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Chapter 15 Interfacing to the Analog World 1

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Objectives You should be able to: Perform the basic calculations involved in the analysis of operational amplifier circuits. Perform the basic calculations involved in the analysis of operational amplifier circuits. Explain the operation of binary-weighted and R/2R digital-to-analog converters. Explain the operation of binary-weighted and R/2R digital-to-analog converters. Make the external connections to a digital-to-analog IC to convert a numeric binary string into a proportional analog voltage. Make the external connections to a digital-to-analog IC to convert a numeric binary string into a proportional analog voltage. 2

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Objectives (Continued) Discuss the meaning of the specifications for converter ICs as given in a manufacturer’s data manual. Discuss the meaning of the specifications for converter ICs as given in a manufacturer’s data manual. Explain the operation of parallel-encoded counter- ramp, and successive-approximation analog-digital converters. Explain the operation of parallel-encoded counter- ramp, and successive-approximation analog-digital converters. 3

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Objectives (Continued) Make the external connections to an analog-to- digital converters IC to convert an analog voltage to a corresponding binary string. Make the external connections to an analog-to- digital converters IC to convert an analog voltage to a corresponding binary string. Discuss the operation of a typical data acquisition system. Discuss the operation of a typical data acquisition system. 4

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Digital and Analog Representations An analog signal can be represented with digital values at some time interval. An analog signal can be represented with digital values at some time interval. 5

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Digital and Analog Representations Four binary positions = 4-bit resolution Four binary positions = 4-bit resolution 16 different representations 16 different representations Eight binary positions = 8-bit resolution Eight binary positions = 8-bit resolution 256 different representations 256 different representations 6

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Operational Amplifier Basics Very high input impedance Very high input impedance Very high voltage gain Very high voltage gain Very low output impedance Very low output impedance 7

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Discussion Point Determine V out Determine V out 8

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Binary-Weighted Digital-to-Analog Converters Sum of the currents from the input resistors Sum of the currents from the input resistors Binary weighting factor Binary weighting factor 9

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Binary-Weighted Digital-to-Analog Converters Accurate resistance over a wide range is difficult Accurate resistance over a wide range is difficult Not practical for conversions greater than 4-bit Not practical for conversions greater than 4-bit 10

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R/2R Ladder Digital-to-Analog Converters Only two resistor values Only two resistor values 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 bit resolutions are common 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 bit resolutions are common 11

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R/2R Ladder Digital-to-Analog Converters Current division and analog output versus digital input Current division and analog output versus digital input 12

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R/2R Ladder Digital-to-Analog Converters Current division and analog output versus digital input Current division and analog output versus digital input 13

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Integrated-Circuit Digital-to- Analog Converters DAC0808 block diagram and pin configuration DAC0808 block diagram and pin configuration 14

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Integrated-Circuit Digital-to- Analog Converters DAC0808 Application DAC0808 Application 14

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Integrated-Circuit Digital-to- Analog Converters Testing the 256-step output of a DAC with an 8 bit counter Testing the 256-step output of a DAC with an 8 bit counter 15

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Integrated-Circuit Digital-to- Analog Converters Multisim DAC simulation Multisim DAC simulation 16

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IC Data Converter Specifications Differential nonlinearity Differential nonlinearity Gain error Gain error Missing codes Missing codes 17

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IC Data Converter Specifications Nonmonotonic, offset error, relative accuracy, settling time, and 3-bit ADC transfer characteristic Nonmonotonic, offset error, relative accuracy, settling time, and 3-bit ADC transfer characteristic 18

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Parallel-Encoded Analog-to-Digital Converters Parallel encoding Parallel encoding Also called simultaneous, multiple comparator, or flash converting Also called simultaneous, multiple comparator, or flash converting Several comparators with different reference voltages drive a priority encoder Several comparators with different reference voltages drive a priority encoder 19

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Parallel-Encoded Analog-to-Digital Converters Three-bit parallel encoded ADC Three-bit parallel encoded ADC priority encoder priority encoder Analog range of 0-7 V Analog range of 0-7 V 3 bit (8 level) resolution 3 bit (8 level) resolution 20

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Counter-Ramp Analog-to-Digital Converters Counter used in conjunction with a D/A converter Counter used in conjunction with a D/A converter To change for continuous conversions end-of- conversion line is tied back to clear input To change for continuous conversions end-of- conversion line is tied back to clear input Disadvantage is slow conversion time Disadvantage is slow conversion time 21

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Counter-Ramp Analog-to-Digital Converters (Figure 15-12) 21

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Successive-Approximation Analog-to-Digital Conversion Most used in modern ADC ICs Most used in modern ADC ICs Converter circuit is similar to counter-ramp Converter circuit is similar to counter-ramp Uses successive approximation register to quickly narrow in on the analog value Uses successive approximation register to quickly narrow in on the analog value Result is a much faster conversion when compared to the counter-ramp method Result is a much faster conversion when compared to the counter-ramp method 23

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Successive-Approximation Analog-to-Digital Conversion Simplified SAR A/D converter Simplified SAR A/D converter 24

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Integrated-Circuit Analog-to-Digital Converters NE5034 – similar to the SAR ADC just presented but uses a three-state output buffer instead of a D flip-flop NE5034 – similar to the SAR ADC just presented but uses a three-state output buffer instead of a D flip-flop Conversion speeds up to 17 s Conversion speeds up to 17 s Compatible with bus oriented microprocessors Compatible with bus oriented microprocessors 25

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Integrated-Circuit Analog-to-Digital Converters NE5034 block diagram and pin configuration NE5034 block diagram and pin configuration 26

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Integrated-Circuit Analog-to- Digital Converters ADC 0804 ADC 0804 Successive-approximation Successive-approximation Two analog inputs for differential measurements Two analog inputs for differential measurements Internal clock (determined by external R and C) Internal clock (determined by external R and C) Operation similar to NE5034 Operation similar to NE5034 Analog and digital ground are both provided Analog and digital ground are both provided 27

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Integrated-Circuit Analog-to- Digital Converters ADC 0804 block diagram and pin configuration ADC 0804 block diagram and pin configuration 28

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Data Acquisition System Application Data bus Data bus Control bus Control bus Analog Multiplexer Switch (AM3705) Analog Multiplexer Switch (AM3705) Sample-and-Hold Circuit (LF198) Sample-and-Hold Circuit (LF198) Programmable-Gain Instrumentation Amplifier (LH0084) Programmable-Gain Instrumentation Amplifier (LH0084) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC0804) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC0804) 29

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Data Acquisition System Application 29

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Transducers and Signal Conditioning Physical quantities to electrical quantities Physical quantities to electrical quantities Must be conditioned due to different output ranges and signals Must be conditioned due to different output ranges and signals Manufacturers specifications must be studied Manufacturers specifications must be studied Analog output of transducer is converted to binary by ADC Analog output of transducer is converted to binary by ADC Data can then be manipulated by software Data can then be manipulated by software 31

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Transducers and Signal Conditioning Thermistor resistance is dependent on temperature and response is nonlinear Thermistor resistance is dependent on temperature and response is nonlinear 32

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Transducers and Signal Conditioning Thermistors – Example conversion circuit Thermistors – Example conversion circuit 33

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Transducers and Signal Conditioning Linear IC Temperature Sensors Linear IC Temperature Sensors Simplify process of converting a nonlinear response Simplify process of converting a nonlinear response 34

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Transducers and Signal Conditioning The Strain Gage The Strain Gage Resistance changes when stretched Resistance changes when stretched Example of signal conditioning for a strain gage Example of signal conditioning for a strain gage 35

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Summary Any analog quantity can be represented by a binary number. Longer binary numbers provide higher resolution, which gives a more accurate representation of the analog quantity. Any analog quantity can be represented by a binary number. Longer binary numbers provide higher resolution, which gives a more accurate representation of the analog quantity. The binary-weighted D/A converter is the simplest to construct, but it has practical limitations in resolution (number of input bits). The binary-weighted D/A converter is the simplest to construct, but it has practical limitations in resolution (number of input bits). 36

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Summary Operational amplifiers are important building blocks in analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters. They provide a means for summing currents at the input and converting a current to a voltage at the output of converter circuits. Operational amplifiers are important building blocks in analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters. They provide a means for summing currents at the input and converting a current to a voltage at the output of converter circuits. The R/2R ladder D/A converter uses only two different resistor values, no matter how many binary input bits are included. This allows for very high resolution and ease of fabrication in integrated- circuit form. The R/2R ladder D/A converter uses only two different resistor values, no matter how many binary input bits are included. This allows for very high resolution and ease of fabrication in integrated- circuit form. 37

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Summary The DAC0808 (or MC1408) IC is an 8-bit D/A converter that uses the R/2R ladder method of conversion. It accepts 8 binary input bits and outputs an equivalent analog current. Having 8 input bits means that it can resolve up to 256 unique binary values into equivalent analog values. The DAC0808 (or MC1408) IC is an 8-bit D/A converter that uses the R/2R ladder method of conversion. It accepts 8 binary input bits and outputs an equivalent analog current. Having 8 input bits means that it can resolve up to 256 unique binary values into equivalent analog values. 38

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Summary Applying an 8-bit counter to the input of an 8- bit D/A converter will produce a 256-step sawtooth waveform at its output. Applying an 8-bit counter to the input of an 8- bit D/A converter will produce a 256-step sawtooth waveform at its output. The simplest way to build an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter is to use the parallel encoding method. The disadvantage is that it is practical only for low-resolution applications. The simplest way to build an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter is to use the parallel encoding method. The disadvantage is that it is practical only for low-resolution applications. 39

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Summary The counter-ramp A/D converter employs a counter, a D/A converter, and a comparator to make its conversion. The counter counts from zero up to a value that causes the D/A output to exceed the analog input value slightly. That binary count is then output as the equivalent to the analog input. The counter-ramp A/D converter employs a counter, a D/A converter, and a comparator to make its conversion. The counter counts from zero up to a value that causes the D/A output to exceed the analog input value slightly. That binary count is then output as the equivalent to the analog input. 40

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Summary The method of A/D conversion used most often is called successive approximation. In this method, successive bits are tested to see if they contribute an equivalent analog value that is greater than the analog input to be converted. If they do, they are returned to zero. After all bits are tested, the ones that are left ON are used as the final digital equivalent to the analog input. The method of A/D conversion used most often is called successive approximation. In this method, successive bits are tested to see if they contribute an equivalent analog value that is greater than the analog input to be converted. If they do, they are returned to zero. After all bits are tested, the ones that are left ON are used as the final digital equivalent to the analog input. 41

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Summary The NE5034 and the ADC0802 are examples of A/D converter ICs. To make a conversion, the start-conversion pin is made LOW. When the conversion is completed the end-of-conversion pin goes LOW. Then to read the digital output, the output enable pin is made LOW. The NE5034 and the ADC0802 are examples of A/D converter ICs. To make a conversion, the start-conversion pin is made LOW. When the conversion is completed the end-of-conversion pin goes LOW. Then to read the digital output, the output enable pin is made LOW. 42

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Summary Data acquisition systems are used to read several different analog inputs, respond to the values read, store the results, and generate reports on the information gathered. Data acquisition systems are used to read several different analog inputs, respond to the values read, store the results, and generate reports on the information gathered. Transducers are devices that convert physical quantities such as heat, light, or force into electrical quantities. Those electrical quantities must then be conditioned (or modified) before they can be interpreted by a digital computer. Transducers are devices that convert physical quantities such as heat, light, or force into electrical quantities. Those electrical quantities must then be conditioned (or modified) before they can be interpreted by a digital computer. 43

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