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II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate 632-1258 A.The Islamic Conquests, 634-711 1. Arab Conquests By the time Abu Bakr died, the Muslim state controlled.

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Presentation on theme: "II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate 632-1258 A.The Islamic Conquests, 634-711 1. Arab Conquests By the time Abu Bakr died, the Muslim state controlled."— Presentation transcript:

1 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate A.The Islamic Conquests, Arab Conquests By the time Abu Bakr died, the Muslim state controlled all of Arabia Under the next 2 caliphs they took: – Syria (636) – Egypt ( ) – Parts of Persia ( ) By 750 they controlled from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River (2x the width of the USA!!)

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3 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate

4 Warm Up: What was the extent of the Islamic Empire as of 750 C.E.?

5 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Why were Arab armies so successful? Their enemies were weak -The Persian and Byzantine Empires had fought a series of wars against each other -Weakening both

6 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Nomadic Heritage -Many of the Arab fighters were nomads -they were used to fighting battles in the desert and travelling a long way from home.

7 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Motivation -Muslim fighters who died fighting a Jihad or holy war believed they would go to heaven when they died -Religion served as a unifying factor for the Arab armies

8 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Conquered Territory The caliph Umar prohibited Arabs from assuming ownership of conquered lands In order to serve in the army, and receive pay, soldiers needed to live in military camps Kept the armies together, ready for action Preserved life in the countryside A small number of Arabs ruled of a vastly larger non- Arab population No evidence of forced conversions or missionary activity

9 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate B. The Umayyad and Early Abbasid Caliphate Umayyad Rule Capital in Damascus Adopted administrative structure of Byzantines and Sasanid predecessors Majority population was non-Muslim Army almost entirely Muslim Arabs

10 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate Converts to Islam resented not achieving equal status to Arabs Some Muslims looked down on the wealth and bad behavior of the caliphs Shi’ites launched rebellions, attacking the legitimacy of Umayyad caliphs. Rebellions overthrew the Umayyads in 750; one branch of the family, however, remained in power in Spain.

11 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate Shi’ites helped overthrow the Umayyad caliphs Revolt was coordinated by the family of Abbas, one of Muhammad’s uncles Established the Abbasid Caliphate Capital in Baghdad

12 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Literature and learning “golden age” the translation of Greek texts and secular Arab poetry, thrived under the Abbasids. Baghdad was a center of Abbasid culture the rate of conversion of non-Muslim subjects to Islam in the ninth century increased.

13 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate C. Political Fragmentation Decline caliphs found it impossible to maintain control over their vast territory. -difficulty of transportation and communications Resentment of rule of Baghdad by local leaders

14 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Mamluks the caliphs had come to rely on Turkish slave troops known as Mamluks In the late ninth century, when they were not paid properly, the Mamluks took control of the caliphate

15 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Fragmentation in 945, the caliphate fell under the control of the Iranian Shi’ite Buyids. As the Abbasid Caliphate declined, various provincial regimes rose to power. -the Samanids in Central Asia and the Fatimids in Egypt.

16 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate al-Andalus Islamic, Roman, German, and Jewish cultures combined to form a unique Islamic civilization in Spain. Muslim Spain: urbanization, the introduction of citrus crops, a diverse irrigated agricultural sector, and a growth of Muslim and Jewish intellectual activity. Religious tolerance

17 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate D. Assault from Within and Without, Seljuk Turks took advantage of the decline of the Abbasids established the Suljuk Sultanate. The Seljuks ruled a territory stretching from Afghanistan to Baghdad took Anatolia from the Byzantines in Battle of Manzikert

18 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Turkish Rule Pastoral Turks had little interest in urban life Cities shrank Irrigation systems were not maintained Tax revenue fell Baghdad fell to ruins Mesopotamia would never again regain its geographic importance

19 II. The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate Invasions Crusades began in Defeated by Kurdish leader, Saladin who unified Egypt and Syria Mamluk’s overthrow decedents of Saladin in 1250 Mongol invasions -Destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad in Mamluk’s from Egypt defeated the Mongols in 1260 Mamluk Sultans ruled Egypt until 1517


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