Presentation on theme: "Chapter Fourteen Revolution and Nationalism 1900-1939 Section Three Imperial China Collapses."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Fourteen Revolution and Nationalism 1900-1939 Section Three Imperial China Collapses
Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty In the early 1900s China was dominated by foreign powers. They controlled or greatly influenced trade and economic resources. Some Chinese felt that modernization and nationalism held the only hope for the countrys survival. Others felt that Chinas greatness lay in its traditional ways. The most influential group that favored modernization and nationalization was the Kuomintang or Nationalist Party. Its first great leader was Sun Yixian. In 1911, they succeeded in overthrowing the last emperor of the Qing dynasty, who had ruled China since 1644.
Shaky Start for the New Republic In 1912, Sun became president of the new Republic of China. He wanted to establish a government based on Three Principals of the People: 1. Nationalism- an end to foreign rule. 2. Peoples Rights- democracy 3. Peoples Livelihood- economic security Sun, however, lacked the authority and military support to secure national unity. Soon a military general, Yuan Shikai took control and betrayed democratic ideals. In 1916 a civil war broke out and a series of warlords ruled parts of China.
World War I Spells More Problems In 1917, China joined the war on the allied side against Germany. China hoped that they would be rewarded with a return of their territories held by Germany. The Treaty of Versailles gave the land to Japan instead. On May 4, 1919, the May Fourth Movement began. Workers, shopkeepers, students and professionals joined nationwide demonstrations against the West. Many young intellectuals turned against the ideas of Western Democracy and embraced a form of Lenins Soviet Communism.
The Communist Party in China In 1921, a group met in Shanghai to organize the Chinese Communist Party. Mao Zedong, was among its founders. He became its leader and began to develop his own brand of communism. He envisioned a revolution of the peasantry.
Lenin Befriends China While the Chinese Communist Party was forming, Sun Yixian, and his Nationalists Party hoped to unite with the communists. In 1923, Lenin sent military advisors and equipment to the Nationalists as a reward for joining forces with the communists.
Peasants Align with the Communists In 1925, Jiang Jieshi, formerly called Chiang Kai Shek, headed the Nationalist Party or Kuomintang. He supported democracy and private ownership of property and business. The peasants felt he was not doing enough to support them. They threw their support behind the Communist Party. Mao rewarded them by dividing land among local farmers.
Nationalists and Communists Clash At first the Nationalists and Communists worked together to fight the warlords. In 1927, Nationalist troops killed many communist leaders in Shanghai and other cities. In 1928, Jiang became president of the Nationalist Republic of China. Britain and the United States both recognized the new government. The Soviet Union did not. The Communists deep-seated rage over the massacres erupted in a civil war that would last until 1949.
Civil War Rages in China By 1930, Nationalists and Communists were involved in an all out bloody civil war. Mao and the Communists controlled south- central China with the support of the peasants. Their military forces were known as the Red Army. The Nationalists could not defeat them.
The Long March Finally in 1933, the Nationalist forces with 700,000 men surrounded the Communists. The 100,000 Communist forces began the 6,000 mile Long March. They finally settled in caves in northwestern China. As Nationalist and Communist forces fought, Japan invaded China.
Civil War Suspended In 1931, while the Chinese were distracted with their civil war, the Japanese invaded Manchuria in northeastern China. In 1937, the Japanese launched an all-out invasion of China. By 1938, Japan controlled most of China. The Japanese invasion put a temporary stop to the civil war, as Nationalists and Communists joined forces to fight the Japanese.