2Kuomintang PowerPu Yi ascended the throne at 2 years 10 months1911 – Sun Yixian (Chinese Nationalist Movement) overthrows last emperor (Pu Yi)
3Nationalist Theme - “Three Principles of the People” 1. an end to foreign control2. people’s rights- democracy3. people’s livelihood- economic security for all Chinese“The Chinese people…do not have national spirit. Therefore, even though we have 4 million people gathered together in one China, in reality, they are just a heap of sand.” –Sun Yixian
4WWI – Allied Involvement China was on the Allied side against Germany in WWIChina hoped to regain lost lands from Germany (Germany had colonized parts of China)Instead, Japan occupied “Chinese territory” previously occupied by Germany.This enrages many Chinese youth against Japan.Throughout , German efforts to negotiate a separate peace with Japan failed.On 3 July 1916, Japan and Russia signed a treaty (to protect each other, among other items) This treaty helped further secure Japan's “ownership” in Manchuria and Inner Mongolia.
5Betrayal1917 China declares war on Germany hoping for an Allied victory.At end of WWI, German territories given to Japan – not China1917 Russian Revolution occursRussia begins to help China establish itself as a unified country. (looking to establish allies in the area)A military school is established, and Chiang Kai-Shek emerges as a top military leader
6Meanwhile….An Unlikely Alliance is created In a hope for common action the Nationalists (Kuomintang) turn to the Communists.Both groups had common goalsChina freed from foreign controlStrong and United China1921 Mao Zedong…Communist TheoryPrivate ownership of property is abolishedPeople own land, factories, transportation and communicationAbolish social division and class based on wealth
7Death, & a Sharp Right Turn Sun (previous Nationalist leader) died in ’25, Chiang Kai-Shek becomes the new leader.BeliefsEliminate warlord control of ChinaRemove foreign domination of China (Same as Mao)Middle class background. Allied with bankers and businessmen (feared communism).Does not inspire support among peasants.
834 warlords eliminated, and finally communists are targeted The Shanghai Massacre, 1927As Europe leaves, Chiang consolidates power.1st step eliminate the war lords who are fracturing the country into smallMoves to be the sole unquestioned leader of ChinaDistrust for Communist begins.Chiang felt Communists were trying to control ChinaChiang Kai-Shek recognized as Chinese leader by Britain and the U.S. (not Soviet Union)In Jiangxi, Mao's authoritative domination, especially that of the military force, was challenged by the Jiangxi branch of the CPC and military officers. Mao's opponents, among whom the most prominent was Li Wenlin, the founder of the CPC's branch and Red Army in Jiangxi, were against Mao's land policies and proposals to reform the local party branch and army leadership. Mao reacted first by accusing the opponents of opportunism and kulakism and then set off a series of systematic suppressions of them. Later the suppressions were turned into bloody physical elimination. It is reported that horrible forms of torture and killing took place. Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that victims were subjected to a red-hot gun-rod being rammed into the anus, and that there were many cases of cutting open the stomach and scooping out the heart. The estimated number of the victims amounted to several thousands and could be as high as 186,000. Through the so-called revolutionary terrorism, or red terrorism, Mao's authority and domination in Jiangxi was secured and reassured. However, this had left unforgettable scars on Mao's mind.Will cause a 22 year civil war against the communists34 warlords eliminated, and finally communists are targeted
9Chiang Kai-ShekHad promised democracy and political rights to all ChineseYet his government became steadily less democratic and more corruptPeasants believed that Chiang was doing little to help them, so they begin to support communism and Mao
10Nationalist split with Communist A major split between the Nationalists and Communists occurred in 1927; and, under Chiang's leadership, the Nationalists fought a nation-wide civil war against the Communists.Chiang confiscated the wealth of capitalists even while he denounced and fought against communists. Chiang crushed pro-communist worker and peasant organizations and rich Shanghai capitalists at the same time.Chiang continued Dr. Sun Yat-sen's anti capitalist ideology, directing Kuomintang media to openly attack capitalists and capitalism, demanding government controlled industry instead. (more aligned with Socialism)
11The Nationalists Distracted Japan had watched the power struggle in China and decided to launch an invasionJapanese invasion of Manchuria (northern China) combined with Depression allow Mao to rest & survive.This would force a temporary and uneasy truce between Mao and Chiang’s forces to fight against JapanJapan attacking
12Japan invadesDespite some early cooperative military successes against Japan, by the time that the Japanese surrendered in 1945 neither the CPC nor the KMT trusted each other or were actively cooperating.After American-sponsored attempts to negotiate a coalition government failed in 1946, the Chinese Civil War resumed.The CPC defeated the Nationalists in 1949, forcing Chiang's government to retreat to Taiwan, where Chiang imposed martial law and persecuted people critical of his rule in a period known as the "White Terror.”After evacuating to Taiwan, Chiang's government continued to declare its intention to retake mainland China.Chiang ruled the island securely as President of the Republic of China and General of the Kuomintang until his death in 1975.
13U.S. Anti-Communist feelings Chinese and Soviets sign Treaty of Friendship in 1950U.S. viewed this as another step in Communist campaign to conquer the world
14China divided Mainland=People’s Republic of China -Soviet Union aided Taiwan= Nationalist China-U.S. aidedPRC= People’s Republic of ChinaROC= Republic of China