Presentation on theme: "Chinese Civil War and Communism. Origins of the Civil War China had been under European domination for centuries. In 1911, the Qing Dynasty, the last."— Presentation transcript:
Chinese Civil War and Communism
Origins of the Civil War China had been under European domination for centuries. In 1911, the Qing Dynasty, the last of the Chinese dynasties, collapses due to: – Refusal to modernize China. – Loss of the Sino-Japanese War (1905) – General desire amongst the Chinese for political reform.
Sun Yat-sen and the Kuomintang Several warlords carve up China between them in the aftermath of the Qing collapse. Sun Yat-sen, a doctor, becomes a revolutionary and establishes the Kuomintang to unify China. – Sun Yat-sen seeks aid from the West. Refused. – Accepts aid from the Soviet Union.
Kuomintang and Disunity Kuomintang, armed and financed by the USSR, are to be able to defeat most of the warlords. In 1925, Sun Yat-sen dies from cancer. – Kuomintang splits into two different factions: Kuomintang Nationalists (Conservative Nationalist) Chinese Communist Party (Communist)
Chang Kai-Shek and the Kuomintang Chang Kai-Shek comes to lead the Kuomintang. Nationalist movement that becomes more and more autocratic. Chang becomes ever more obsessed with creating a powerful central government and alienates many in China. Kuomintang dominates the major cities.
Mao Zedong and the Communist Party Mao will come to lead Chinese Communist forces. In 1927, Mao will lead a rebellion against the increasingly-autocratic Kuomintang. Communists come to dominant the countryside.
Second Sino-Japanese War Japan invades in 1937 (some of the first fighting of WWII.) Mao offers to unite with Chang to drive out the Japanese. Chang refuses. – Believes he is not strong enough to defeat the Japanese. – Sees the Communists as the greatest threat. – Wants to put down the Communists so that he will be strong enough to face the Japanese.
Alliance Kuomintang leaders become fearful of Chang’s unwillingness to unite with the Communists against the Chinese. Kuomintang leaders arrest Chang and force him to agree to an alliance. Mao and Chang disagree on tactics: – Chang wants to fight the Japanese out in the open. – Mao wants to wage a guerilla war against the Japanese.
Alliance and Tactics The alliance exists in name only. – The two factions fight two different wars against the Japanese. – Agree not to fight one another until the Japanese are defeated. – In general, the Communists are more effective.
Wider War and Victory After Pearl Harbor, the United States begins to provide assistance to Mao and Chang. Japan surrenders – United States orders Japanese forces to surrender only to the Kuomintang; Do not want Japanese weapons to fall into the hands of the Communists. – In Manchuria, there were no Kuomintang forces. Japanese surrender their weapons to the Soviet Union. – Stalin turns the weapons over to Mao.
Aftermath and Communist Party Communist forces emerged from World War II in a much stronger position. – Fought better/battle hardened. – More widely liked by the population. – Soviet Union fully backs Mao and can provide surplus weapons to the Communists.
Aftermath and Kuomintang After the war, Kuomintang is fearful. – Frantically arm against the Communists. – United States provides aid to the Kuomintang. – Kuomintang alienate ever more people corruption, a forced draft, seizing property for the war effort. – Areas of China under Kuomintang control watch the economy collapse: Shanghai has a 37% unemployment rate.
American aid to Chang The United States strongly supported the Kuomintang forces: – Over 50,000 Marines were sent to guard strategic sites, and 100,000 US troops were sent to Shandong. – The US equipped and trained over 500,000 Kuomintang troops, and transported KMT forces throughout the country. – American aid included substantial amounts of both new and surplus military supplies. – Within less than 2 years after the Sino-Japanese War, the Kuomintang had received 4.43 billion dollars from the US.
Outcome Despite the American assistance, the Communists win. – Mao’s forces inflict a series of defeats on the Kuomintang. – Chang is forced to retreat from mainland China to the island of Taiwan. Mao proclaims the People’s Republic of China. Chang proclaims the Republic of China in Taiwan. – The United States recognizes Chang’s government as the official government of China despite not actually controlling China. – Soviet Union recognizes Mao’s government as the official government of China. – Mao regards Taiwan as a part of China that is a “breakaway province.”
Taiwan Everyone assumes Taiwan will fall to the Communists as well. United States is disinterested in defending Taiwan. Assume that they have lost. However, Korean War breaks out and the United States needs Taiwan as a base. US forces are deployed to Taiwan and Mao determines that he doesn’t want war with the USA.
Chinese Development: The Great Leap Forward An attempt to modernize China, like the USSR. Extraordinarily difficult campaign – Involves widespread death and suffering. – Development of Chinese industry Backyard smelters/forges (poor quality.) Infrastructure projects. Education/training for children.
Sino-Soviet Split Stalin dies in 1953. – Mao was very close to Stalin. Khruschev replaces Stalin and attempts to liberalize the USSR and undo some of the worst effects of Stalin’s reign. Mao regards this as an attack on Communism and breaks with the USSR. Soviets and Chinese come close to war in the early 1970s. In 1976, Mao dies from health problems.
Mao’s Legacy: Positive Supporters regard him as a great leader: modernizing China and building it into a world power, promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, providing universal housing, increasing life expectancy as China's population grew from around 550 to over 900 million during the period of his leadership
Mao’s Legacy: Negative Widespread death during the Great Leap Forward Opposition to political parties other than the Communist Party Destruction of Chinese historical works of art as being too “bourgeoisie.”
Mao’s Successors Deng Xiaoping replaces Mao. Attempts to reform China: – Opened up the government to criticism – Increased economic growth – Lowered the standard of living for many Chinese – Turned China into an “export economy,” favoring the United States in particular.