Presentation on theme: "Articles of Confederation New Country New Country, New Thoughts."— Presentation transcript:
Articles of Confederation
New Country New Country, New Thoughts
The Articles of Confederation (1781) - the first central government of the United States - 9 of the 13 states had to agree on all federal laws. Congress was a unicameral legislature with delegates, or representatives, from each state. - The main power of Congress involved foreign affairs. - All 13 states had to agree on all amendments.
* Under the Articles of Confederation, the states had more power than the federal government. Examples: taxation and law enforcement * The Articles of Confederation had a weak federal government on purpose because they were afraid of their experiences with the British monarchy and Parliament.
United States of America Articles of Confederation
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? I. Currency Issues The United States did not have a common currency. Americans carried money from the federal government, state government, and foreign nations.
Merchants stopped accepting money from outside of their own state, causing a lot of money to become worthless. This caused an increase in inflation.
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? II. Debt Congress could not tax the people and depended on money from the states. Therefore, the U.S. was unable to pay its debts! Examples: - The U.S. owed money to France, Holland, and Spain for loans made during the Revolutionary War. - The U.S. had not paid many of their own soldiers!
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? III. International and Domestic Problems The U.S. lacked the military power to defend itself against Great Britain and Spain. States acted as individual countries and seldom agreed. Example: - Connecticut and Virginia almost went to war over land claims!
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Courts (Judicial Branch) The nation lacked a national court system. Supreme Court
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? President (Executive Branch) The nation did not have a President, or Chief Executive. White House
Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? Congress (Legislative Branch) Laws were difficult to pass, needing the approval of nine states. Congress was responsible to the states, not the people. Congress had no power to collect taxes, regulate trade, coin money, or establish a military. Congress had one house. (unicameral) Capitol Building
Shays’ Rebellion Farmer’s income decreased while taxes increased. Farmers who could not pay their debts had their farms taken away by the courts. Massachusetts farmer Daniel Shays and his supporters occupy a Massachusetts courthouse.
Therefore, in 1786, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers in an attempt to capture a federal arsenal. Men Fighting During Shays' Rebellion
The U.S., without an organized army, was powerless. Massachusetts sent a militia to stop the rebellion.
Shays Rebellion It happens like this....
Shays’ Rebellion convinced many people that the U.S. needed a new, stronger government. The Articles of Confederation needed to be replaced!
The 2nd Constitution Convention: Lets try that again
- It called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote. Constitutional Convention (Philadelphia, 1787) - George Washington was elected president of the Convention. Virginia PlanNew Jersey Plan - Both plans called for a strong national government with 3 branches. - It called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state.
- It called for a unicameral legislature, in which every state received one vote. Virginia PlanNew Jersey Plan - Both plans called for a strong national government with 3 branches. - It called for a bicameral legislature, in which the number of representatives in each house would depend on the population of the state. Great Compromise It provided for a bicameral Congress. A. House of Representatives – each state is represented according to its population (satisfied the VA Plan) B. Senate – each state has 2 Senators (satisfied the NJ Plan) * Both houses of Congress must pass every law.
In order to determine the population of a state, only 3 out of every 5 slaves would be counted. Three-Fifths Compromise
Checks and Balances: The Balance of Power in the US Government Supreme Court
Executive Branch Oh, yeah! I’m the President! It feels good being the most powerful person in the world! Hey, Mitch, does this guy think that the Executive Branch has all the power? I don’t know, John, but I think we ought to give him a check that he’ll never forget! Judicial Branch Legislative Branch: Congress
Who else is going to put a check on your power? Ummm…was it necessary to check me that hard? Yes! It’s a part of our responsibilities! Okay. But remember that I’ve got a few checks of my own, and I’m ready to use them!
Checks and Balances Legislative Branch / Congress Executive Branch / President The President must approve all of Congress’ bills before they become laws. The President can veto bills. Congress can overturn a Presidential veto. (2/3 rd’s vote) The Senate must approve all Presidential treaties. (2/3 rd’s vote) Congress can impeach the President. (2/3 rd’s vote)
Schoolhouse Rock – “I’m Just a Bill”
Checks and Balances Executive Branch / President The President appoints all federal judges, including Supreme Court justices. Judicial Branch / Courts The Supreme Court can declare Presidential actions to be unconstitutional.
Legislative Branch / Congress The Senate must approve all of the President’s choices for judges. C o n g r e s s c a n i m p e a c h f e d e r a l j u d g e s. Judicial Branch / Courts Checks and Balances The Supreme Court can declare laws to be unconstitutional.