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Creation of American Government

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Presentation on theme: "Creation of American Government"— Presentation transcript:

1 Creation of American Government
Chapter 2 Creation of American Government

2 A Plan of Government for the New Nation
Section 1 A Plan of Government for the New Nation

3 New Nation The end of the Revolutionary War cut all ties to England
The colonies were separate and needed to form a government

4 What was the first plan of government?
Second Continental Congress tried to create a plan to join the states together: Articles of Confederation Kept a strong state government; weak central government Set up a national congress: it would make war, treaties, and take care of financial needs Didn’t provide for a national leader or system of justice States found that the Articles of Confederation were too weak

5 Why didn’t the plan work?
War with England left American in considerable debt and we had no money States also refused to pay any part of the debt No system of law was permitted in the Articles of Confederation so couldn’t make the states pay Businesses and farmers were out of money No funds to pay an army or navy Soldiers who fought in the Revolutionary War were never paid Constitutional Convention called to revise Articles of Confederation

6 The Constitutional Convention
Section 2 The Constitutional Convention

7 Convention Attendees of convention were well-educated me from cities
George Washington was the leader of the convention Tried to revise the articles, however soon saw that they couldn’t (a new plan was needed) Worked for four months to create a new plan

8 What plans were considered?
Based on the idea of a federal government The states would join together to form a country Power is shared between central government and states Two forms of Government proposed: Virginia Plan- Suggested by larger states, favored a strong central government. One executive branch and two law making bodies that are elected. New Jersey Plan- Suggested by the smaller states, favored a greater power for each state. One part legislature and two or more executives. Legislature chosen by states and their leaders. Both Plans: Federal government admits new states Supreme Court to make final decisions Finally decided to use parts of both plans

9 Compromises Made at the Convention
Section 3 Compromises Made at the Convention

10 Compromises At the Constitutional Convention each side had to compromise Four Major compromises were made: How states would be represented How would slaves votes be counted Who would control trade among states Who would control trade between countries

11 How would states be represented?
How to create a legislature Connecticut suggested a two part legislature to please both larger and smaller states One part would be chosen by population and one part would have a set number, two This became known as the Connecticut Compromise

12 How would slaves’ votes be counted?
Should slaves be counted the same as free men for tax collection and population purposes Agreed to 5 slaves would count the same as 3 free men Became known as the Three-Fifths Compromise

13 Who would control trade among the states?
North and South couldn’t agree on issues of foreign trade North wanted federal government to control trade; whereas the South worried about their economy (they traded rice, tobacco, and slaves) Finally agreed to allow federal government to control foreign trade however they couldn’t tax exports, only imports By September 17, 1787 the delegates agreed on all compromises and the Constitution was signed

14 Guiding Principles of the Constitution
Section 4 Guiding Principles of the Constitution

15 Constitution Constitution was carefully based on certain principles necessary for a democratic government Popular Sovereignty Limited Government Separation of Powers Checks and Balances

16 Popular Sovereignty & Limited Government
In popular sovereignty all power is held by the people through elected leaders Limited Government sets limits on the power the government has Government must obey laws, and nobody is above the law

17 Separation of Powers Power was split into three departments Congress is the lawmaking branch, couldn’t give anyone else the power to do so. Also, oversees appointments made by the President Executive enforces laws, president can veto bills and can also appoint officials such as ambassadors Judicial interprets laws and decides whether it agrees with the constitution or not; they also take care of the courts system

18 Checks and Balances Each branch has separate duties but must act together in some cases Limits are placed on all branches so no one becomes too powerful Each branch checks each other in their jobs Supreme Court can not make laws, but they can decide if a law is unconstitutional Congress makes laws; however the president can veto them or approve them Congress doesn’t appoint people to important government jobs; but does have to approve the Presidents choices

19 The Struggle for Approval
Section 5 The Struggle for Approval

20 Approval Most delegates approved the Constitution
Others worked hard to persuade the states to ratify it Each state studied the Constitution and approval of 9 of 13 states was needed before it could be used

21 Did people what the new Constitution?
Federalists favored the constitution because it had a strong central government plan Felt it would keep the nation safe and united Famous Federalists were Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay; they wrote essays to a New York paper Anti-Federalists favored a stronger state government then the constitution allowed They opposed the constitution because they felt it would take away many state and individual rights

22 How did they reach agreement?
Federalists agreed to amendments for people’s basic rights The addition was made and known as the Bill of Rights States deliberated more and in June of states ratified the Constitution By 1790 all states had ratified

23 Where was the Constitution put in action?
Congress put the Constitution in action as soon as it was approved New York was named temporary capitol Moved to Philadelphia the finally Washington D.C. First elections held, with George Washington as president 26 senators and 65 representatives were elected from states Met for the first time on March 4, 1789 in Federal Hall in New York

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