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Creation of American Government. A Plan of Government for the New Nation.

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Presentation on theme: "Creation of American Government. A Plan of Government for the New Nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creation of American Government

2 A Plan of Government for the New Nation

3  The end of the Revolutionary War cut all ties to England  The colonies were separate and needed to form a government

4  Second Continental Congress tried to create a plan to join the states together: Articles of Confederation  Kept a strong state government; weak central government  Set up a national congress: it would make war, treaties, and take care of financial needs  Didn’t provide for a national leader or system of justice  States found that the Articles of Confederation were too weak

5  War with England left American in considerable debt and we had no money  States also refused to pay any part of the debt  No system of law was permitted in the Articles of Confederation so couldn’t make the states pay  Businesses and farmers were out of money  No funds to pay an army or navy  Soldiers who fought in the Revolutionary War were never paid  Constitutional Convention called to revise Articles of Confederation

6 The Constitutional Convention

7  Attendees of convention were well-educated me from cities  George Washington was the leader of the convention  Tried to revise the articles, however soon saw that they couldn’t (a new plan was needed)  Worked for four months to create a new plan

8  Based on the idea of a federal government  The states would join together to form a country  Power is shared between central government and states  Two forms of Government proposed:  Virginia Plan- Suggested by larger states, favored a strong central government. One executive branch and two law making bodies that are elected.  New Jersey Plan- Suggested by the smaller states, favored a greater power for each state. One part legislature and two or more executives. Legislature chosen by states and their leaders.  Both Plans:  Federal government admits new states  Supreme Court to make final decisions  Finally decided to use parts of both plans

9 Compromises Made at the Convention

10  At the Constitutional Convention each side had to compromise  Four Major compromises were made:  How states would be represented  How would slaves votes be counted  Who would control trade among states  Who would control trade between countries

11  How to create a legislature  Connecticut suggested a two part legislature to please both larger and smaller states  One part would be chosen by population and one part would have a set number, two  This became known as the Connecticut Compromise

12  Should slaves be counted the same as free men for tax collection and population purposes  Agreed to 5 slaves would count the same as 3 free men  Became known as the Three-Fifths Compromise

13  North and South couldn’t agree on issues of foreign trade  North wanted federal government to control trade; whereas the South worried about their economy (they traded rice, tobacco, and slaves)  Finally agreed to allow federal government to control foreign trade however they couldn’t tax exports, only imports  By September 17, 1787 the delegates agreed on all compromises and the Constitution was signed

14 Guiding Principles of the Constitution

15  Constitution was carefully based on certain principles necessary for a democratic government  Popular Sovereignty  Limited Government  Separation of Powers  Checks and Balances

16  In popular sovereignty all power is held by the people through elected leaders  Limited Government sets limits on the power the government has  Government must obey laws, and nobody is above the law

17  Power was split into three departments  Congress is the lawmaking branch, couldn’t give anyone else the power to do so. Also, oversees appointments made by the President  Executive enforces laws, president can veto bills and can also appoint officials such as ambassadors  Judicial interprets laws and decides whether it agrees with the constitution or not; they also take care of the courts system

18  Each branch has separate duties but must act together in some cases  Limits are placed on all branches so no one becomes too powerful  Each branch checks each other in their jobs  Supreme Court can not make laws, but they can decide if a law is unconstitutional  Congress makes laws; however the president can veto them or approve them  Congress doesn’t appoint people to important government jobs; but does have to approve the Presidents choices

19 The Struggle for Approval

20  Most delegates approved the Constitution  Others worked hard to persuade the states to ratify it  Each state studied the Constitution and approval of 9 of 13 states was needed before it could be used

21  Federalists favored the constitution because it had a strong central government plan  Felt it would keep the nation safe and united  Famous Federalists were Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay; they wrote essays to a New York paper  Anti-Federalists favored a stronger state government then the constitution allowed  They opposed the constitution because they felt it would take away many state and individual rights

22  Federalists agreed to amendments for people’s basic rights  The addition was made and known as the Bill of Rights  States deliberated more and in June of states ratified the Constitution  By 1790 all states had ratified

23  Congress put the Constitution in action as soon as it was approved  New York was named temporary capitol  Moved to Philadelphia the finally Washington D.C.  First elections held, with George Washington as president  26 senators and 65 representatives were elected from states  Met for the first time on March 4, 1789 in Federal Hall in New York

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