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Persian Empire. Persia Becomes an Empire  Persians were nomadic people, they were constantly moving  Persians would often fight other people  The Medes.

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Presentation on theme: "Persian Empire. Persia Becomes an Empire  Persians were nomadic people, they were constantly moving  Persians would often fight other people  The Medes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Persian Empire

2 Persia Becomes an Empire  Persians were nomadic people, they were constantly moving  Persians would often fight other people  The Medes took over Persia and ruled for 150 years  Persians were nomadic people, they were constantly moving  Persians would often fight other people  The Medes took over Persia and ruled for 150 years

3 Cyrus the Great  550 BC Cyrus II revolted against the Medes  He conquered Medes and started the Persian Empire  Cyrus conquered a lot of Southwest Asia, several Greek cities and Mesopotamia  550 BC Cyrus II revolted against the Medes  He conquered Medes and started the Persian Empire  Cyrus conquered a lot of Southwest Asia, several Greek cities and Mesopotamia

4 Cyrus the Great  He let the people that he conquered keep their way of life so that they wouldn’t revolt.  When Cyrus died in 529 BC, he ruled over the largest empire the world had ever seen  He is known as Cyrus the Great  He let the people that he conquered keep their way of life so that they wouldn’t revolt.  When Cyrus died in 529 BC, he ruled over the largest empire the world had ever seen  He is known as Cyrus the Great

5 The Persian Army  Cyrus had a strong army-it was well organized and very devoted to him  His army had a powerful cavalry-soldiers who ride horses  He used his Calvary to charge and shoot his enemies with arrows  This weakened his enemies and then his foot soldiers would attack  Cyrus had a strong army-it was well organized and very devoted to him  His army had a powerful cavalry-soldiers who ride horses  He used his Calvary to charge and shoot his enemies with arrows  This weakened his enemies and then his foot soldiers would attack

6 The Persian Army Grows Stronger  After Cyrus died, his son, Cambyses continued to expand the Persian Empire  He conquered Egypt  Then a rebellion broke out in Persia and Cambyses died  4 days after Cambyses died, a prince named Darius claimed the throne  After Cyrus died, his son, Cambyses continued to expand the Persian Empire  He conquered Egypt  Then a rebellion broke out in Persia and Cambyses died  4 days after Cambyses died, a prince named Darius claimed the throne

7 Political Organization  Darius divided the Persian Empire into 20 provinces  Each province had its own governor or satrap that ruled over that province  Satraps collected taxes and acted as judges but Darius was still the ruler  Darius sent officials to the provinces to check on his satraps  Darius divided the Persian Empire into 20 provinces  Each province had its own governor or satrap that ruled over that province  Satraps collected taxes and acted as judges but Darius was still the ruler  Darius sent officials to the provinces to check on his satraps

8 Persian Society  Darius built many roads connecting the empire  The “Royal Road” was 1700 miles long!!  The roads were used to send messages throughout the empire  He built a new capital called Persepolis  Darius built many roads connecting the empire  The “Royal Road” was 1700 miles long!!  The roads were used to send messages throughout the empire  He built a new capital called Persepolis

9 Persian Society  Persepolis was full of beautiful art- carvings and statues  Darius started a new religion called Zoroastrianism  This religion taught that there were 2 forces fighting for control- good and evil  Persepolis was full of beautiful art- carvings and statues  Darius started a new religion called Zoroastrianism  This religion taught that there were 2 forces fighting for control- good and evil

10 The Persians Fight Greece  499 BC several Greek cities revolted against Persian rule  Greek City states that were not part of the Persian rule, sent soldiers to help the Greek cities fight against the Persians  Persians won the revolt but it made Darius very mad at the Greeks  499 BC several Greek cities revolted against Persian rule  Greek City states that were not part of the Persian rule, sent soldiers to help the Greek cities fight against the Persians  Persians won the revolt but it made Darius very mad at the Greeks

11 The Battle of Marathon  9 years after the Greeks rebelled, Darius invaded Greece  His army sailed to the plains of Marathon near Athens  This invasion of Greece began a series of wars between the Greeks and Persians, called the Persian Wars  9 years after the Greeks rebelled, Darius invaded Greece  His army sailed to the plains of Marathon near Athens  This invasion of Greece began a series of wars between the Greeks and Persians, called the Persian Wars

12 The Battle of Marathon  Athenian Army had 11,000 soldiers  Persian Army had 15,000 soldiers  The Athenian army won because they had better weapons and leaders  According to legend, a messenger ran from Marathon to Athens-26 miles to tell of the victory  Athenian Army had 11,000 soldiers  Persian Army had 15,000 soldiers  The Athenian army won because they had better weapons and leaders  According to legend, a messenger ran from Marathon to Athens-26 miles to tell of the victory

13  After he told the Athenians the news, he fell to the ground and died  Athletes today recreate the Greek messengers run in 26 mile races called marathons  After he told the Athenians the news, he fell to the ground and died  Athletes today recreate the Greek messengers run in 26 mile races called marathons The Battle of Marathon cont.

14 The Second Invasion of Greece  10 years after the battle of Marathon, Darius’ son, Xerxes, tried to conquer Greece again  480 BC the Persian Army and Navy set out for Greece  This time the Sparta joined Athens in fighting the Persians  10 years after the battle of Marathon, Darius’ son, Xerxes, tried to conquer Greece again  480 BC the Persian Army and Navy set out for Greece  This time the Sparta joined Athens in fighting the Persians

15 The second invasion cont.  The Spartan army attacked the Persian Army  Athenian Navy attacked the Persian Navy  The Spartan sent soldiers to Thermopylde where the Persians had to cross to get into the Greek City States  The Spartan army attacked the Persian Army  Athenian Navy attacked the Persian Navy  The Spartan sent soldiers to Thermopylde where the Persians had to cross to get into the Greek City States

16 The second invasion cont.  For 3 days the Spartan army kept the Persian army from crossing into Greek City States  Then the Persians asked a traitorous Greek soldier for a different route into the Greek City States  Persians attacked and killed all Spartan soldiers then attacked and burned Athens  For 3 days the Spartan army kept the Persian army from crossing into Greek City States  Then the Persians asked a traitorous Greek soldier for a different route into the Greek City States  Persians attacked and killed all Spartan soldiers then attacked and burned Athens

17 The end of the Persian Wars  A few days after Athens was burned, the Athenian Navy defeated the Persian Navy in a battle known as the Battle of Salamis  Then armies from all over Greece beat the Persians in a battle called the Battle of Plataea, this battle ended the Persian Wars  Persians were humiliated and Greeks had saved their homeland!  A few days after Athens was burned, the Athenian Navy defeated the Persian Navy in a battle known as the Battle of Salamis  Then armies from all over Greece beat the Persians in a battle called the Battle of Plataea, this battle ended the Persian Wars  Persians were humiliated and Greeks had saved their homeland!

18 Review Questions 1. What did the Greeks do that made Darius angry and led him to invade the Greeks? 2. Who was the Battle of Marathon between? Who won? Why? 3.Who joined Athens when Darius’ son, Xerxes, attacked Greece? 4.How did the Persians get past the Greeks so that they could attack Athens? 5.Who won the Persian Wars? 1. What did the Greeks do that made Darius angry and led him to invade the Greeks? 2. Who was the Battle of Marathon between? Who won? Why? 3.Who joined Athens when Darius’ son, Xerxes, attacked Greece? 4.How did the Persians get past the Greeks so that they could attack Athens? 5.Who won the Persian Wars?


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