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FIGURE 1.1 The objective is to regulate the level of liquid in the tank, h, to the value H. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology,

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Presentation on theme: "FIGURE 1.1 The objective is to regulate the level of liquid in the tank, h, to the value H. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology,"— Presentation transcript:

1 FIGURE 1.1 The objective is to regulate the level of liquid in the tank, h, to the value H. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

2 FIGURE 1.2 A human can regulate the level using a sight tube, S, to compare the level, h, to the objective, H, and adjust a valve to change the level. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

3 FIGURE 1.3 An automatic level-control system replaces the human with a controller and uses a sensor to measure the level. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

4 FIGURE 1.4 Servomechanism-type control systems are used to move a robot arm from point A to point B in a controlled fashion. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

5 FIGURE 1.5 This block diagram of a control loop defines all the basic elements and signals involved. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

6 FIGURE 1.6 The physical diagram of a control loop and its corresponding block diagram look similar. Note the use of current- and pressure-transmission signals. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

7 FIGURE 1.6 (continued) The physical diagram of a control loop and its corresponding block diagram look similar. Note the use of current- and pressure-transmission signals. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

8 FIGURE 1.7 A control system can actually cause a system to become unstable. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

9 FIGURE 1.8 One of the measures of control system performance is how the system responds to changes of setpoint or a transient disturbance. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

10 FIGURE 1.9 In cyclic or underdamped response, the variable will exhibit oscillations about the reference value. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

11 FIGURE 1.10 Two criteria for judging the quality of control-system response are the minimum area and quarter amplitude. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

12 FIGURE 1.11 Graph (a) shows how output variable b changes as an analog of variable c. Graph (b) shows how a digital output variable, n, would change with variable c. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

13 FIGURE 1.12 An ADC converts analog data, such as voltage, into a digital representation, in this case 4 bits. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

14 FIGURE 1.13 This ON/OFF control system can either heat or cool or do neither. No variation of the degree of heating or cooling is possible. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

15 FIGURE 1.14 An analog control system such as this allows continuous variation of some parameter, such as heat input, as a function of error. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

16 FIGURE 1.15 In supervisory control, the computer monitors measurements and updates setpoints, but the loops are still analog in nature. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

17 FIGURE 1.16 This direct digital control system lets the computer perform the error detection and controller functions. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

18 FIGURE 1.17 Local area networks (LANs) play an important role in modern process-control plants. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

19 FIGURE 1.18 A programmable logic controller (PLC) is an outgrowth of ON/OFF-type control environments. In this case the heater and cooler are either ON or OFF. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

20 FIGURE 1.19 Electric current and pneumatic pressures are the most common means of information transmission in the industrial environment. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

21 FIGURE 1.20 One of the advantages of current as a transmission signal is that it is nearly independent of line resistance. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

22 FIGURE 1.21 A transfer function shows how a system-block output variable varies in response to an input variable, as a function of both static input value and time. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

23 FIGURE 1.22 Uncertainties in block transfer functions build up as more blocks are involved in the transformation. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

24 FIGURE 1.23 Hysteresis is a predictable error resulting from differences in the transfer function as the input variable increases or decreases. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

25 FIGURE 1.24 Comparison of an actual curve and its best-fit straight line, where the maximum deviation is 5% FS. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

26 FIGURE 1.25 A P&ID uses special symbols and lines to show the devices and interconnections in a process-control system. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

27 FIGURE 1.26 Computers and programmable logic controllers are included in the P&ID. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

28 FIGURE 1.27 The dynamic transfer function specifies how a sensor output varies when the input changes instantaneously in time (i.e., a step change). Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

29 FIGURE 1.28 Characteristic first-order exponential time response of a sensor to a step change of input. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

30 FIGURE 1.29 Characteristic second-order oscillatory time response of a sensor. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

31 FIGURE 1.30 Multiple readings are taken of some variable with an actual value, V. The distributions show that sensor A has a smaller standard deviation than sensor B. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

32 FIGURE 1.31 Figure for Problem 1.4. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

33 FIGURE 1.32 Figure for Problem 1.5. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

34 FIGURE 1.33 Figure for Problem S1.1. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

35 FIGURE 1.34 Figure for Problem S1.5. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

36 FIGURE 1.35 Figure for Problem S1.7. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

37 FIGURE 1.36 Figure for Problem S1.8. Curtis Johnson Process Control Instrumentation Technology, 8e] Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.


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