Presentation on theme: "Why did we need a Constitution? Articles were weak. No national executive No national courts No power to tax No $ for Army/Navy No power over commerce."— Presentation transcript:
Why did we need a Constitution? Articles were weak. No national executive No national courts No power to tax No $ for Army/Navy No power over commerce No US Currency Daniel Shays
Meet the Delegates! Rich White Landowning Men were the only group represented at the Constitutional Convention of 1787
WITH THE NATIONS’ MANY PROBLEMS PEOPLE BEGAN TO CRITICIZE THE ARTICLES WEALTHY INDIVIDUALS FEARED ANARCHY & REVOLUTION THEY CALL FOR A STRONG FEDERAL GOVERNMENT!
Shays Rebellion Caused Concern Wealthy Americans believed that they could be in danger without a US Military
A MEETING CALLED IN PHILADELPHIA TO FIX THE ARTICLES IN 1787 Problems 1. National Security 2. Stabilize the Economy 3. Pay war debt 4. Define authority of Federal Goverment
GEORGE WASHINGTON (Presided over) BEN FRANKLIN JAMES MADISON “FATHER OF THE CONSTITUTION” ALEXANDER HAMILTON
THOMAS JEFFERSON, JOHN ADAMS, THOMAS PAINE, JOHN HANCOCK & PATRICK HENRY DID NOT ATTEND
What influenced the Founding Fathers & Enlightenment ideas!
ALL 13 STATES HAD A CONSTITUTION – USED AS A MODEL FOR FEDERAL GOV’T POWER OF GOV’T SEPARATED BETWEEN EQUAL BRANCHES (LEGISLATURE, EXECUTIVE, JUDICIAL) BILL OF RIGHTS FOR CITIZENS
ENGLISH COMMON LAW & THE MAGNA CARTA: LIMITS POWER OF KING JOHN LOCKE “LIFE, LIBERTY, & PROPERTY” MONTESQUIEU: SEPARATION OF POWERS ANCIENT GREEKS & ROMANS (DEMOCRACY & REPUBLIC) OTHERS
Debates & Compromise Representation and Slavery
VIRGINIA PLAN (BIG STATE): REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS BASED ON POPULATION MORE PEOPLE = MORE REPS = MORE POWER! MADISON’S (E. RANDOLPH & G. MORRIS) PLAN
NEW JERSEY PLAN (SMALL STATE): REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS BASED ON ALL STATES BEING EQUAL EACH STATE GETS THE SAME NUMBER OF VOTES – EQUAL POWER (W. Paterson)
PLANS COMBINED - BICAMERAL (TWO PART) CONGRESS CREATED CONGRESS: HOR – REP BASED ON POPULATION SENATE – ALL STATES ARE EQUAL Known as the Conn. Plan or Great Compromise
Slavery Debate Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia wanted slaves to be counted for representation in congress, but not for taxation.
SHOULD SLAVES BE COUNTED AS POPULATION IN THE HOUSE OF REPS? 1.SLAVES WOULD BE COUNTED AS 3/5 OF A PERSON. 2. SLAVE TRADE FROM AFRICA MUST END BY 1807 SOUTH “YES” – NORTH – “NO”
SOUTH WANTED A 2/3 RD VOTE IN CONGRESS FOR REGULATING TRADE NORTH WANTED A TARIFF OR TAX BOTH SIDES DROPPED DEMANDS & LET FEDERAL GOV’T REGULATE COMMERCE
9 STATES HAD TO “RATIFY” THE CONSTITUTION BEFORE IT BECAME THE LAW OF THE LAND THIS STARTS A NATIONAL DEBATE “SHOULD THE NEW CONSTITUTION BE ACCEPTED OR REJECTED”?
FEDERALISTS: SUPPORTED THE CONSTITUTION AS IS FEDERALIST PAPERS (ESSAYS) HAMILTON, MADISON, & JAY
ANTI-FEDERALISTS: DID NOT SUPPORT THE CONSTITUTION NO BILL OF RIGHTS – MEANS FED GOV’T IS TOO POWERFUL! P. HENRY OTHERS
BILL OF RIGHTS (RIGHTS FOR CITIZENS) WAS PROMISED & ADDED IN 1791 MOST STATES RATIFY & CONSTITUTION BECOMES LAW! Can you name the five rights offered to you by the 1 st Amendment?
Bill Of Rights 1 Free Speech, Religion, Assembly, Press and Redress Grievances (Complain) 2 Raise a militia and Bear Arms 3 No Quartering of soldiers during peace 4 Privacy (No unreasonable searches) 5 No double Jeopardy/No self incrimination 6 Counsel and Speedy Trial 7 Jury for a civil case 8 No cruel or unusual punishment 9 Rights retained by the people 10 Rights reserved to the states
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