3The Articles of Confederation (1781) - the first central government of the United States Congress was a unicameral legislature with delegates, or representatives, from each state.- The main power of Congress involved foreign affairs.- All 13 states had to agree on all amendments.- 9 of the 13 states had to agree on all federal laws.
5* Under the Articles of Confederation, the states had more power than the federal government. Examples: taxation and law enforcement* The Articles of Confederation had a weak federal government on purpose because they were afraid of their experiences with the British monarchy and Parliament.
6United States of America Articles of Confederation
7Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? I. Currency IssuesThe United States did not have a common currency.Americans carried money from the federal government, state government, and foreign nations.
8Merchants stopped accepting money from outside of their own state, causing a lot of money to become worthless.This caused an increase in inflation.
9Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? II. DebtCongress could not tax the people and depended on money from the states.Therefore, the U.S. was unable to pay its debts!Examples:- The U.S. owed money to France, Holland, and Spain for loans made during the Revolutionary War.- The U.S. had not paid many of their own soldiers!
10Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? III. International and Domestic ProblemsThe U.S. lacked the military power to defend itself against Great Britain and Spain.States acted as individual countries and seldom agreed.Example: Connecticut and Virginia almost went to war over land claims!
11Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Courts (Judicial Branch) The nation lacked a national court system.Supreme Court
12Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? President (Executive Branch)The nation did not have a President, or Chief Executive.White House
13Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Congress (Legislative Branch)Congress had one house. (unicameral)Laws were difficult to pass, needing the approval of nine states.Congress was responsible to the states, not the people.Congress had no power to collect taxes, regulate trade, coin money, or establish a military.Capitol BuildingCapitol Building
14Shays’ Rebellion• Farmer’s income decreased while taxes increased.• Farmers who could not pay their debts had their farms taken away by the courts.Massachusetts farmer Daniel Shays and his supporters occupy a Massachusetts courthouse.
15• Therefore, in 1786, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers in an attempt to capture a federal arsenal.Men Fighting During Shays' Rebellion
16• The U. S. , without an organized army, was powerless • The U.S., without an organized army, was powerless. Massachusetts sent a militia to stop the rebellion.
20The 2nd Constitution Convention: Lets try that again
21Constitutional Convention (Philadelphia, 1787) - George Washington was elected president of the Convention.Virginia PlanNew Jersey Plan- It called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state.- Both plans called for a strong national government with 3 branches.- It called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote.
22• It provided for a bicameral Congress. Virginia PlanNew Jersey Plan- It called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state.- Both plans called for a strong national government with 3 branches.- It called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote.Great Compromise• It provided for a bicameral Congress.A. House of Representatives – each state is represented according to its population (satisfied the VA Plan)B. Senate – each state has 2 Senators (satisfied the NJ Plan)* Both houses of Congress must pass every law.
23Three-Fifths Compromise • In order to determine the population of a state, only 3 out of every 5 slaves would be counted.
24Checks and Balances: The Balance of Power in the US Government Supreme Court
25Legislative Branch: Congress Oh, yeah! I’m the President! It feels good being the most powerful person in the world!Executive BranchHey, Mitch, does this guy think that the Executive Branch has all the power?Judicial BranchI don’t know, John, but I think we ought to give him a check that he’ll never forget!Legislative Branch: CongressSupreme Court
26Yes! It’s a part of our responsibilities! Ummm…was it necessary to check me that hard?Who else is going to put a check on your power?Okay. But remember that I’ve got a few checks of my own, and I’m ready to use them!
27Executive Branch / President Legislative Branch / Congress Checks and BalancesCongress can impeach the President. (2/3rd’s vote)The Senate must approve all Presidential treaties. (2/3rd’s vote)Congress can overturn a Presidential veto. (2/3rd’s vote)Executive Branch / PresidentThe President must approve all of Congress’ bills before they become laws.The President can veto bills.Legislative Branch / Congress
29Executive Branch / President Judicial Branch / Courts Checks and BalancesThe Supreme Court can declare Presidential actions to be unconstitutional.Executive Branch / PresidentThe President appoints all federal judges, including Supreme Court justices.Judicial Branch / Courts
30Judicial Branch / Courts Legislative Branch / Congress Checks and BalancesThe Senate must approve all of the President’s choices for judges.Congress can impeach federal judges.Judicial Branch / CourtsThe Supreme Court can declare laws to be unconstitutional.Legislative Branch / Congress