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 Modal verbs are unusual verbs that express modality.

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Presentation on theme: " Modal verbs are unusual verbs that express modality."— Presentation transcript:


2  Modal verbs are unusual verbs that express modality.

3  They have some differences from normal verbs, the most important one is: › Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person in singular.  Examples:  He can speak Chinese.  She should be here by 9:00.

4 Had to:  Sorry I’m late, I had to post some letters..

5 Should have and ought to have:  The parcel I sent you should have arrived by now.  You shouldn’t have eaten so much last night.  I should have thought you knew.  It was strange that you should have been staying in the same hotel last year.  I’ve done the washing up for you. –Oh, you really shouldn’t have!

6 Could have and couldn’t have:  David could have won the race if he had tried. (possibility/ability) It could have been Sue, I suppose. (uncertainty)  We couldn’t have been happier in those days.  She could have gone to the party with her friends. (bus she didn’t)

7 Could:  When I was sixteen I could stay out till 11.00. (I was allowed to) Mary could swim when she was three. (she actually did) Compare: Mary could have swum when se was three. (but she didn’t) May have and might have:  You might have drowned!  I suppose I may have been rather critical.  They might not have received our letter yet.

8  You might have told me my trousers were split!  I might have known that he would be late. Must have and can’t have  Someone must have taken it. (I am sure they did) You can’t have lost it. (I am sure you didn’t)  Surely you can’t have eaten all of it! Surely you must have noticed it!

9 Would not:  Everyone was angry because Sam wouldn’t turn off the television. Would have:  I would have accepted this job, but I didn’t want to move house.  A: Someone called after you left but didn’t leave a message. B: That would have been Cathy, probably.

10 Needn’t have and didn’t need to:  You needn’t have paid all at once. (you did pay)  I didn’t need to go to the dentist again, luckily. Adverbs and modals:  You coul easily have been killed. I might just take up on that. You couldn’t really have managed without me. I might well decide to come.

11  Don’t have to and must not: › Don’t have to:  You don’t have to work tomorrow

12  Must not › You must not leave the room until we finish our presentation

13  Expectation: › This film *should be very good  Recommendation › I think you *should talk it over with your parents  Criticism of an action › You *shouldn’t eat so much late at night

14  Uncertainty › Should I leave this papers on the desk?  Should and verbs of thinking › I should think that model would sell quite well  Conditional sentences

15  Is used to express possibility or uncertainty › This could be the house  To express possibility or impossibility › The situation couldn’t be worse

16  To make suggestions › We could go to see that film  To express unwillingness › I couldn’t possibly leave Tim here on his own

17  To make criticism › You can be very annoying, you know!  To refer to capability › Winter here can be really cold

18  They only refer to present time. If they are expressing certainty, they are opposites: › This must be our stop › This can’t be our stop

19  To express although clauses › She may be the boss, but that is no excuse for shouting like that  May/might as well › Nobody else is going to turn up now for the lesson, so you may as well go home

20  Both express uncertainty. May is often used in formal language › The peace conference may find a solution to the problem  Special use: › Try as I might, I could not pass my driving test

21  To emphasize something that the speaker wants to happen › I shall give up smoking this year  Formal rules and regulations › No player shall pick up or move the ball of another player

22  To express an assumption › Subject A: The phone’s ringing › Subejct B: that’ll be for me  Will/won`t can be used to emphasize an action, forbid it in response to a will action › I’ll take the money anyway! › You won’t › I will

23  Often used where a conditional sense is understood but not stated › Nobody would agree that idea

24  Need to is a modal auxilary and behaves like a normal verb › Do you need to use the photocopier?  Need is a modal auxiliary, but mainly in question and negative forms › Need you make so much noise?

25  Can be an intransitive verb followed by infinitive with “to” › I didn’t dare to say anything  It can also be a modal auxiliary, mainly in questions and negatives › She dare not refuse

26  Had better: recommendation › You’d better not phone her again  Be bound to: makes a future prediction of certainty › It’s bound to rain tomorrow

27  teractivemodal1.htm teractivemodal1.htm  htm htm

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