2Nationalist Theme - “Three Principles of the People” 1. an end to foreign control2. people’s rights- democracy3. people’s livelihood- economic security for all Chinese“The Chinese people…do not have national spirit. Therefore, even though we have 4 million people gathered together in one China, in reality, they are just a heap of sand.” –Sun Yixian
3Betrayal1917 China declares war on Germany hoping for an Allied victory in WWIAt end of WWI, German territories given to Japan – not China1917 Russian Revolution occursRussia begins to help China establish itself as a unified country. (looking to establish allies in the area)A military school is established, and Chiang Kai-Shek emerges as a top military leader
4Meanwhile….An Unlikely Alliance is created In a hope for common action the Nationalists (Kuomintang) turn to the Communists.Both groups had common goalsChina freed from foreign controlStrong and United China1921 Mao Zedong…Communist Theory emerges with Mao taking a leadership position
5Death, & a Sharp Right Turn in ’25, Chiang Kai-Shek becomes the new leader. Of the Nationalist PartyBeliefsEliminate warlord control of ChinaRemove foreign domination of China (Same as Mao)Middle class background. Allied with bankers and businessmen (feared communism).Does not inspire support among peasants.
634 warlords eliminated, and finally communists are targeted The Shanghai Massacre, 1927As Europe leaves, Chiang consolidates power.Distrust for Communist begins.Chiang felt Communists were trying to control ChinaChiang Kai-Shek recognized as Chinese leader by Britain and the U.S. (not Soviet Union)In Jiangxi, Mao's authoritative domination, especially that of the military force, was challenged by the Jiangxi branch of the CPC and military officers. Mao's opponents, among whom the most prominent was Li Wenlin, the founder of the CPC's branch and Red Army in Jiangxi, were against Mao's land policies and proposals to reform the local party branch and army leadership. Mao reacted first by accusing the opponents of opportunism and kulakism and then set off a series of systematic suppressions of them. Later the suppressions were turned into bloody physical elimination. It is reported that horrible forms of torture and killing took place. Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that victims were subjected to a red-hot gun-rod being rammed into the anus, and that there were many cases of cutting open the stomach and scooping out the heart. The estimated number of the victims amounted to several thousands and could be as high as 186,000. Through the so-called revolutionary terrorism, or red terrorism, Mao's authority and domination in Jiangxi was secured and reassured. However, this had left unforgettable scars on Mao's mind.Will cause a 22 year civil war against the communists34 warlords eliminated, and finally communists are targeted
7Chiang Kai-ShekHad promised democracy and political rights to all ChineseYet his government became steadily less democratic and more corruptPeasants believed that Chiang was doing little to help them, so they begin to support communism and Mao
8The Nationalists Distracted Japan had watched the power struggle in China and decided to launch an invasion 1931This would force a temporary and uneasy truce between Mao and Chiang’s forces to fight against JapanJapan attacking
9Japan invadesThe Communists defeated the Nationalists in 1949, forcing Chiang's government to retreat to Taiwan, where Chiang ruled over the island.Chiang ruled the island securely as its President until his death in 1975.
10U.S. Anti-Communist feelings Chinese and Soviets sign Treaty of Friendship in 1950U.S. viewed this as another step in Communist campaign to conquer the world
11China divided Mainland=People’s Republic of China -Soviet Union aided Taiwan= Nationalist China-U.S. aidedPRC= People’s Republic of ChinaROC= Republic of China