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FIGURE 3.1 System for illustrating Boolean applications to control. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson.

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Presentation on theme: "FIGURE 3.1 System for illustrating Boolean applications to control. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIGURE 3.1 System for illustrating Boolean applications to control. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

2 FIGURE 3.2 Solution for Example 3.5. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

3 FIGURE 3.3 Solution for Example 3.6. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

4 FIGURE 3.4 Generic model of a computer bus system. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

5 FIGURE 3.5 Tri-state buffers allow multiple signals to share a single digital line in the bus. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

6 FIGURE 3.6 A basic comparator compares voltages and produces a digital output. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

7 FIGURE 3.7 Diagram of a solution to Example 3.7. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

8 FIGURE 3.8 Many comparators use an open-collector output. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

9 FIGURE 3.9 A comparator output will jiggle when a noisy signal passes through the reference voltage level. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

10 FIGURE 3.10 A generic DAC diagram, showing typical input and output signals. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

11 FIGURE 3.10 (continued) A generic DAC diagram, showing typical input and output signals. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

12 FIGURE 3.11 A generic DAC diagram, showing typical input and output signals. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

13 FIGURE 3.12 A typical DAC is often implemented using a ladder network of resistors. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

14 FIGURE 3.13 A generic ADC diagram, showing typical input and output signals and noting the conversion time. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

15 FIGURE 3.14 A typical data-acquisition timing diagram using an ADC. The read operation may occur at any time after the end-of- convert has been issued by the ADC. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

16 FIGURE 3.15 One common method of implementing an ADC is the successive approximation of parallel-feedback system using an internal DAC. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

17 FIGURE 3.16 The dual-slope ADC uses an op amp integrator, comparator, and counter. This is commonly used in digital voltmeters. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

18 FIGURE 3.17 A typical timing diagram of a dual-slope ADC. Since both slopes depend upon R and C, the ADC output is independent of the values of these components. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

19 FIGURE 3.18 Analog circuit for Example Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

20 FIGURE 3.19 Input signal for Example Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

21 FIGURE 3.20 The basic concept of a sample-and-hold circuit for use with the ADC. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

22 FIGURE 3.21 The sampled signal is literally held during the ADC conversion process. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

23 FIGURE 3.22 A S/H often uses a FET as an electronic switch. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

24 FIGURE 3.23 During (a) sampling and (b) holding, equivalent circuit resistance creates nonideal effects. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

25 FIGURE 3.24 An ADC can be interfaced directly to the computer bus if it has tri-state outputs. Address decoding is required so the ADC can be operated by computer software. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

26 FIGURE 3.25 General diagram of a frequency-based analog-to-digital converter. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

27 FIGURE 3.26 The LM331 is a common voltage-to-frequency converter useful in frequency-based ADCs. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

28 FIGURE 3.27 The 555 timer is useful for generation of a frequency that depends upon resistance or capacity. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

29 FIGURE 3.28 Response from Example Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

30 FIGURE 3.29 Typical layout of a data-acquisition board for use in a personal computer expansion slot. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

31 FIGURE 3.30 An analog multiplexer acts as a multiposition switch for selecting particular inputs to the ADC. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

32 FIGURE 3.31 Software for data acquisition involves operations to start the ADC, test the EOC, and input the data. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

33 FIGURE 3.32 Solution to Example Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

34 FIGURE 3.33 The sampling rate can disguise actual signal details. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

35 FIGURE 3.34 Pressure data for Example Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

36 FIGURE 3.35 Linearization by table look-up can be accomplished by the operations in this flowchart. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

37 FIGURE 3.36 System for Problems 3.10 and Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

38 FIGURE 3.37 System for Problem S3.3. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.


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