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Presentation on theme: "COMMUNIST TAKE POWER IN CHINA"— Presentation transcript:


2 Kuomintang Power Pu Yi ascended the throne at 2 years 10 months 1911 – Sun Yixian (Chinese Nationalist Movement) overthrows last emperor (Pu Yi)

3 Nationalist Theme - “Three Principles of the People”
1. an end to foreign control 2. people’s rights- democracy 3. people’s livelihood- economic security for all Chinese “The Chinese people…do not have national spirit. Therefore, even though we have 4 million people gathered together in one China, in reality, they are just a heap of sand.” –Sun Yixian

4 WWI – Allied Involvement
China was on the Allied side against Germany in WWI China hoped to regain lost lands from Germany (Germany had colonized parts of China) Instead, Japan occupied “Chinese territory” previously occupied by Germany. This enrages many Chinese youth against Japan. Throughout , German efforts to negotiate a separate peace with Japan failed. On 3 July 1916, Japan and Russia signed a treaty (to protect each other, among other items) This treaty helped further secure Japan's “ownership” in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.

5 Betrayal 1917 China declares war on Germany hoping for an Allied victory. At end of WWI, German territories given to Japan – not China 1917 Russian Revolution occurs Russia begins to help China establish itself as a unified country. (looking to establish allies in the area) A military school is established, and Chiang Kai-Shek emerges as a top military leader

6 Meanwhile….An Unlikely Alliance is created
In a hope for common action the Nationalists (Kuomintang) turn to the Communists. Both groups had common goals China freed from foreign control Strong and United China 1921 Mao Zedong… Communist Theory Private ownership of property is abolished People own land, factories, transportation and communication Abolish social division and class based on wealth

7 Death, & a Sharp Right Turn
Sun (previous Nationalist leader) died in ’25, Chiang Kai-Shek becomes the new leader. Beliefs Eliminate warlord control of China Remove foreign domination of China (Same as Mao) Middle class background. Allied with bankers and businessmen (feared communism). Does not inspire support among peasants.

8 34 warlords eliminated, and finally communists are targeted
The Shanghai Massacre, 1927 As Europe leaves, Chiang consolidates power. 1st step eliminate the war lords who are fracturing the country into small Moves to be the sole unquestioned leader of China Distrust for Communist begins. Chiang felt Communists were trying to control China Chiang Kai-Shek recognized as Chinese leader by Britain and the U.S. (not Soviet Union) In Jiangxi, Mao's authoritative domination, especially that of the military force, was challenged by the Jiangxi branch of the CPC and military officers. Mao's opponents, among whom the most prominent was Li Wenlin, the founder of the CPC's branch and Red Army in Jiangxi, were against Mao's land policies and proposals to reform the local party branch and army leadership. Mao reacted first by accusing the opponents of opportunism and kulakism and then set off a series of systematic suppressions of them. Later the suppressions were turned into bloody physical elimination. It is reported that horrible forms of torture and killing took place. Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that victims were subjected to a red-hot gun-rod being rammed into the anus, and that there were many cases of cutting open the stomach and scooping out the heart.[6] The estimated number of the victims amounted to several thousands and could be as high as 186,000.[7] Through the so-called revolutionary terrorism, or red terrorism, Mao's authority and domination in Jiangxi was secured and reassured. However, this had left unforgettable scars on Mao's mind. Will cause a 22 year civil war against the communists 34 warlords eliminated, and finally communists are targeted

9 Chiang Kai-Shek Had promised democracy and political rights to all Chinese Yet his government became steadily less democratic and more corrupt Peasants believed that Chiang was doing little to help them, so they begin to support communism and Mao

10 Nationalist split with Communist
A major split between the Nationalists and Communists occurred in 1927; and, under Chiang's leadership, the Nationalists fought a nation-wide civil war against the Communists. Chiang confiscated the wealth of capitalists even while he denounced and fought against communists. Chiang crushed pro-communist worker and peasant organizations and rich Shanghai capitalists at the same time. Chiang continued Dr. Sun Yat-sen's anti capitalist ideology, directing Kuomintang media to openly attack capitalists and capitalism, demanding government controlled industry instead. (more aligned with Socialism)

11 The Nationalists Distracted
Japan had watched the power struggle in China and decided to launch an invasion Japanese invasion of Manchuria (northern China) combined with Depression allow Mao to rest & survive. This would force a temporary and uneasy truce between Mao and Chiang’s forces to fight against Japan Japan attacking

12 Japan invades Despite some early cooperative military successes against Japan, by the time that the Japanese surrendered in 1945 neither the CPC nor the KMT trusted each other or were actively cooperating. After American-sponsored attempts to negotiate a coalition government failed in 1946, the Chinese Civil War resumed. The CPC defeated the Nationalists in 1949, forcing Chiang's government to retreat to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted people critical of his rule in a period known as the "White Terror.” After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China. Chiang ruled the island securely as President of the Republic of China and General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975.

13 U.S. Anti-Communist feelings
Chinese and Soviets sign Treaty of Friendship in 1950 U.S. viewed this as another step in Communist campaign to conquer the world

14 China divided Mainland=People’s Republic of China -Soviet Union aided
Taiwan= Nationalist China -U.S. aided PRC= People’s Republic of China ROC= Republic of China


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