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COMMUNIST TAKE POWER IN CHINA. Kuomintang Power  1911 – Sun Yixian (Chinese Nationalist Movement) overthrows last emperor (Pu Yi)

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Presentation on theme: "COMMUNIST TAKE POWER IN CHINA. Kuomintang Power  1911 – Sun Yixian (Chinese Nationalist Movement) overthrows last emperor (Pu Yi)"— Presentation transcript:


2 Kuomintang Power  1911 – Sun Yixian (Chinese Nationalist Movement) overthrows last emperor (Pu Yi)

3 Nationalist Theme - “Three Principles of the People”  1. an end to foreign control  2. people’s rights- democracy  3. people’s livelihood- economic security for all Chinese “The Chinese people…do not have national spirit. Therefore, even though we have 4 million people gathered together in one China, in reality, they are just a heap of sand.” –Sun Yixian

4 WWI – Allied Involvement  China was on the Allied side against Germany in WWI  China hoped to regain lost lands from Germany (Germany had colonized parts of China)  Instead, Japan occupied “Chinese territory” previously occupied by Germany.  This enrages many Chinese youth against Japan.  Throughout 1915-1916, German efforts to negotiate a separate peace with Japan failed.  On 3 July 1916, Japan and Russia signed a treaty (to protect each other, among other items) This treaty helped further secure Japan's “ownership” in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.

5 Betrayal  1917 China declares war on Germany hoping for an Allied victory.  At end of WWI, German territories given to Japan – not China  1917 Russian Revolution occurs  Russia begins to help China establish itself as a unified country. (looking to establish allies in the area)  A military school is established, and Chiang Kai-Shek emerges as a top military leader

6 Meanwhile….An Unlikely Alliance is created  In a hope for common action the Nationalists (Kuomintang) turn to the Communists.  Both groups had common goals  China freed from foreign control  Strong and United China  1921 Mao Zedong…  Communist Theory Private ownership of property is abolished People own land, factories, transportation and communication Abolish social division and class based on wealth

7 Death, & a Sharp Right Turn  Sun (previous Nationalist leader) died in ’25, Chiang Kai-Shek becomes the new leader.  Beliefs  Eliminate warlord control of China  Remove foreign domination of China (Same as Mao)

8 The Shanghai Massacre, 1927  As Europe leaves, Chiang consolidates power.  1 st step eliminate the war lords who are fracturing the country into small  Moves to be the sole unquestioned leader of China  Distrust for Communist begins.  Chiang felt Communists were trying to control China 34 warlords eliminated, and finally communists are targeted

9 Chiang Kai-Shek  Had promised democracy and political rights to all Chinese  Yet his government became steadily less democratic and more corrupt  Peasants believed that Chiang was doing little to help them, so they begin to support communism and Mao

10 Nationalist split with Communist  A major split between the Nationalists and Communists occurred in 1927; and, under Chiang's leadership, the Nationalists fought a nation-wide civil war against the Communists.  Chiang confiscated the wealth of capitalists even while he denounced and fought against communists. Chiang crushed pro-communist worker and peasant organizations and rich Shanghai capitalists at the same time.  Chiang continued Dr. Sun Yat-sen's anti capitalist ideology, directing Kuomintang media to openly attack capitalists and capitalism, demanding government controlled industry instead. (more aligned with Socialism)

11 The Nationalists Distracted  Japan had watched the power struggle in China and decided to launch an invasion  Japanese invasion of Manchuria (northern China) combined with Depression allow Mao to rest & survive.  This would force a temporary and uneasy truce between Mao and Chiang’s forces to fight against Japan Japan attacking

12 Japan invades  Despite some early cooperative military successes against Japan, by the time that the Japanese surrendered in 1945 neither the CPC nor the KMT trusted each other or were actively cooperating.  After American-sponsored attempts to negotiate a coalition government failed in 1946, the Chinese Civil War resumed.  The CPC defeated the Nationalists in 1949, forcing Chiang's government to retreat to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted people critical of his rule in a period known as the "White Terror.”  After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China.  Chiang ruled the island securely as President of the Republic of China and General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975.

13 U.S. Anti-Communist feelings  Chinese and Soviets sign Treaty of Friendship in 1950  U.S. viewed this as another step in Communist campaign to conquer the world

14 China divided  Taiwan= Nationalist China  -U.S. aided  Mainland=People’s Republic of China  -Soviet Union aided PRC= People’s Republic of China ROC= Republic of China

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