2 1. Geographically, Greece is a a. hilly and mountainous peninsulab. series of large islandsc. fertile river valley surrounded by desertsd. high plateau enclosed by mountainsGeographically, Greece is a hilly and mountainous peninsula. The mountains and hills of Greece divide the Greek peninsula into small plains and valleys, helping to divide the people of ancient Greece into small communities.
3 2. Which of the following waterways provided a pathway between ancient Greece and Egypt? a. Atlantic Oceanb. Black Seac. Indian Oceand. Mediterranean SeaThe Mediterranean Sea provided a pathway between ancient Greece and Egypt. Egypt lies south of the Greek peninsula.
4 3. The "Iliad" and the "Odyssey" are important because they a. tell the true history of the Trojan Warb. are great works of literature that help us understand lifein ancient Greecec. present factual accounts of the beginnings of Greek civilizationd. are factual accounts of the Persian invasion of GreeceThe "Iliad" and the "Odyssey" are important because they not only are great works of literature, but also help us understand life in ancient Greece. The two epics were either written by a great poet called Homer, or a group of poets whose work has become associated with Homer's name. The "Iliad" and the "Odyssey" tell the story of heroes during and after the Trojan War (about 1200 B.C.). They also tell us about life in Greece during its Dark Age, when most people could not read or write. Experts believe that the two Homeric epics are a mixture of fact and fiction.
5 4. Many small city-states developed in ancient Greece largely because a. the peoples of Greece came from different culturesb. the peoples of Greece were divided by the many differentlanguages they spokec. the Greek peninsula is divided by mountains and inlets thatseparated peopled. religious differences tended to keep people from unitingCity-states developed in ancient Greece because the Greek peninsula is divided by mountains and inlets that separated people and made it difficult for the Greeks to unite into large states. Language tended to unify the Greek people. Religion was another unifying force. The Greeks, with a few exceptions, worshipped the same gods and goddesses.
6 5. The polis or city-state of ancient Greece was a. an agricultural province controlled by a governorb. a colony established overseasc. an independent city or town NOT including the countrysided. a city and the agricultural lands surrounding itThe polis or city-state of ancient Greece was a city and the agricultural lands surrounding it. The average city-state was small by modern standards, ranging in size from fifty to five hundred square miles. Populations ranged from about five thousand to about a third of a million. Each city-state was independent and separate from the others.
7 6. Which of the following was emphasized in the education of Spartan youths in ancient Greece? a. an appreciation for the fine arts and literatureb. the accumulation of wealth through businessc. physical strength and military skilld. mathematical and scientific knowledgePhysical strength and military skill were emphasized in the education of Spartan youths. At the age of seven, Spartan boys left their homes and went to live in army barracks. They were forced to undergo many physical hardships during their military training. Spartan soldiers were considered to be the best in ancient Greece.
8 7. Which of the following is a major contribution of ancient Athens to Western civilization? a. writingb. democracyc. monotheismd. monarchyA major contribution of ancient Athens to Western civilization was the practice of democratic government. The Athenians developed a system of government based on the right of male citizens to discuss and vote on issues in an assembly.
9 8. As a result of the Persian Wars of the 5th century B.C. a. Greece became a part of the Persian Empireb. the influence of Athens increased in Greecec. the Persian Empire was destroyedd. Spartan power in Greece declined greatlyAs a result of the Persian Wars the influence of Athens increased in Greece. Athens had played a leading role in driving the Persians from Greece, although the Persian Empire remained strong in Asia. Athens led in the formation of an alliance to prevent further Persian attacks. Athens increased the size of its navy and also increased its commerce and wealth. Sparta had also played an important role in defeating the Persians, and its prestige and power were also increased after the Persian Wars.
10 9. The basic cause of the Peloponnesian War was a. the rivalry between Sparta and Athensb. a drought in the Pelopennesusc. Athens's fear of invasion by the Persiansd. overpopulation in SpartaThe immediate cause of the Peloponnesian War was the rivalry between Sparta and Athens. After the Persian Wars, Athens created an empire in Greece and the eastern Mediterranean. When Athenian expansion seemed to threaten Sparta's security, a short war occurred between the two city-states. Sparta and Athens then signed a peace in 445 B.C. Athens promised to give up its land claims, and Sparta agreed to recognize Athens's sea empire. The peace was broken in 431 B.C. when Sparta invaded the regions surrounding Athens, thereby beginning the Peloponnesian War.
11 10. As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta a. conquered Asia Minorb. was conquered by Persiac. became an ally of Athensd. dominated Greece for a number of yearsAs a result of the Peloponnesian War (which ended in 404 B.C.), Sparta became dominant in Greece. For about 30 years, between 404 and 371 B.C., Sparta used its victory over Athens to suppress any opposition from Greek states to its dominance. Finally, Sparta was defeated by Thebes in 371 B.C., and its dominance over Greece ended.