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Adders Used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division (sometimes) Half-adder adds rightmost (least significant) bit Full-adder adds all other bits, since a 1 may be carried into it. Use carry-out from one adder as the carry-in for the next adder Combinational circuit (no memory)

Inputs two 1-bit values, X and Y
Half-Adder A Half Adder (HA) is a 2-input, 2-output combinational circuit that adds the inputs and produces a Sum and a Carry The Boolean expressions and the circuit for the Sum S and the carry C are given below: Half adder Inputs two 1-bit values, X and Y Outputs their 2-bit sum as bits C and S C is carry S is the sum

Other circuits may be equivalent, however Result Carry

Circuit is equivalent to a half-adder if both truth tables have identical output Cannot be used if there could be a carry-in bit So used to add least significant (rightmost) bit. Very important circuit in computers. Addition is very common Half-adder is found in every computer, calculator, digital watch…

Binary Full Adder A Full Adder (FA) is a 3-input, 2-output combinational circuit that adds the inputs and produces a Sum and a Carry The third input can be perceived as the carry from a previous addition The Boolean expressions and for the Sum S and the carry C, obtained from their K-Maps, are given below:

Multiplexer A multiplexer (MUX) is a device that accepts data from one of many input sources for transmission over a common shared line. To achieve this the MUX has several data lines and a single output along with data-select inputs, which permit digital data on any one of the inputs to be switched to the output line. The logic symbol for a 1-of-4 data selector/ multiplexer is shown below, along with its associated table. Logic symbol for 1-of-4 multiplexer

Active high MUX

Active Low MUX

Note that if a binary zero appears on the data-select lines then
Data Select Inputs Input Selected S1 S0 D0 1 D1 D2 D3 Table of Operation Note that if a binary zero appears on the data-select lines then data on input line D0 will appear on the output. Thus, data output Y is equal to D0 if and only if S1=0 and S0=0

Similarly, the data output is equal to D1, D2 and D3 for
,               and             , respectively. Thus the total multiplexer logic expression, formed from ORing terms is

Larger MUX Technique: use hierarchies of smaller components
Example: creating 4x1 mux from 2x1 mux Will create a 2-level mux tree First level takes the initial inputs The results from the first level are fed into the second level

Hierarchy Approach Technique
Divide the truth table into equal sections Number of sections given by type of second-level MUX If the second-level MUX is 2x1 then need 2 sections in the TT S1 S0 F Input 0 1 Input 1 Input 2 Input 3  Section 1  Section 2

Hierarchy Approach Technique S1 S0 F
Connect the outputs corresponding to individual sections of the TT to the data lines of the individual first-level MUXs Input 0 S1 S0 F Input 0 1 Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 Outputs from Section 1 of Truth Table 2x1 Mux Input 1 Outputs from Section 2 of Truth Table 2x1 Mux Input 2 Input 3

Hierarchy Approach Technique
Connect the outputs of the first-level MUXs to the data lines of the second-level MUX following the order of the sections Input 0 2x1 Mux Input 1 2x1 Mux 2x1 Mux Input 2 Input 3

Hierarchy Approach Technique
Connect the outputs of the first-level MUXs to the data lines of the second-level MUX following the order of the sections Input 0 2x1 Mux Input 1 2x1 Mux 2x1 Mux Input 2 Input 3

4-to-1 MUX made from 2-to-1 MUXs

Decoders A decoder: Accepts a Boolean value (number) and activates the corresponding output line All other lines are deactivated For n inputs there are 2n output lines Each possible input value corresponds to an output line

COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
Decoders Motivation (one example) CPU needs to select channel => assign address to each device Need a way to activate device. MEMORY PRINTER COMMUNICATION CHANNEL CPU MOUSE DISPLAY

Decoders ACTIVATION LINE Motivation CPU needs to select channel => assign address to each device Need a way to activate device. MEMORY ADDRESS CODE PRINTER ADDRESS DECODER CPU MOUSE DISPLAY

Decoder An n input decoder has 2n outputs.
B 1, iff A,B is 01 1, iff A,B is 10 1, iff A,B is 11 i = 0 i = 1 i = 2 i = 3 An n input decoder has 2n outputs. Outputi is 1 iff the binary value of the n-bit input is i. At any time, exactly one output is 1, all others are 0. 1, iff A,B is 00

Decoder with Enable In general, attach m-enabling circuits to the outputs See truth table below for function Note use of X’s to denote both 0 and 1 Combination containing two X’s represent four binary combinations Alternatively, can be viewed as distributing value of signal EN to 1 of 4 outputs In this case, called a demultiplexer

2-to-4 decoder with active high enable

2-to-4 decoder with active low enable

Encoders An encoder: For 2n inputs there are n output lines
Outputs the Boolean value corresponding to the input line number There is a special output line V that indicates whether any input lines are active.

Encoder

Priority Encoder