Presentation on theme: "SS.6.W.3.6. The Peloponnesian War In 431 B.C.E., Sparta declared war on Athens This conflict was called the Peloponnesian War After 27 years of."— Presentation transcript:
The Peloponnesian War In 431 B.C.E., Sparta declared war on Athens This conflict was called the Peloponnesian War After 27 years of fighting, Sparta finally won. Meanwhile, a new danger was growing to the north, in Macedonia.
Philip II Unifies Greece A Macedonian king, Philip II, saw that constant wars had left the Greeks divided and weak. He seized the chance and brought Greece under his control. By 338 B.C.E., he had conquered most of mainland Greece, although he allowed the city-states to keep many of their freedoms. Philip wanted to attack Persia next, but in 336 B.C.E., he was murdered.
Alexander Takes the Throne After Philip’s death, his son, Alexander, became the new Macedonian king. Like his father, he wanted to invade Persia for its great wealth, but he also recognized that fighting Persia would help to unite the Greeks by giving them a common enemy.
Alexander’s Method Alexander planned to use both terror and kindness to conquer an empire. The towns and cities that resisted him would be burned to the ground and their people sold into slavery. The towns and cities that surrendered would keep their government officials, and Alexander would help them rebuild their damaged property.
Alexander’s Goals Alexander wanted all the people he conquered to accept him as their ruler. He also wanted to spread Greek culture, but at the same time, he did not want to destroy every local custom in his empire. His goal was to bring people of very different cultures together under a single government.
Alexander Spreads Greek Ideas Alexander greatly admired Greek culture and wanted to spread Greek ideas throughout his empire. One way he did this was by building Greek-style cities. Most of these new cities contained an agora (marketplace), temple, theater, law courts, and a gymnasium.
Alexandria The most famous of the new cities was called Alexandria, and was located in Egypt. In time, it became an important center for trade and learning. Alexandra had all of the amenities a great Greek city should, but the most impressive part was the library which contained more than half a million books!
Alexander’s Use of Religion Alexander used religion in 2 ways to inspire loyalty among the people he conquered. First, he honored Egyptian and Persian gods and treated them as equal to Greek gods. Second, Alexander encouraged the idea that he himself was a god. Later, he would even require all Greeks to accept him as the son of Zeus!
Alexander Adapts Alexander’s plan was to show respect for the cultural practices of the people he conquered, and he did this by adopting some of their practices himself. Although he allowed many local governors to run the day-to-day business of their lands, he made sure it was Macedonians who led the army and controlled taxes.
Walk Like A...Persian? Alexander borrowed many Persian customs in particular. He wore Persian-style clothes and received visitors in a luxurious tent, the way a Persian king would. Visitors had to kneel in front of the throne and bend over until their head touched the ground. Alexander then raised his visitor to his feet, kissed him, and called him “Kinsman,” meaning family.
The Empire Crumbles After stretching his empire all the way to India, Alexander caught a disease (probably malaria) and died at the age of 33. After his death, the empire crumbled. Settlers left the cities he had constructed, and they fell to ruin. His generals fought each other for control.
So, then what?? In the end, Alexander’s vast realm was divided into 3 separate kingdoms: Egypt, Asia, and Greece. In the centuries to come, Greek power would slowly fade away, but Greek culture would continue to influence the world.