Chahārshanbe Sūrī way of giving thanks for the previous year's health and happiness, while exchanging any remaining paleness and evil for the warmth and vibrancy of the fire. According to tradition, the living are visited by the spirit of their ancestors on the last days of the year, and many children wrap themselves in shrouds, symbolically re-enacting the visits. They also run through the streets banging on pots and pans with spoons and knocking on doors to ask for treats. The ritual is called qashogh-zany (spoon beating) and symbolizes the beating out of the last unlucky Wednesday of the year ( See also Trick-or-treating). There are several other traditions on this night, including: the rituals of Kūze Shekastan, the breaking of earthen jars which symbolically hold one's bad fortune; the ritual of Fal-Gûsh (lit.Divination by ear), or inferring one's future from the conversations of those passing by; and the ritual of Gereh-goshā’ī, making a knot in the corner of a handkerchief or garment and asking the first passerby to unravel it in order to remove ones misfortune. Source :

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JASHNE – SADEH Sade or Sada, also transliterated as Sadeh, is an ancient Iranian tradition celebrated 50 days before Norouz. Sadeh in Persian means "hundred" and refers to one hundred days and nights left to the beginning of the new year celebrated at the first day of spring on March 21 each year. Sadeh is a mid winter festival that was celebrated with grandeur and magnificence in ancient Iran. It was a festivity to honor fire and to defeat the forces of darkness, frost, and cold. Legends have it that King Hushang, the 2nd king of the mythological Peshdadian dynasty(Peshdad means to give the Law), established the Sadeh tradition. It is said that once Hushang was climbing a mountain when all of a sudden he saw a snake and wanted to hit it with a stone. When he threw the stone, it fell on another stone and since they were both flint stones, fire broke out and the snake escaped. This way he discovered how to light a fire. Hushang cheered up and praised God who revealed to him the secret of lighting a fire. Then he announced: "This is a light from God. So we must admire it. "According to religious beliefs, Jashn-e Sadeh recalls the importance of light, fire and energy; light which comes from God is found in the hearts of his creatures. During ancient times, the fires were always set near water and the temples (see also: Fire temple). The fire originally meant to assist the revival of sun and bring back the warmth and light of summer. It was also meant to drive off the demons of frost and cold, which turned water to ice, and thus could kill the roots of plants. The fire was kept burning all night. The day after, women would go to the fire in the morning, each taking a small portion of the fire back to their homes to make new glowing fire from the "blessed fire" of the temple. This is to spread the blessing of the Sadeh fire to every household in the neighborhood. Whatever is left from the fire would be taken back to the shrine to be placed in one container and kept at the temple until the next year. This way the fire is kept burning all year round. The "eternal fire" also symbolizes the love of homeland which is always alive like a fervent fire in the people's hearts. The festivities would normally go on for three days. The evenings are spent eating and giving out foods as donations, food that is prepared from slaughtered lambs and is distributed among the poor people. Source:

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SHABE - YALDA Yalda Table Shab-e Yaldâ is an ancient Iranian festival originally celebrated on the Northern Hemisphere's longest night of the year, that is, on the eve of the Winter Solstice. Yalda has a history as long as the Mithraism religion. The Mithraists believed that this night is the night of the birth of Mithra, Persian god of light and truth. At the morning of the longest night of the year the Mithra is born from a virgin mother. Following the Iranian calendar reform of 1925, which pegged some seasonal events to specific days of the calendar, Yalda came to be celebrated on the night before and including the first day of the tenth month (Dey). Subject to seasonal drift, this day may sometimes fall a day before or a day after the actual Winter Solstice. The 13th century Iranian poet Saadi wrote in his Bustan: "The true morning will not come, until the Yalda Night is gone". Yalda Night has been officially added to Iran's List of National Treasures in a special ceremony in In Zoroastrian tradition, the winter solstice with the longest night of the year was an auspicious day, and included customs intended to protect people from misfortune. On that day, people were advised to stay awake most of the night. They have small parties and gatherings and eat the last remaining fresh fruits from summer. Watermelons are placed on the korsi, a traditional piece of furniture similar to a very short table, around which the family sit on the ground. On it, a blanket made of wool filling is thrown. People put their legs under the blanket. Inside the korsi, heat is generated by means of coal, electricity or gas heaters. Pomegranates are traditionally eaten on this night.The Cult of the Mithra was first introduced to Iran thousands of years ago by migrant Aryans. Mithra, the Sun God remained a potent symbol of worship throughout the following centuries. Centuries later, during the Achaemenid era, Mithra became a principal deity, equal in rank to Ahura Mazda (the god of all goodness) and Anahita (goddess of water and fertility). It is a time when friends and family gather together to eat, drink and read poetry (especially Hafiz) until well after midnight. Fruits and nuts are eaten and pomegranates and watermelons are particularly significant. The red colour in these fruits symbolises the crimson hues of dawn and glow of life, invoking the splendour of Mithra.Because Shab-e Yalda is the longest and darkest night, it has come to symbolise many things in Persian poetry; separation from a loved one, loneliness and waiting. After Shab-e Yalda a transformation takes place - the waiting is over, light shines and goodness prevails. Source:

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MEHREGAN Mehregan table Mehregan is a Zoroastrian and Iranian festival celebrated in honor of Mithra (Persian: Mehr or Mihr), the divinity of covenant, and hence of interpersonal relationships such as friendship, affection and love. Mehregan was once an Iranian festival, and possibly even older, but what forms it then remains in the realm of speculation. By the 4th century BC, it was observed as one of the Zoroastrian name-day feasts, a form it retains even today, in Greater Iran where it is of the few pre-Islamic festivals that continue to be celebrated by the public at-large. As mentioned above, Mehregān is a name-day feast. These name-day feasts are festivals celebrated on the day of the year when the day-name and month-name dedicated to a particular divinity intersect. There are altogether 11 of these feasts, since 11 divinities have both day-name and month-name dedications. The twelfth, Dae, is not a divinity. Of these 11 name-day feasts, only two continue to have a wide following in Iran. These are Mehregan, as noted above, dedicated to Mithra/Mehr, and Tiregan, dedicated to Tishtrya/Tir. Irrespective of which calendar is observed, Mehregān falls on the 196th day of the calendar year. For calendars that have March 21 as Nooruz or New Year's day (i.e. in the Fasili and Bastani variants of the Zoroastrian calendar as well as in the Iranian civil calendar), Mehregān falls on October 2. For the Shahanshahi variant of the Zoroastrian calendar, which in 2006–2007 has New Year's day on August 20, Mehregān fell on March 3 of the following Gregorian year. For the Kadmi variant, which has New Year's day 30 days earlier, Mehregān falls on February 1. Mehregan should not be confused with Sadeh, which likewise is celebrated with bonfires but occurs near the end of the calendar year. Mehregān was celebrated in an extravagant style at Persepolis. Not only was it the time for harvest, but it was also the time when the taxes were collected. Visitors from different parts of the the Persian Empire brought gifts for the king all contributing to a lively festival.During pre-Islamic Iran, Mehregān was celebrated with the same magnificence and pageantry as Norouz. It was customary for people to send or give their king, and each other, gifts. Rich people usually gave gold and silver coins, heroes and warriors gave horses while others gave gifts according to their financial power and ability, even as simple as an apple. Those fortunate enough would help the poor with gifts.Gifts to the royal court of over ten thousand gold coins were registered. If the gift-giver needed money at a later time, the court would then return twice the gift amount. Kings gave two audiences a year: one audience at Norouz and other at Mehregān. During the Mehregān celebrations, the king wore a fur robe and gave away all his summer clothes. After the Mongol invasion of Persia, the feast celebration of Mehregān lost its popularity. Zoroastrians of Yazd and Kermān continued to celebrate Mehregān in an extravagant way. Source:

SEPANDARMAZGAN DAY OF LOVE IN PERSIAN CULTURE Thousands of Iranians observe the celebration day of love, affection and earth, Sepandarmazgan, every year as it is traditionally a day on which the Earth is adulated and women are venerated. It is celebrated on the 29th of Bahman in the Persian calendar, which corresponds to February 18 in the Gregorian calendar. The Zoroastrian tradition is named after Sepandarmaz, Earth Guardian Angel, which is the symbol of passion, friendship and modesty. The day of Sepandarmazgan dates back to as early as the 20th century BC when the Great Persian Empire was on the throne. On the occasion of Sepandarmazgan, women and girls are held in the highest regard and men and boys are supposed to express their affections for their beloved by presenting gifts. In ancient Persian culture, mother is symbolized by Sepandarmaz or earth. Earth — like a mother who loves all her children alike — embraces all creatures and loves them the same. Spread beneath our feet, Earth is thus the symbol of humbleness and passion. Source: 118983&sectionid=


24 Original Derafsh Kaviyani Pre-Avesta Era 850 - 728 BC
Achaemenid Dynasty 559 BC BC Aryan Lion, Mitra (Sun) And Anahita, 4th Century BC ( BC) Derafsh kaviyani with Jewels Sassanid Dynasty 224 AD - 651AD Saffarid Dynasty: 867 AD AD Safavids Dynasty: 1501 AD AD Flag of Abu Moslem and Black Shirts 747 AD AD Flag of Babak Khorramdin and Red Shirts 816 AD AD Akhtar Kaviyani (Banner of Yaqub) Saffarid Dynasty: 867 AD AD Flag of Shah Abbas The Great Safavids Dynasty: 1501 AD AD Flag of Shah Safi II Safavids Dynasty: 1501 AD AD Flag of Nader Shah The Great Afsharid Dynasty: 1736 AD AD Source :

25 and Sun Tricolor Banner
Flag of Zand Zand Dynasty: 1750 AD AD The Zand Green Striped Lion and Sun Tricolor Banner Afsharid State Banner Afsharid Dynasty: 1736 AD AD The official state banner of Afsharid Flag of Aqa Mohamad Shah Qajar 1794 AD AD Flag of Ahmad Shah Qajar : 1794 AD AD Imperial Pahlavi Dynasty 1925 AD AD Source :


Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 BC) was a Greek king (basileus) of Macedon. He is one of the member of the Argead Dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexandersucceeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne in 336 BC after the King was assassinated, and died thirteen years later, Alexander went to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its legendary treasury. Sending the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Royal Road, Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city. However, the pass of the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains) had been blocked by the Persian army commander Ario barzanes, and Alexander had to fight very hard and took him a month to go through the pass. Alexander then made a dash for Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury. During their stay at Prespolis, they set the city on fire, resulting in all ancient books and valuables to burn down. It was probably intended as an act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Persian War. Alexander then set off in pursuit of Darius again, first into Media, and then Parthia. The Persian king was no longer in control of his destiny, having been taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian satrap and kinsman. As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander. Darius' remains were buried next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a full regal funeral. Alexander claimed that, while dying, Darius had named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne. The Achaemenid Empire is normally considered to have fallen with the death of Darius. Alexander, now considering himself the legitimate successor to Darius, viewed Bessus as a usurper to the Achaemenid throne, and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia, with Alexander founding a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan. The campaign took Alexander through Media, Parthia, Aria (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia. …/… Source:

28 regarding his involvement in the conspiracy.
Bessus was betrayed in 329 BC by pitamenes, who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana. Spitamenes handed over Bessus to Ptolemy, one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus was executed. However, when, at some point later,Alexander was on the Jaxartes, Spitamenes raised Sogdiana in revolt. Alexander launched a campaign and defeated him in the Battle of Gabai; after the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace. During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of Persiandress and customs at his court, notably the custom ofproskynesis, either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians paid to their social superiors. (who had fallen out of favor with the king by leading the opposition to his attempt to introduce proskynesis), was implicated in the plot; however, there has never been consensus among historians regarding his involvement in the conspiracy. The Greeks regarded the gesture as the province of deities and believed that Alexander meant to deify himself by requiring it. This cost him much in the sympathies of many of his countrymen. A plot againsthis life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas, was executed for failing to bring the plot tohis attention. The death of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion, whohad been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana, was assassinated by command of Alexander, so he might not make attempts at vengeance. Most infamously, Alexander personallyslew the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black, during a drunken argumentat Maracanda. Later, inthe Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages. His official historian, Source:


30 Source: /Issus.htm#The%20Battle
The Battle of Issus was the first meeting between Alexander of Macedon and Darius III the Great of the Achaemenid Persian Empire.  The Issus campaign is interesting as it shows both the strengths and weaknesses of both Alexander and Darius the Great as commanders. The campaign also shows how lack of information could lead to armies slipping by each other like ships in the night. Issus is a brilliant example how Alexander could think on his feet and react quickly to new threats as they presented themselves. The Issus campaign reveals how Alexander's army cohesion and leadership kept his men together, even when faced with disaster.  Darius the Great initially pulled off an energetic strategic move, then somehow lapsed into overconfidence,  he bungled his army's preparedness and deployment, and then fled leading to his diverse army's ruination.  This scenario was left out of War hammer Alexander, as it just couldn't be shoe-horned into the space left without compressing the information beyond usefulness. Source: /Issus.htm#The%20Battle

A Persian satrap and top military commander who fought and halted Alexander at the Persian Gate War ( BC) Ario barzan or Aryo Barzan, perhaps signifying "exalting the Aryans" was a Persian satrap of Phrygia and military commander. Ario barzan, also known as Ario barzanes II (Old Persian: Ariya brdhna II) was a son of Pharnabazus ( BC), whose family was related to the Persian kings. Ario barzan was the son of Pharnabazus and Apamea and became the satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, in what is now the northwest of Turkey, following the death of his father. The Battle of the Persian Gate was fought at the Persian Gate northeast of today's Yasuj in Iranbetween a Persian army led by Rotarian and the invading Macedonian army of Alexander. In the winter of 330 BC, Ariobarzan led a last stand of the Persian forces against Alexander's forces and successfully held the Macedonian army at bay for 30 days. But, ultimately, Ario barzanes could not stop Alexander from invading Persepolis and conquering the Persian EmpireThe Persian Empire suffered a series of defeats against the Macedonian forces at Issus and Gaugamela, and by the end of 331 B.C. Alexander had advanced to Babylon and Susa. A Royal Road connected Susa (the first Iranian capital city in Elam) with the more eastern capitals of Persepolisand Pasargadaein Persis, and was the natural venue for Alexander's continued campaign. Meanwhile, King Darius the Great was building a new army at Ecbatana (western province of Hamadan in present-day Iran). Ario barzanes was charged with preventing the Macedonian advance into Persis, and to this effect he relied heavily on the terrain Alexander needed to pass through. There were only a few possible routes through the Zagros Mountains, all of which were made more hazardous by winter's onset.After the conquest of Susa, Alexander split the Macedonian army into two parts. Alexander's general, Parmenion, took one half along the Royal Road, and Alexander himself took the route towards Persis. Passing into Persis required traversing the Persian Gates, a narrow mountain pass that lent itself easily to ambush The Persian Gate was only a couple of meters wide at the point of ambush. Once the Macedonian army had advanced sufficiently into the narrow pass, the Persians rained down boulders on them from the northern slopes. From the southern slope, Persian archers and catapults launched their projectiles. Alexander's army initially suffered heavy casualties, losing entire platoons at a time. The Macedonians attempted to withdraw, but the terrain and their still-advancing rear guard made an orderly retreat impossible …/… Source:

32 Ario barzanes had some reason to believe that success here could change the course of the war.
Preventing Alexander's passage through the Persian Gates would force the Macedonian army to use other routes to invade Persia proper, all of which would allow Darius the Great more time to field another army, and possibly stop the Macedonian invasion altogether. Many historians regard the Battle of the Persian Gate as the most serious challenge to Alexander's conquest of Persia. Ario barzanes held the pass for a month, but Alexander succeeded in encircling the Persian army in a pincer attack with Philotas and broke through the Persian defenses. Accounts of how he did so vary widely. Curtius and Arrian both report that prisoners of war led Alexander through the mountains to the rear of the Persian position, while a token force remained in the Macedonian camp under the command of Craterus. "[The Persians]...Fought a memorable fight. Unarmed as they were, they seized the armed men in their embrace, and dragging them down to the ground. Stabbed most of them with their own weapons. "Diodorus and Plutarch generally concur with this assessment, although their numbers vary widely. Modern historians W. Heckel and Stein also lend credence to this argument. Although precise figures are unavailable, historians generally agree that this engagement cost Alexander his greatest losses during his campaign to conquer Persia. According to some accounts, Ario barzane, and his surviving companions were trapped, but rather than surrender, they charged straight into the Macedonian lines. One account states that Ariobarzanes was killed in the last charge while another version by Arrian reports that Ariobarzanes escaped to the north where he finally surrendered to Alexander with his companions. Similarities between the battles fought at Thermopylae and the Persian Gates have been recognized by ancient and modern authors. The Persian Gates played the role "of a Persian Thermopylae and like Thermopylae it fell." There are also accounts that an Iranian shepherd led Alexander's forces around the Persian defenses. The defeat of Ario barzanes's forces at the Persian Gate removed the last military obstacle between Alexander and Persepolis. Upon his arrival at the city of Persepolis, Alexander appointed a general named Phrasaortes as successor of Ario barzanes. Four months later, Alexander allowed the troops to loot Persepolis. A fire was set and spread to the rest of the city. It was a deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Greco-Persian War., Ario barzan was betrayed by his son, Mithridates. As a result, Ario barzan was crucified around 362 BC.

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Persia's conquest by Islamic Arab armies marks the transition into "medieval" Persia. The explosive growth of the Arab Caliphate coincided with the chaos caused by the end of Sassanian rule. Most of the country was overrun in The last resistance from the remnants of the Sassanian dynasty ended two years later. The Arabs, ruled by the Umayyad Dynasty, Was one of the largest state. It stretched from Spain to the Indus, from the Aral Sea to the southern tip of Arabia. The Umayyads learned from Persian and Byzantine administration systems and moved their capital to Damascus, in the center of their government. The Umayyads would rule Persia for a hundred years. Arab conquest changed some parts of life in Persia. Arabs attempted to intermingle their language with Parsi. Tremendous attempts were made to replace Zoroastrianism with Islam; mosques were built. An entirely new language, religion, and culture were imposed on Persia. In 750 the Umayyads were ousted from power by the Abbasid family. Their rule ushered in another period of Islamic rule. Persian literature spread throughout the Arab world, along with Greek science and mathematics. It was a Persian, al-Khwarizmi, who first devised algebra in 810. The poet Firdawsi wrote Shah Nama, an epic poem telling the history of the Persian kings, in But political unrest continued. In 819, East-Persia was conquered by the Persian Samanids, the first native rulers after the Arabic conquest. They made Samarqand, Bukhara and Herat their capitals and revived the Persian language and culture. In 913, West-Persia was conquered by the Buwayhid, a native Persian tribal confederation from the shores of the Caspian Sea. They made the Persian city of Shiraz their capital. The Buwayids destroyed Islam's former territorial unity. Rather than a province of a united Muslim empire, Persia became one nation in an increasingly diverse and cultured Islamic world. The Muslim world was shaken again in 1037 with the invasion of the Seljuk Turks from the northeast. The Seljuks created a very large Middle Eastern empire and continued in the flowering of medieval Islamic rule. The Seljuks built the fabulous Friday Mosque in the city of Isfahan. The most famous Persian writer of all time, Omar Khayyam, wrote his Rubayat of love poetry during Seljuk times. In the early 1200s the Seljuks lost control of Persia to another group of Turks from Khwarezmia, near the Aral Sea. The shahs of the Khwarezmid Empire ruled for only a short while, however, because they had to face the most feared conqueror in history: Genghis Khan. Source:

35 BABAK KHORRAM-DIN (795 – 838 AD)
Persian Nationalist and Freedom fighter against Arabs Babak Khorram-Din) was one of the main Persian revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān("Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedommovement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. Babak's Iranianizing rebellion, from its base in Azarbaijan in northwestern Iran, called for a return of the political glories of the Iranian past. The Khorramdin rebellion of Babak spread to the Western and Central parts of Iran and lasted more than twenty years before it was defeated. Babak was born into a Persian family in Āzerbāijān (northwestern Iran) close to the city of Artavilla (modern Ardabil). According to Wāqed ben Amr Tamimi, the oldest biographer on Babak, Babak's father was a Persian from Madā'īn (formerly known as Ctesiphon, capital of Sassanian Persian Empire, 35 km south of modern Bağdād in Irāq) who left for the Āzarbāijān frontier zone and settled in the village of Balālābād in the Maymadh district. According to Fasīh, his mother - a native Persian of Āzarbāijān - was known as Māhrū (meaning Moon-Face/Belle in Persian). In 755, Abu- Muslim of Khorassan, a famous and popular Persian nationalist, was murdered. Although he had helped the Abbasids to defeat the former Caliphs, the Umayyad dynasty, the ruling Caliph had given the order to kill him, probably because of his increasing popularity among Iranians and Non-Muslims. Babak joined the Khurramiyyah (Khorram-Dinān). Under the direction of his mentor Javidan Shahrak, a leader of one of the sects of the Khorramdin, Babak's knowledge of history, geography, and the latest battle tactics strengthened his position as a favorite candidate for commander during the early wars against the Arab occupiers. Bābak was a highly spiritual person who respected his Zoroastrian heritage. He made every possible effort to bring Iranians together and also with leaders such as Maziar to form a united front against the Arab Caliph. However, one of the most dramatic periods in the history of Iran was set under Bābak’s leadership between During these most crucial years, Maziar(another Persian hero and nationalist not only fought against the Caliphate, but also for the preservation of Persian language and culture. After the death of Javidan, Babak married Javidan's wife and became the Khorramis' leader, sometime in the year during al-Ma'mun's reign. Babak incited his followers to rise in rebellion against the caliphal regime. The reports state that Babak called Persians to arms, seized castles and strong points, thereby barring roads to his enemies. Gradually a large multitude joined him. Tabari records that Babak claimed he possessed Javadan's spirit and that Babak became active in In Yahya ibn Mu'adh fought against Babak, but could not defeat him. Two years later Babak vanquished the forces of Isa ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Khalid. In the caliphal general Ahmad ibn al Junayd was sent against Babak. …/… Babak’s Execution Source:

36 BABAK KHORRAM-DIN Persian Nationalist and Freedom fighter against Arabs Babak defeated and captured him. In Muhammad ibn Humayd Tusi was dispatched to fight Babak. He won a victory and sent some captured enemy, but not Babak, to al-Ma'mun. However, about two years later, on June 9, 829, Babak won a decisive victory over this general at Hashtadsar. Muhammad ibn Humayd lost his life. Many of his soldiers were killed. The survivors fled in disarray. In the caliph al-Mu'tasim sent his outstanding general Afshin against Babak. Afshin rebuilt fortresses. He employed a relay system to protect supply caravans. Babak tried to capture the money being sent to pay Afshin's army, but was himself surprised, lost many men and barely escaped. He did succeed in capturing some supplies and inflicting some hardship on his enemies. Amongst Babak's commander, various names have been mentioned including Azin, Rostam, Tarkhan, Mua’wiyah and Abdullah. The next year Babak routed the forces of Afshin's subordinate, Bugha al-Kabir. In al-Mu'tasim reinforced Afshin and provided him clear military instructions. Patiently following these enabled Afshin to capture Babak's stronghold of Badhdh. Babak escaped. He made his way to the Armenian leader Sahl Smbatean (Sahl ibn Sunbat in Arab sources), Prince of Khachen. Sahl Smbatian, however, handed Babak over to Afshin, for big amount of reward. Al-Mu'tasim commanded his general to bring Babak to him. Afshin informed Babak of this and told him since Babak might never return, this was the time to take a last look around. At Babak's request, Afshin allowed his prisoner to go to Badhdh. There Babak walked through his ruined stronghold one night until dawn. Eventually, Bābak, his wife, and his warriors were forced to leave Ghaleye Bābak after 23 years of constant campaigns. He was eventually betrayed by Afshin and was handed over to the Abbasid Caliph. During Bābak's execution, the Caliph's henchmen first cut off his legs and hands in order to convey the most devastating message to his followers. The legend says that Bābak bravely rinsed his face with the drained blood pouringout of his cuts, thus depriving the Caliph and the rest of the Abbasid army from seeing his pale face, a result of the heavy loss of blood. Statue of Babak in Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan Source: /forum/index.php?showtopic=5560 &

37 Persian Nationalist and Freedom fighter against Arabs
MAZIAR Persian Nationalist and Freedom fighter against Arabs Maziar was an Iranian aristocrat of the House of Karen and feudal ruler of the mountainous region of Tabaristan (present-day Mazandaran, Iran). For his resistance to the Arabs, Maziar is considered one of the national heroes of Greater Iran. Maziar, a devout Zoroastrian, revolted against the Arab Muslim occupation of Iranian lands in the 9th century AD. His revolt began in 839 AD in era of Al-Mu'tasim. Along with Babak Khorramdin, he repulsed many Arab armies sent against him. According to the medieval historian Ibn Esfandyar in his Tarikh-e-Tabaristan, Maziar is said to have proclaimed: "Afshin Kheydar, son of Kavus and Babak, and I had made an oath and allegiance that we take the country back from the Arabs and transfer the government and the country back to the family of Kasraviyan“.. Maziar was eventually betrayed by his brother Kuhyar and captured by Arab forces. He was imprisoned in Baghdad awaiting execution when he drank poison and ended his life in order to avoid humiliation at the hands of the Caliph's executioners. Source:

38 Persian Nationalist and Freedom fighter against Arabs
ABU - MUSLIM KHORASANI (700 – 755 AD) Persian Nationalist and Freedom fighter against Arabs Abu - Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani was an Abbasid general of Persian origin, born in city of Balkh in Khorasan (modern-day Afghanistan) who led the first liberal movement against the Umayyad dynasty. His heroic role in the revolution and military skill, along with his conciliatory politics toward Shi’a, Sunnis, Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians made him extremely popular among the people. Although it appears that Abu al-'Abbas trusted him in general, he was wary of his power, limiting his entourage to 500 men upon his arrival to Iraq on his way to Hajj in 754 AD. Abu al-'Abbas's brother, al-Mansur ( ), advised al-Saffah on more than one occasion to have Abu - Muslim killed, fearing his rising influence and popularity. It seems that this dislike was mutual, with Abu - Muslim aspiring to more power and looking down in disdain on al-Mansur, feeling al-Mansur owed Abu - Muslim for his position. Relations deteriorated quickly when al-Mansur sent an agent to inventory the spoils of war, and then appointed Abu - Muslim governor of Syria and Egypt, outside his powerbase. After an increasingly acrimonious correspondence between Abu - Muslim and al-Mansur, Abu - Muslim feared he was going to be killed if he appeared in the presence of the Caliph. He later changed his mind and decided to appear in his presence due to a combination of perceived disobedience, al-Mansur's promise to keep him as governor of Khorasan, and the assurances of some of his close aides, some of whom were bribed by al-Mansur. He went to Iraq to meet with al-Mansur's in Madain in 755 AD. al-Mansur proceeded to enumerate his grievances against Abu - Muslim, who kept reminding the Caliph of his efforts to enthrone him. al-Mansur then signaled five of his guards behind a portico to kill him. Abu - Muslim's mutilated body was thrown in the river Tigris, and his commanders were bribed to acquiesce to the murder. His murder was not well-received by the Persians, particularly not by the residents of Khorasan, and there was resentment among the population over the brutal methods used by al-Mansur. He became a legendary figure for many in Persia, and several Persian heretics started revolts claiming he had not died and would return; the latter included his own propagandist, Ishaq al-Turk, the Zoroastrian cleric, Sunpadh, in Nishapur, the Abu - Muslimiyya sub-sect of the Kaysanites Shia and al-Muqanna in Khorasan. Even Babak claimed descent from him. Source:


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