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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 1 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Chapter 7 Steady-State Errors

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 2 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Table 7.1 Test waveforms for evaluating steady- state errors of position control systems

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 3 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.1 Test inputs for steady-state error analysis and design vary with target type

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 4 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.2 Steady-state error: a. step input; b. ramp input

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 5 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.3 Closed-loop control system error: a. general representation; b. representation for unity feedback systems

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 6 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.4 System with: a. finite steady-state error for a step input; b. zero steady-state error for step input

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 7 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.5 Feedback control system for Example 7.2

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 8 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.6 Feedback control system for Example 7.3

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 9 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.7 Feedback control systems for Example 7.4

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 10 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.8 Feedback control system for defining system type

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 11 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Table 7.2 Relationships between input, system type, static error constants, and steady- state errors

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 12 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.9 A robot used in the manufacturing of semiconductor random-access memories (RAMs) similar to those in personal computers. Steady-state error is an important design consideration for assembly-line robots. © Westlight/ Charles ORear.

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 13 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.10 Feedback control system for Example 7.6

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 14 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.11 Feedback control system showing disturbance

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 15 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.12 Figure 7.11 system rearranged to show disturbance as input and error as output, with R(s) = 0

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 16 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.13 Feedback control system for Example 7.7

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 17 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.14 System for Skill-Assessment Exercise 7.4

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 18 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.15 Forming an equivalent unity feedback system from a general nonunity feedback system

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 19 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.16 Nonunity feedback control system for Example 7.8

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 20 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.17 Nonunity feedback control system with disturbance

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 21 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.18 Nonunity feedback system for Skill-Assessment Exercise 7.5

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 22 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.19 Feedback control system for Examples 7.10 and 7.11

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 23 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.20 Feedback control system for Example 7.12

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 24 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.21 System for Skill-Assessment Exercise 7.6

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 25 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.22 Video laser disc recording: control system for focusing write beam

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 26 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.23 Video disc laser recording: a. focus detector optics; b. linearized transfer function for focus detector © 1985, Prentice Hall, Inc.

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 27 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure 7.24 Video laser disc recording focusing system

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 28 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.1

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 29 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.2

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 30 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.3

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 31 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.4

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 32 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Table P7.1

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 33 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.5

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 34 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.6

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 35 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.7

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 36 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.8

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 37 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.9

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 38 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.10

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 39 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.11

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 40 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.12

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 41 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.13 Closed-loop systems with nonunity feedback

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 42 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.14

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 43 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.15

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 44 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.16

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 45 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.17

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 46 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.18 System with input and disturbance

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 47 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.19

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 48 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.20 System with input and disturbance

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 49 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.21 Automobile guidance system a. displacement control system; b. velocity control loop

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 50 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.22 Block diagram of a paramagnetic oxygen analyzer

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 51 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.23 Space station Freedom: a. configuration (figure continues) © 1992 AIAA.

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 52 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.23 (continued) b. simplified block diagram c. alpha joint drive train and control system © 1992 AIAA.

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 53 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.24 Position control system

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 54 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.25 Boat tracked by ships radar: a. physical arrangement; b. block diagram of tracking system

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 55 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.26 Simplified block diagram of a pilot in a loop © 1992 AIAA.

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 56 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Figure P7.27 a. Force control mechanical loop under contact motion (©1996 IEEE); b. block diagram (©1996 IEEE)

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 57 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Table 7.1 Test waveforms for evaluating steady- state errors of position control systems

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 58 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Table 7.2 Relationships between input, system type, static error constants, and steady- state errors

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Chapter 7: Steady-State Errors 59 ©2000, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nise/Control Systems Engineering, 3/e Table P7.1

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