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1 FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTING GRAMMAR REVISION AND EXERCISES 2 & 3 PRESENT PERFECT & PASSIVE MARIJA KRZNARIĆ.

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Presentation on theme: "1 FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTING GRAMMAR REVISION AND EXERCISES 2 & 3 PRESENT PERFECT & PASSIVE MARIJA KRZNARIĆ."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTING GRAMMAR REVISION AND EXERCISES 2 & 3 PRESENT PERFECT & PASSIVE MARIJA KRZNARIĆ

2 2 TALKING ABOUT THE PRESENT PERFECT PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE : PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE up to now time ----     present perfect present future Present Perfect connects the past and the present, something happened in the past and has some connections with the present moment. Negative – haven’t, hasn’t Interrogative - inversion S HAVE HAS PAST PARTICIPLE

3 3 It is used -to connect the past and the present; the action happened in the past but we either do not know when it happened or it does not seem to be important to us - the results or consequences of that action are evident now: I have broken my glasses; I am as blind as a bat. Peter can’t go on holiday, he has broken his leg. - for things which have happened during a period of time that continues up to now: I have been to Africa several times. John has crashed his car again. - with adverbs of indefinite time: already, so far, yet = već (?), just, yet = još (neg.), lately, ever, recently, never, nearly, before ( = već prije): What’s the best film you have ever seen? I have never eaten Chinese food.

4 4 It is used - if the period of time we are talking about has not finished yet: today, this morning, this week: I have written six s this morning. (it is 10 a.m.) No more cinemas, Mary! You have been to the movies five times this week. -with since (+ the starting point of period) and for (+ length of time): I have not seen Peter since Christmas. I have not seen him for six months. I haven't seen him since he returned. I haven't seen him since he returned last month.

5 5 SUPPLY THE PRESENT SIMPLE, PRESENT CONTINUOUS or PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE: 1. Someone (use) my umbrella! It's all wet! And it was wet yesterday and the day before! Well, it wasn't me. I (not, be) out of the house for a week! 2. John (not, be) at home. He (go) to the pictures again although he (be) twice already this week. 3. Why (John, go) to the pictures so often? I (not, know), maybe because he (not, like) TV. 4. Bad students never (work) hard, they (spend) their spare time in coffee bars or (play) stupid video games. 5. That girl who (cross) the street now (be) my brother’s girl friend. She (live) in London. And why (she, come) here? Well, my brother (be) in hospital for a week now, so she (probably, come) to visit him. has used haven’t been isn’t has gone has been does John go don’t know doesn’t like work spend play is crossing is lives has she come has been has probably come

6 6 SUPPLY THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or SIMPLE PAST: 1. Columbus (discover) America more than 500 years ago. 2. I (not, see) you for more than a week. 3. I (not, eat) since I (be) in Moscow. 4. Since when (you, know) him? 5. How long ago (the last war, be) ? 6. (You, ever, hear) Pavarotti singing? 7. I (listen) to Pavarotti when I (be) in London. 8. Peter (just, go) out, but you can leave a message for him. 9. We (know) each other for a long time. 10. She (work) here since I can’t go on holiday because I (break) my leg. 12. I’m sure we (meet) before. 13. I (meet) Peter when he (come) here last month. discovered haven’t seen haven’t eaten have you known was the last war Have you ever heard listened was has just gone have known has worked have broken have met met came

7 7 COMPLETE THIS CONVERSATION BY PUTTING THE VERBS IN BRACKETS INTO THE PRESENT PERFECT or SIMPLE PAST. Mark: Hello, Jenny. Jenny:Hello. I (not, see) you since my graduation ceremony. M.: I (see) you downtown a few days ago, but you (not, see) me. I (be) on a bus. J.: Well, how are things? Are you still living with your parents? M.: No, I (move). I (find) a small flat just before I (get) the job. I (be) there for a year now. J.: (You, pass) your driving test yet? M.: Yes, I.I (pass) it as soon as I (start) to work. I (not, buy) a car yet, though. What about you, Jenny? (Anything exciting, happen) to you lately? J.: Well, I (get) married after our graduation. M.: Congratulation, Jenny! Who is the lucky guy? Do I know him? J.: I don’t know. We (go) to high school together. M.: I (not, know) you then. Any children? J.: Yes. I have a girl. She (be) born in July last year. And you? M.: I (not, find) my soul-mate yet. And you (not, want) me, remember? J.: Oh, we (be) kids then. By the way, you (be) crazy about Laura, or (you, forget) ? M.: No, I. It (be) only because you ….. J.: OK, let’s drop the subject. How about a cup of coffee, my treat? haven’t seen sawdidn’t see was have moved found got have been Have you passed have passed started haven’t bought Has anything exciting happened got went didn’t know was haven’t found didn’t want were have you forgotten was haven’t

8 8 TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES 1.Sekretarica gospođe Brown je pred jedan sat dobila puno pisama, ali ih još nije otvorila. Ima pune ruke posla otkako je ušla u ured. 2. Peter, gdje je moja prtljaga? Treba mi mobitel. Nije ovdje, nosač ju je već odnio u našu sobu. Što će ti mobitel? Moram nazvati mamu i reći joj da smo stigli. Nazvat ćeš je kad dođemo u sobu, ima vremena. 3. Peter je posjetio Brownove kad je bio u Londonu, ali ih od tada više nije vidio. 4. Jesi li sinoć vidio prometnu nesreću ispred tvoje kuće? Ne, nisam. Ne mogu vjerovati! Zar nisi čuo jedan strašan tresak? Ne, spavao sam i ništa nisam čuo. 5. Vrijeme je u zadnjih nekoliko dana užasno. Iako je proljeće svaki dan kiša pada i puše vjetar. Da, u pravu si. I hladno je već danima. 6. Jesi li u posljednje vrijeme čuo nešto o Tomu? Znaš li gdje je? Ne, ali netko mi je rekao da je otišao u inozemstvo. Dobio je stipendiju i odlučio da će studij nastaviti u Poljskoj.

9 9 7. Peter mi kaže da si se upravo oženio. Kada je ceremonija održana? 8. Zdravo, Pero. Tako mi je drago što te vidim. Reci mi gdje si bio otkako sam te zadnji puta vidio. 9. Ne znam što da napravim, izgubio sam ključ od auta i ne mogu se sjetiti gdje sam ga ostavio. I što ćeš sada napraviti? Ako ga ne nađem, razbit ću jedan prozor i ući u auto. 10. Moji su susjedi bili tako dobri prema meni kad su mi roditelji doživjeli prometnu nesreću da do današnjeg dana nisam zaboravio njihovu ljubaznost. Uvijek su me pozivali na ručak, vodili u bolnicu posjetiti roditelje i brinuli o mojim ocjenama. 11. Tako mi je drago da je prestala padati kiša. Hajdemo van! Ali ja još nisam napisao zadaću. Pričekaj još nekoliko minuta.

10 10 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Negative - haven’t, hasn’t Interrogative - inversion It is used - to express an action beginning in the past, continuing up to the present moment and probably going on in the future; it emphasises the continuity of the action: You look tired. Yes, I have been working all day. I’ve been translating this letter for two hours but I haven’t finished it yet. Peter has been sleeping since he came home from school. Is he all right? Peter has been trying to buy a car since he got the job, but he still hasn’t managed to save enough. S HAVE HAS BEEN-ING

11 11 SUPPLY THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS or SIMPLE: 1.Nobody (come) to see us since we (live) in this out-of-the-way place. 2. What (you, do) here all day? I (sit) here writing my presentation, but I (not, quite, finish) it yet. 3. That helicopter (fly) round the house for the last hour; do you think it’s taking photographs? 4. Do you know that Mary (cry) in the kitchen for five minutes? No, she (not, cry), she (peel) onions. 5. Your fingers are very brown. You (smoke) too much! 6. Ever since he came to work here that man (try) to make trouble. 7. Peter (not, be) here since Christmas. I wonder where he (live) since then. HAS COMEHAVE BEEN LIVING HAVE YOU BEEN DOING HAVE BEEN SITTING HAVE NOT QUITE FINISHED HAS BEEN FLYING HAS BEEN CRYING HASN’T BEEN CRYINGHAS BEEN PEELING HAVE BEEN SMOKING HAS BEEN TRYING HASN’T BEEN HAS BEEN LIVING

12 12 INSERT PROPER VERBAL FORMS: (HOMEWORK!!!!) 1. While I (walk) ____________ through Hyde Park yesterday afternoon, I (hear) ________________ a scream, but before I (get) _____________ to the place where a woman (scream) _________________, the thief (already, run) ______________ away. (He, steal) __________________ anything from her? No, he ___________. He (not, have) ___________________ enough time. She (begin) ________________ screaming as soon as she (see) _______________ him. 2. Mary (go) ____________to hospital last week. She (think) _____________ (that) she (come) ______________ home in two days but she (not, leave) _______________ her hospital bed yet. The doctor (say) ______________ to her mother that she (probably, stay) __________________ in hospital for two weeks to run all the necessary tests. 3. Peter, (not, go) ______________ anywhere now. Mary (just, call) _______________ and (say) ___________ she (come) _______________________ in half an hour. 4. Mr Brown’s secretary (receive) ________________ a lot of letters an hour ago, but she (not, open) __________________ them yet. If she (not, open) ________________ them by noon, her boss (take) ______________ them home and (answer) __________ them himself first thing tomorrow morning. 5. (Take) _____ the Browns’ luggage to the platform, the porter (remember) _________ he (see) ___________ them at the same station last week. As Mrs Brown (have) _____ so many bags and suitcases, he (ask) ____________ another porter for help. was walking heardgot was screaminghad already run Did he steal didn’t didn’t have began saw wentthought would come hasn’t left said would probably stay don’t go has just called said would come/was coming received hasn’t opened doesn’t open will takeanswer Taking remembered had seen had asked

13 13 6. The Browns (come) __________ (see) __________ me last night. When I (invite) ____________ them (stay) ____________ for dinner, they (say) ________ they (be) ___________ in a hurry. A friend (wait) ___________________ for them in his hotel. 7. Nothing ever (happen) ___________ in this village! It (become) ________________ a dead place – all young people (drift) _________________ to towns. 8. (You, see) ________________ Philip lately? I (phone) ____________ several times last week but nobody (answer) _____________. Oh, he (be) _______________ in America for the last month. He (fly) _____________ for a conference but then he (make) ____________ up his mind (stay) ____________ for six weeks. (You, hear) ________________ from him? Yes, I (get) ____________ an letter shortly after he (arrive) _______________. 9. We often (go) ___________ out on Saturday evenings, but it (be) ________ so cold last Saturday that we (stay) _____________ in and (play) ____________ cards. What (you, play) ____________________? We (play) ____________ poker. I (lose) ____________ five pounds. (You, play) _______________ poker? I _______, but I (not, play) _______________ since I (graduate) ____________. came to see invited to staysaid werewas waiting happenshas become have drifted Have you seen phoned answered has beenflew madeto stay Have you heard gothad arrived gowas stayed played did you play playedlost Do you play do haven’t playedgraduated

14 What (the matter, be) ____________ with you? You (look) _____________ awful. I (have) ____________ a terrible toothache for days. (You, be) ______________ to the dentist? Yes, I __________, but he just (tell) _____________ me (take) _____________ some pain-killers and antibiotics. When the swelling (disappear) ____________, he (take) _______________ that tooth out. 11. When I (meet) _______________ Tom last night, I (ask) ___________ him when he (take) _________________ his degree. I (be) ________ really surprised (hear) ____________ that he (already, take) ____________________ it. 12. Yesterday our neighbour (fall) ________ while he (mount) _________________ the new antenna system on the roof. Fortunately, my father (be) ___________ at home, so he (take) _________ him to hospital at once. The doctor (say) ___________ he (stay) ___________ overnight, because he (be) ___________ afraid of possible complications. We (go) ____________ (visit) ___________ him this afternoon. 13. Where (Peter, be) _______________? Well, he (not, finish) ______________ his test yet. He (still, write) ________________ when I (leave) _________________ the classroom. is the matterlook have had Have you been have told to take disappears will take met asked would take was to hearhad already taken fell was mounting was tooksaid would stay was are going to visit is Peter hasn’t finished was still writing left / was leaving

15 15 PUT THE WORDS IN THE CORRECT ORDER (the first words are written in capital letters): 1. Peter’s, his, dirty, because, has, hands, he, are, mending, bike, been 2. a, been, since, tennis, I, small, have, I, playing, child, was 3. was, the, Jenny, good, until, friend, was going to, latest thriller, see, her, no, told, it, her 4. an, While, was planning, the owner of the company, to give, Mr Black, decided, him, to retire, extra bonus 5. In, 10, Britain, at night, big, at, o’clock, supermarkets, 7, open, o’clock, close, as late as, in the morning, and Peter’s hands are dirty because he has been mending his bike. I have been playing tennis since I was a small child. Jenny was going to see the latest thriller until her friend told her it was no good. While Mr Black was planning to retire, the owner of the company decided to give him an extra bonus. In Britain big supermarkets open at 7 o’clock in the morning and close as late as 10 o’clock at night,

16 16 6. you, any further, You, for two hours, won’t make, study, progress, every other day, if 7. has, Oxford University, different, which, in the world, colleges, one of the oldest, is, many 8. manager, her, a, later, promised, Sally’s, in pay, get, year, rise, would, she, that 9. his roommate, he, yesterday, him, Peter, was, that, visit, sure, but, was, going to, didn’t 10. you, been, Where, so long, have? met, a cup of coffee, I, and, Well, had, a friend, we You won’t make any further progress if you study for two hours every other day. Oxford University, which is one of the oldest in the world, has many different colleges. Saly’s manager promised her she would get a rise in pay later that year. Peter was sure that his roommate was going to visit him yesterday but he didn’t. Where have you been so long? Well, I met a friend and we had a cup of coffee.

17 17 CAN & MUST TENSE PRESENT SIMPLE PAST FUTURE PRESENT PERFECT PAST PERFECT FUTURE IN THE PAST CAN CAN COULD WILL BE ABLE TO HAVE / HAS BEEN ABLE TO HAD BEEN ABLE TO WOULD BE ABLE TO MUST MUST HAVE TO HAS TO HAD TO WILL HAVE TO HAVE / HAS HAD TO HAD HAD TO WOULD HAVE TO no continuous; no –s in the 3 rd person sing. must not = ne smjeti; ne morati = don’t have, doesn’t have have to = negative and interrogative with “TO DO”

18 18 TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH: 1. Moram napisati prezentaciju o osiguračima, ali nemam pojma kako se to radi. Možeš li mi pomoći? 2. Ne znam ni ja. Pitaj Petra, siguran sam da će ti on moći pomoći. 3. Zdravo, jesi li napravio prezentaciju o kojoj smo pričali neki dan? 4. Ne, još je nisam završio. Petar jučer nije mogao doći i pomoći mi. Sutra ću se morati primiti posla, rok je blizu. 5. Kada moraš predati tu prezentaciju? 6. Prekosutra. I have to make a presentation about fuses but I don’t have a clue how to do it. Can/Could you help me? I don’t know either. Ask Peter, I’m sure he’ll be able to help you. Hi, have you made the presentation we were talking about the other day? No, I haven’t finished it yet. Peter couldn’t come and help me yesterday. I’ll have to get down to work tomorrow, the deadline is near. When do you have to hand in that presentation? The day after tomorrow.

19 19 TYPE 0 IF – CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT SIMPLE - is used to express that one thing always follows automatically from another: If you heat metal, it expands. If the mains supply fails, the batteries take over. If you press this switch, the computer comes on. She glares at me if I go near her desk. What happens if one bulb in a series circuit burns out?

20 20 TYPE 1 IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSE PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT PERFECT FUTURE IMPERATIVE PRESENT (CAN, MUST...) -is used to express an open condition (something will happen or it will not happen in the future): If it doesn’t rain, the wedding reception will take place in the garden. Ako ne bude padalo, vjenčanje će se održati u vrtu. If we are expecting twenty guests, we’ll have to borrow a few chairs from our neighbours. Ako očekujemo 20 gostiju, morat ćemo posuditi stolice od susjeda. If you have been a good boy, I’ll buy you an ice-cream. Ako si bio dobar, kupit ću ti sladoled.

21 21 If you are afraid of flying, take a bus. Ako se bojiš letenja, idi busom. If it is raining already, don’t go without an umbrella. Ako već sada pada kiša, nemoj ići van bez kišobrana. If you have finished your homework, help me with the dishes. Ako si završio sa zadaćom, pomozi mi oko suđa. If I see Ann at school, I can give her the book. Ako vidim/budem vidio Anu u školi, mogu joj ja dati knjigu. If it isn’t raining, we can eat outside. Ako ne pada, možemo jesti vani. If they have offered you the job, you must accept it. Ako su ti ponudili posao, moraš ga prihvatiti.

22 22 SUPPLY THE CORRECT CONDITIONAL VERBAL FORMS (0 or 1) : 1. If you (lift) up a heavy object, you (use) up energy. 2. If I (miss) the bus this afternoon, I (get) a taxi instead. 3. They (refund) your money if you (keep) your receipt. 4. If I (make) some coffee, (you, cut) the cake? 5. If you (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment, the other passengers (object). 6. If you (feel) too hot during the night, (turn) off the central heating. 7. I always (wake) up in time even if I (not, set) my alarm clock. 8. If there (not, be) enough wine in that bottle, (go) to the cellar and (bring) a new one. 9. The ship (run) aground if the pilot (make) one mistake. 10. They (force) their way into the house if the convict (not, come) out. LIFTUSE MISS ‘LL GET MAKE WILL YOU CUT REFUNDKEEP SMOKE OBJECT/WILL OBJECT FEELTURN WAKE DON’T SET ISN’TGO BRING WILL RUN MAKES WILL FORCE DOESN’T COME

23 23 MAKE A NEW SENTENCE WITH THE SAME MEANING: 1. Mary left this morning. She will probably send us an tonight. If Mary leaves/has left this morning, she’ll probably …….. 2. Stop making that noise, I’ll hit you. If you don’t stop making that noise, I’ll ….. 3. You are driving too fast. The police will stop you. If you are driving too fast, the police ……. 4. Be in touch. Use a Samsung mobile phone. If you want to be in touch, use …… If you use a Samsung mobile phone, you’ll be in touch. 5. Save money by buying an IBM computer. If you buy an IMB computer, you’ll save money. 6. The children mustn’t go near Tom’s dog. He’ll bite them. If children go near Tom’s dog, he’ll bite them. 7. It might rain. If it does, everyone can eat inside. If it rains, everyone can eat inside.

24 24 The Future Perfect Future Perfect has two different forms: You will have perfected your English by the time you come back from the UK. and You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the UK. Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable. subjectwill have done subject am are is going to have done

25 25 Completed Action Before Something in the Future The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future. By next November, I will have received my promotion. By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house. I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock. Will she have learned enough Italian to communicate before she moves to Rome? Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon. By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests. How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?

26 26 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs) The Future Perfect with non-continuous verbs shows that something will continue up until another action in the future. I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave. By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week. The Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, the Present Perfect is used. I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework.

27 27 ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. You will only have learned a few words. Will you only have learned a few words? You are only going to have learned a few words. Are you only going to have learned a few words? ACTIVE / PASSIVE They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passiv

28 28 FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE or FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS 1. By 2018 we (live) in Madrid for 20 years. 2. He (write) a book by the end of the year. 3. (finish, you) this novel by next week? 4. He (read) this book for 15 days by the end of this week. 5. They (be) married for 40 years by the end of this month. 6. (be, she) pregnant for three months this week? 7. When will you send this message? - We (deliver) it by Friday. 8. How long does it take you to rewrite such a report? Tomorrow I (work) on it for three days. And I (finish) it by 6 p.m. will have been living will have written Will you have finished 'll have been reading 'll have been Will she have been will have delivered will have been working will have finished

29 29 9. Will Sam be ready for the test on Monday? He (revise) for a couple of weeks. But he (not, revise)everything by Monday. 10. Can I have a look at your photos tomorrow? No, I'm sorry. They (not, develop) by tomorrow. 11. Can we start the party at 3 o'clock? I don't think so. All our guests (not, arrive) by then, I'm afraid. will have been revising will not have revised will not have been developed will not have arrived The difference between future perfect and future continuous  

30 30 Future perfect and future continuous 1. (you / retire) by the time you're 60? 2. Next year, I (study) maths at university. 3. Hurry up! The film (start) soon. 4. There won't be anyone in the office. Everyone (go) home. 5. Julie (not, work) this time next week. She'll be on holiday! 6. I'm only halfway through my homework. I (not, finish) it before the teacher arrives. 7. Do you think that Les (fix) the car by tomorrow? 8. Don't phone me before 8 o'clock, we (have) dinner. Will you have retired ‘ll be studying will be starting will have gone won’t be working will not have finished will have fixed will be having

31 31 ACTIVE PRESENT TENSES time ---     present perfect present future continuous continuouscontinuous present perfect present future simple simple simple S HAVE HAS BEEN - ING do sada i dalje S AM ARE IS -ING sada sutra S SHALL WILL BE -ING S HAVE HAS PAST PARTICIPLE do sada S INFINITIVE -(E)S inače S SHALL WILL INFINITIVE

32 32 PAST TENSES time ---     past perfect past future-in-the past continuous continuous continuous S HAD BEEN - ING radnja prije yester- day S WAS WERE - ING yester- day S WOULD BE - ING past perfect past future-in-the-past simple simple simple S HAD PAST PARTICIPLE radnja prije yesterday S -(E)D yesterday S WOULD INFINITIVE

33 33 S DO DOES NOTNOT INFINITIVE DID who=koga, kome? what=što? where why when how how much how many how often how long DO DOES S INFINITIVE DID WHO = tko? WHAT = što? // -(E)S -(E)D

34 34 PASSIVE PRESENT TENSES time ---     present perfect present future continuous S AM ARE IS BEING PAST PARTICIPLE present perfect simple present simple future simple S HAVE HAS BEENBEEN PAST PARTICIPLE S AM ARE IS PAST PARTICIPLE S WILL BE PAST PARTICIPLE

35 35 PAST TENSES time ---     past perfect past future-in-the past continuous S WAS WERE BEING PAST PARTICIPLE S HAD BEEN BEEN PAST PARTICIPLE S WAS WERE PAST PARTICIPLE S WOULD BE PAST PARTICIPLE past perfect simple past simple future-in-the past simple negative  NOT interrogative  INVERSION

36 36 INFINITIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE TO INCREASE TO BE INCREASED They are going TO INCREASE overtime rates. Overtime rates are going TO BE INCREASED. CAN, COULD BE PAST PARTICIPLE MUST HAVE TO, HAS TO HAD TO WILL HAVE TO SHOULD MAY MIGHT

37 37 TALKING ABOUT THE PASSIVE VOICE TENSEACTIVEPASSIVE present simple We serve lunch at 12 o’clock every day. Lunch is served at 12 o’clock every day. present continuous We are serving lunch now.Lunch is being served now. futureWe will serve lunch at 1 o’clock tomorrow. Lunch will be served at 1 o’clock tomorrow. present perfect We have already served lunch.Lunch has been already served. past simpleWe served lunch at 12 yesterday. Lunch was served at 12 yesterday. past continuous We were serving lunch from 12 till 1 p.m. yesterday. Lunch was being served from 12 till 1 p.m. yesterday. past perfectWe had served lunch before you came. Lunch had been served before you came. negative: be + not interrogative: inversion

38 38 THE PASSIVE VOICE - is used when the speaker is more interested in the action than in the person(s) doing the action: The streets are swept every day. The gates will be closed this evening. - is used when we either do not know who the doer of the action is, or it is of little or no importance: This castle was built in the 18th century. My car has been crashed. - is used far more often in English than in some other languages (in French it is “on”, in German “man” and in Croatian, the passive voice is often replaced by reflexive verbs), - is more usually found in written language than in speech, particularly in scientific and technical writing to convey information and to develop logical arguments.

39 39 The first step toward the passive would be converting active into passive. Such exercises are useful for practical purposes, but the process is essentially an artificial one. Nevertheless, it will teach us how to form the passive. The passive tenses are made by putting the verb TO BE into the required tense (the rules for the use of passive tenses are the same as those for the active) and adding the Past Participle of the main verb. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive one: They make these suits in Italy. When did they produce the first video recorders? They told us to stop talking. Has anyone corrected the mistakes? They are making a new road here. These suits are made in Italy. When were the first video recorders produced? We were told to stop talking. Have the mistakes been corrected? A new road is being made here.

40 40 Defectives and modals (can, must, may, should..) are followed by BE and the past participle: They must take the luggage to the check-in desk. Somebody can easily mend this door. They will have to operate on him tomorrow. Nobody can repair the broken vase. People should cut down that tree. Verbs which cannot be passive: become, happen, have (=own), lack, resemble, seem, stay, suit (=be right for). Verbs which can be passive: believe, contain, include, intend, know, like, love, mean, need, owe, own, understand, want. The agent (the doer of the action), if required, is introduced at the end of the sentence with BY. The luggage must be taken to the check-in desk. This door can easily be mended. He will have to be operated on tomorrow. The broken vase cannot be repaired. That tree should be cut down.

41 41 PUT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE: 1. Boys play football all over the world. Football is played all over the world. 2. She is just washing your pullover. Your pullover is just being washed. 3. They had to write the report yesterday. The report had to be written yesterday. 4. You will take it to the cleaner's. It will be taken to the cleaner’s. 5. They have repaired her steering wheel. Her steering wheel has been repaired. 6. She can serve dinner at 6 p.m. Dinner can be served at 6 p.m. 7. Her attitude shocked me. (agent) I was shocked by her attitude.

42 42 8. Someone must teach that boy a lesson! That boy must be taught a lesson! 9. When will they paint the house? When will the house be painted? 10. He hasn’t painted the house since they built it ten years ago. (two passives) The house hasn’t been painted since it was built ten years ago. 11. Why did they send him to prison? Why was he sent to prison? 12. Haven’t they promised you a rise in salary? Haven’t you been promised a rise in salary? Hasn’t a rise in salary been promised to you? 13. Dickens probably wrote this play. (agent) This play was probably written by Dickens.

43 43 PUT THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE 1.All these grammar drills (already, print) for the students. 2. The museum (open) to visitors every day. 3. These lorries (produce) in our factory for ten years. 4. Mary (take) to hospital last week. 5. This picture (always, admire). 6. The box (not, open) for 200 years. 7. The living-room window (break) yesterday. 8. This tragic accident (forget) in a few years' time. 9. The Browns' children (usually, dress) very badly. 10. In the past the Tower of London (use) as a prison. 11. Mary (give) a bulldog for her last birthday. 12. Two of my dinner-plates (break) so far. 13. My book (publish) next year. HAVE ALREADY BEEN PRINTED IS OPENED HAVE BEEN PRODUCED WAS TAKEN IS ALWAYS ADMIRED. HASN’T BEEN OPENED WAS BROKEN WILL BE FORGOTTEN ARE USUALLY DRESSED WAS USED WAS GIVEN HAVE BEEN BROKEN WILL BE PUBLISHED

44 44 PUT THE FOLLOWING VERBS INTO THE PASSIVE VOICE: 1. A lot of destroyed houses (re-build) here since my last visit. 2. The matter (discuss) just now. 3. I (give) all the details about the trip next Saturday. 4. The door (already, shut) 5. Sometimes dinner (serve) here at 7 p.m. 6. Lots of things (find) on trams and buses every day. 7. I (punish) for something I didn't do. 8. Peter (tell) that all the tickets (already, sell) 9. A strange man (see) here an hour ago. 10. Peter (teach) French when he was in France. 11. After the thief (give) a fair trial, he (send) to prison. 12. The box (lock) and it can’t (open) now. 13. Several new motorways (build) here but European standards (not, reach) yet. 14. (You, tell) at the meeting yesterday that our company (sell) to an American businessman? 15. Have you read that our railway system (modernize) before the beginning of the next holiday season? HAVE BEEN RE-BUILT IS BEING DISCUSSED WILL BE GIVEN HAS BEEN ALREADY SHUT. IS SERVED ARE FOUND WILL BE PUNISHED WAS TOLD HAD BEEN ALREADY SOLD out. WAS SEEN WAS TAUGHT HAD BEEN GIVENWAS SENT HAS BEEN LOCKEDBE OPENED HAVE BEEN BUILT HAVEN’T BEEN REACHED WERE YOU TOLD WOULD BE SOLD WILL BE MODERNIZED

45 45 TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO ENGLISH. USE THE PASSIVE VOICE WHEREVER POSSIBLE: 1.Ne možete ovdje prelaziti rijeku jer se most upravo popravlja. The river cannot be crossed here, the bridge is just being repaired. 2. Ljudi se boje jer su pokraj skijaške staze viđeni vukovi. People are afraid becuase woolves have been seen near the ski track. 3. Shvatio je da će biti kažnjen za ono što je učinio. He realized that he would be punished for what he had done. 4. Ovo je strašno. Pogledaj! Ozlijeđenog igrača upravo iznose sa terena. This is terrible. Look! The injured player is being carried away from the playground. 5. Smeće opet nije odneseno! A svi su računi plaćeni. Again the garbage hasn’t been taken away! And all the bills have been paid. 6. Ako ti je ruka slomljena, morat će se slikati. If your arm is broken, it will have to be x-rayed.

46 46 7. Upravo je objavljeno da je sinoć ubijen jedan od ministara. It has just been announced that one of the ministers was killed last night. 8. Ovo mi već ide na živce! Takva vrsta oglasa može se vidjeti posvuda. This is getting on my nerves! Such an advertisement can be seen everywhere. 9. Vjeruje se da Tom ima informacije koje će policija koristiti u istrazi. It is believed that Tom has the information which will be used in the police investigation. 10. Čuo sam da nam neće platiti prekovremeni rad. I have heard that we will not be paid for our overtime hours. O čemu ti pričaš? Pa nikad nismo ni bili plaćeni za prekovremeni rad. What are you talking about? We have never been paid for our overtime work. 11. Da li je Tom sinoć uhićen? Was Tom arrested last night? Mislim da je, oko 2 u noći probudila me buka policijske sirene. I think he was, at about 2 a.m. I was waked up by the police siren.

47 47 ACTIVE TENSES PASSIVE TENSES ADJECTIVESSHORTENED PASSIVE SENTENCES HAVE/GET SOMETHING DONE Peter has bought a new car. If your hand is broken, it will be X-rayed first. stolen money The letter written yesterday has to be mailed at once. While I was having my hair cut the police towed away my car. He said he had paid $ for it. The rubbish hasn’t been collected yet. broken glass The house built at the end of the street looks great. His house is too small and he is having a room built on. She wondered who had left the door open. The streets in our town are swept every day. an infuriated woman Convinced that they were trying to poison him, he refused to eat anything. Do you have your car washed or do you wash it yourself? We have known each other for a long time. Those pyramids were built around 400 A.D. a written report The printer bought yesterday does not give good copies. I’ve been getting a lot of annoying phone calls so I’m going to have my number changed. PAST PARTICIPLE

48 48 INSERT PRESENT or PAST PARTICIPLES IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES: 1. There is a (break) window in the hall. It should be (repair) at once. 2. You said you were (bore) but I think the lesson was quite (interest). 3. Who’s the fat man (sit) in the corner? I don’t know. I have never (see) him before. 4. The speaker was so (bore) that most people left before the lecture was over. 5. Peter is so (interest) in astronomy that he has already (decide) to study it. 6. I’ll never get (marry) ! I don’t want to spend my life (surround) by dirty washing and (scream) children. 7. Most of the people (invite) to the party didn’t turn up so the food was (take) to a charity home. BROKEN BE REPAIRED BORED INTERESTING SITTING SEEN BORING INTERESTED DECIDED MARRIED SURROUNDED SCREAMING INVITED TAKEN

49 49 8. Peter’s scholarship will be (grant) in a few days. At least he was (tell) so. 9. If a story is (excite), you will be (excite) when you read it. 10. (Open) the door of my room, I saw him (drink) my whisky. 11. He told me somebody had (phone) while I was out. 12. They were (quarrel) about the property their father had (leave) them when he died. 13. I wanted to go to the theatre last night, but when I got there I saw that it was (close) by the police on the orders of the mayor. GRANTED TOLD EXCITING EXCITED OPENING DRINKING PHONED QUARRELLING LEFT CLOSED

50 50 Active is used when the subject of the sentence actually DOES the action expressed by the verb. Passive is used when the subject of the sentence DOES NOT DO the action expressed by the verb, it “suffers” the action of the verb. Remember the Croatian word for the Passive Voice! ACTIVE : PASSIVE

51 51 INSERT THE PRESENT SIMPLE PASSIVE or ACTIVE: Solar energy (be) clean green electricity that (either, create) from sunlight or from heat from the sun. Having solar energy in your home, usually (mean) setting up a solar photovoltaic system on your roof. What (photovoltaic, mean) ? Photo (stand) for light and photons (be) energy particles coming from sunlight. Voltaic (denote) “producing a voltage or volts”. Abbreviation for “photovoltaic” (be) PV. Solar energy (be) one of the renewable energy sources. Although it (not, be) inexhaustible, it (be) sustainable unlike fossil fuels which (be) finite. It is also a non-polluting source of energy and it (not, emit) any greenhouse gases when electricity (produce) IS IS EITHER CREATED MEANS DOES PHOTOVOLTAIC MEAN STANDS ARE DENOTES IS ISN’T IS ARE DOESN’T EMIT IS PRODUCED.

52 52 The solar energy that (produce) can supplement your entire or partial energy consumption. Using solar power (mean) reducing your energy bills and saving money. If a PV system (install) on the roof of your home, the value of your home (increase) The system (require) low maintenance. Solar thermal applications (be) the most widely used category of solar energy technology. They (use) heat from the sun for water and space heating, ventilation, and many other applications. IS PRODUCED MEANS IS INSTALLED IS INCREASED INCREASES. REQUIRES ARE USE

53 53 INSERT ACTIVE or PASSIVE: The power of moving water (recognize) a long time ago and rivers (use) as transport corridors for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians, for example, (float) down the Nile River on the water current and they (learn) to harness the wind’s energy to sail up it again. Essentially, river-based water power (be) another form of indirect solar energy because it (use) the potential energy in rain water (or melted snow) as it (drain) back to the oceans. The available energy (depend) on the quantity of water and the drop in elevation along the path of flow. The energy in the stream of water (convert) to rotational energy by means of a water wheel or turbine. One liter of water, falling about 150 meters per second, can generate one kilowatt of electricity. Around 200 BC, the water wheel (be) the first invention created to harness the mechanical power of water. The water wheel (develop) more than 2000 years ago in two forms - horizontal and vertical. The vertical wheel (first, use) to lift water and drain mining pits. WAS RECOGNIZED HAVE BEEN USED FLOATED LEARNED IS USES DRAINS DEPENDS IS CONVERTED WAS WAS DEVELOPED WAS FIRST USED

54 54 Soon afterwards, people (recognize) that flowing water (can) turn the wheel. Then dams and channels (build) to control the flow of water. The horizontal wheel (can) drive millstones directly and (be) simple to build and repair. The vertical wheel (need) a pair of gear wheels to turn the rotating force through 90 degrees but it (be) much more powerful and efficient. Water wheels (put) to work in a wide variety of activities during the Middle Ages, which (last) until the fifteenth century. The power of water wheels (use) to grind grain, make paper and cloth and operate some kinds of ancient tools. In 1090, a 12-metre high clock driven by waterwheels (build) in China. RECOGNIZEDCOULD WERE BUILT COULD WAS NEEDED WAS WERE PUT LASTED WAS USED WAS BUILT

55 55 INSERT PROPER VERBAL FORMS (ACTIVE or PASSIVE, all tenses): 1. Where (transformers, use) ? 2. They (tell) she'd meet them. 3. This project must (study) very carefully. 4. The meeting (organize) as a protest against the war but in the end it (use) by politicians for their own promotion. 5. She (tell) to meet them at the airport at 9 p.m.. 6. She (tell) me she (meet) them at the airport at 9 p.m. 7. We (ask) what device (use) to prevent the short circuit, but nobody had a clue. 8. The boiler (explode) while the steam (heat) to the temperature of more than 200o C. 9. What (you, do) if you (win) a million pound? ARE TRANSFORMERS USED WERE TOLD BE STUDIED WAS ORGANIZED WAS USED WAS TOLD TOLDWOULD MEET WERE ASKEDWAS USED EXPLODEDWAS BEING HEATED WILL YOU DO WIN

56 Mary, all these letters must (answer) before you (go) home. 11. Yesterday our geography teacher (explain) why Africa (discover) before Australia. 12. The induction motor (construct) more than a hundred years ago. Tesla (patent) it in What (a power plant, supply) us with? 14. Although it was C. Columbus who (discover) America, the continent (name) after Amerigo Vespucci. 15. President John F. Kennedy (assassinate) in Dallas in 1963, but the truth about his assassin (never, confirm). 16. Oldtimers can (see) in the Technical museum from 9 a.m. till 6 p.m. every day. 17. (You, ever, visit) the Mimara art collection? BE ANSWEREDGO WAS EXPLAINING HAD NOT BEEN DISCOVERED WAS CONSTRUCTED PATENTED DOES A POWER PLANT SUPPLY DISCOVERED WAS NAMED WAS ASSASSINATED HAS NEVER BEEN CONIFIRMED. BE SEEN HAVE YOU EVER VISITED

57 57 Not really, but I (hear) that since it (open) in 1986, it (visit) by thousands of people. 18. Yesterday evening the club (close) by the police because a snitch (badly injure) and (leave) under the staircase. 19. The principles of electromagnetism (first, formulate) by Ampere, in whose honour the unit of current intensity (later, name). 20. Energy may (define) as the capacity for doing work. 21. The principle of the conservation of energy may (state) as follows: "Energy cannot (create) or (destroy) but it may (convert) from one form to another. 22. When the police (open) his apartment they (find) out that he (be) dead for two days. 23. The method for storing solar energy (not, discover) yet although scientists (work) on it very hard for years. HAVE HEARD WAS OPENED HAS BEEN VISITED WAS CLOSED HAD BEEN BADLY INJURED LEFT WERE FIRST FORMULATED WAS LATER NAMED BE DEFINED BE STATED BE CREATEDDESTROYED BE CONVERTED OPENED FOUND HAD BEEN HAS NOT BEEN DISCOVERED HAVE BEEN WORKING


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