But First……… The Articles of the Confederation –Last 8yrs –Gave more power to states then central gov’t
Troubles DebtDebt ~ gov’t couldn’t collect taxes ~ no way to get $ ~ couldn’t pay back $ lent for the Amer Rev ~ Owed $ to: other countries/private citizens TradeTrade ~no wanted to trade with the US b/c Amer didn’t have power to enforce any laws Territorial IssuesTerritorial Issues - no1 would give Amer a break over land - other nations gave amer nonsense over land issues - states were fighting each other over boundaries & $
ACCOMPLISHMENTS kept nation together negotiated the Treaty of Paris 1783 –ended the Amer Rev Created 2 laws: 1-Ordinance of 1785: sale of public land 2-Northwest Ordinance: made a plan of how to govern new territories
Tell me….wait don’t; nah go ahead! ppl liked not being told what to do, but wanted someone to help run things wanted a stronger gov’t farmers couldn’t make payments on land; were losing farms to the bank
Take off his head!!! (not really) Shay’s Rebellion Daniel Shay (former militia leader) lead a group of angry farmers who lost their farms in Mass in 1786. It was easily ended, but opened the doors for the discussion of a need for stronger central gov’t.
Constitutional Convention REVISEMeant to REVISE the Articles Independence Hall in Philly, 1787 12 of 13: sent delegates (RI did not ) –55 ppl (aka: founding fathers) –1/2 lawyers/1/2 famers-merchants George Washington president of the convention James Madison: Secretary no women, Native Americans, or African- Americans
My way! No, MY way! Hey let’s COMPROMISE!!! =) New Jersey Plan:New Jersey Plan: –all states have equal rep in gov’t Virginia Plan:Virginia Plan: –rep based on population Great Compromise: divide gov’t into 2 houses –1: upper house: senate ~ 2 reps per state –2: lower house: house of representatives ~ based on population these make up congress
Slaves….what to do, what to do? South wanted slaves to count North did not –Would mean south had more people in their the House Three-Fifths Compromise!!!! –3 of every 5 slaves count as a person for representation and tax purposes Everyone some what happy…see what happens when you work together!
Issues with Trade…. Ppl in the North wanted congress to regulate trade Farmers in the South did not –feared losing money/slaves –no regulations until 1808 Congress decided to tax imports –regulate interstate and foreign trade
LETS START OVER!!!! Seperation of PowersSeperation of Powers –Executive –Executive: President ~ enforce laws (helped by VP & assistants) 15 executive depts.- leaders make up cabinet –Legislative –Legislative: Congress ~ make laws, 2 houses Senate 100 members HoR 435 members (present day #) –Judicial –Judicial: All courts ~ interpret the laws; Supreme Court (9 justices), 12 appeal courts/94 districts/ few “special courts”
Checks & Balances Legislative: –check Pres by not giving $ –block new/get rid of agencies –Senate reject treaties (need 2/3 vote to pass) –reject presidential appointments –HoR impeach pres, then Senate does –Check Judicial by creating/abolishing lower courts –impeach federal judges
Checks & Balances Executive: –Judicial: pardon convicts/appoint judges –Legislative: veto (not sign) a bill veto can be overridden by 2/3 vote in both houses Judicial: –declare laws unconstitutional, then void them –Judicial Review declare laws/practices unconst.
Checks & Balances Checks on the ppl: –Electoral college (elects pres) –Judges appointed/senators (used to be appointed) –HoR: 2yr –Senate: 6yr – Pres: 4yr (2 terms in a lifetime) –Supreme Court: life or impeachment
We want it…No, we don’t….Lets talk! Federalist:Federalist: –supported new const –reg trade/strong gov’t/help nations $ prob Anti-Federalists:Anti-Federalists: –anti new const –felt it didn’t protect fundamental rights
Ratifying the Constitution 9 of 13 states needed to approve for the new gov’t to take place
Lets be Flexible!!! Articles were to rigid, no way to change with the times –NEW ONE NEEDED TO BE FLEXIBLE! Constitution can be changed (amended) in 4 ways:Constitution can be changed (amended) in 4 ways: 1- Proposal by congress (2/3 vote both houses) ~ratified/accepted by ¾ vote of state legislature 2- 2/3 vote both houses ~ratification ¾ Const Convention in ¾ States 3 & 4 never used.
Anti-Feds wanted more rights for the people protected sooooo…… Bill of Rights: (1st 10 amendments) –created to get anti-federalist to approve the new Const. –restricts const, and grants individual rights
The Bill of Rights 1: freedom of religion, press, & speech 2: right to bare arms 3: no housing soldiers 4: no illegal search and seizure 5: right not to incriminate one self/ no double jeopardy 6: Right to a speedy & fair trial 7: Trial by a jury of your peers 8: No Cruel or unusual punishment 9: Just b/c its not stated doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist! 10: Everything in the Constitution is up to the states to interpret
THE END!!!!!!!!! Now get ready to do a cheat sheet and have test =)
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