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1. 2 3 4 Adders Used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division (sometimes) Half-adder adds rightmost (least significant) bit Full-adder.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 3 4 Adders Used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division (sometimes) Half-adder adds rightmost (least significant) bit Full-adder."— Presentation transcript:

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4 4 Adders Used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division (sometimes) Half-adder adds rightmost (least significant) bit Full-adder adds all other bits, since a 1 may be carried into it. Use carry-out from one adder as the carry-in for the next adder Combinational circuit (no memory)

5 5 Half adder –Inputs two 1-bit values, X and Y –Outputs their 2-bit sum as bits C and S C is carry S is the sum A Half Adder (HA) is a 2-input, 2-output combinational circuit that adds the inputs and produces a Sum and a Carry The Boolean expressions and the circuit for the Sum S and the carry C are given below: Half-Adder

6 6 Only this circuit is a Half-Adder –Other circuits may be equivalent, however Result Carry

7 7 Half-Adder

8 8 How to know a circuit is equivalent to half-adder ? Circuit is equivalent to a half-adder if both truth tables have identical output Cannot be used if there could be a carry-in bit So used to add least significant (rightmost) bit. Very important circuit in computers. Addition is very common Half-adder is found in every computer, calculator, digital watch… Half-Adder

9 9 Binary Full Adder A Full Adder (FA) is a 3-input, 2-output combinational circuit that adds the inputs and produces a Sum and a Carry The third input can be perceived as the carry from a previous addition The Boolean expressions and for the Sum S and the carry C, obtained from their K-Maps, are given below:

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13 13 Multiplexer A multiplexer (MUX) is a device that accepts data from one of many input sources for transmission over a common shared line. To achieve this the MUX has several data lines and a single output along with data-select inputs, which permit digital data on any one of the inputs to be switched to the output line. The logic symbol for a 1-of-4 data selector/ multiplexer is shown below, along with its associated table. Logic symbol for 1-of-4 multiplexer

14 14 Active high MUX

15 15 Active Low MUX

16 16 Data Select InputsInput Selected S1S1 S0S0 00D0D0 01D1D1 10D2D2 11D3D3 Table of Operation Note that if a binary zero appears on the data-select lines then data on input line D 0 will appear on the output. Thus, data output Y is equal to D 0 if and only if S 1 =0 and S 0 =0

17 17 Similarly, the data output is equal to D1, D2 and D3 for, and, respectively. Thus the total multiplexer logic expression, formed from ORing terms is

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19 19 Larger MUX Technique: use hierarchies of smaller components Example: creating 4x1 mux from 2x1 mux –Will create a 2-level mux tree –First level takes the initial inputs –The results from the first level are fed into the second level

20 20 Hierarchy Approach Technique –Divide the truth table into equal sections Number of sections given by type of second- level MUX If the second-level MUX is 2x1 then need 2 sections in the TT S1S1 S0S0 F 00Input 0 01Input 1 10Input 2 11Input 3 Section 1 Section 2

21 21 Hierarchy Approach Technique –Connect the outputs corresponding to individual sections of the TT to the data lines of the individual first-level MUXs 2x1 Mux 2x1 Mux Input 0 Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 Outputs from Section 1 of Truth Table Outputs from Section 2 of Truth Table S1S1 S0S0 F 00Input 0 01Input 1 10Input 2 11Input 3

22 22 Hierarchy Approach Technique –Connect the outputs of the first-level MUXs to the data lines of the second-level MUX following the order of the sections 2x1 Mux 2x1 Mux Input 0 Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 2x1 Mux

23 23 Hierarchy Approach Technique –Connect the outputs of the first-level MUXs to the data lines of the second-level MUX following the order of the sections 2x1 Mux 2x1 Mux Input 0 Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 2x1 Mux

24 24 4-to-1 MUX made from 2-to-1 MUXs

25 25 Decoders A decoder: –Accepts a Boolean value (number) and activates the corresponding output line All other lines are deactivated –For n inputs there are 2 n output lines Each possible input value corresponds to an output line

26 26 Decoders Motivation (one example) CPU needs to select channel => assign address to each device Need a way to activate device. CPU COMMUNICATION CHANNEL MEMORY PRINTER MOUSE DISPLAY

27 27 Decoders Motivation CPU needs to select channel => assign address to each device Need a way to activate device. CPU ADDRESS CODE MEMORY PRINTER MOUSE DISPLAY ADDRESS DECODE R ACTIVATION LINE

28 28 Decoder –An n input decoder has 2 n outputs. –Output i is 1 iff the binary value of the n-bit input is i. –At any time, exactly one output is 1, all others are 0. 1, iff A,B is 00 A B 1, iff A,B is 01 1, iff A,B is 10 1, iff A,B is 11 i = 0 i = 1 i = 2 i = 3

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31 31 In general, attach m-enabling circuits to the outputs See truth table below for function –Note use of Xs to denote both 0 and 1 –Combination containing two Xs represent four binary combinations Alternatively, can be viewed as distributing value of signal EN to 1 of 4 outputs In this case, called a demultiplexer Decoder with Enable

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36 36 2-to-4 decoder with active high enable

37 37 2-to-4 decoder with active low enable

38 38 Encoders An encoder: –For 2 n inputs there are n output lines Outputs the Boolean value corresponding to the input line number There is a special output line V that indicates whether any input lines are active.

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43 43 Encoder

44 44 Priority Encoder


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