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9 Domains of Development 1.Physical-Maturational 2. Cognitive-Intellectual 3. Artistic-Creative 4. Linguistic-Communicative 5.Knowledge-Skill 6.Social-Interpersonal.

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Presentation on theme: "9 Domains of Development 1.Physical-Maturational 2. Cognitive-Intellectual 3. Artistic-Creative 4. Linguistic-Communicative 5.Knowledge-Skill 6.Social-Interpersonal."— Presentation transcript:

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2 9 Domains of Development 1.Physical-Maturational 2. Cognitive-Intellectual 3. Artistic-Creative 4. Linguistic-Communicative 5.Knowledge-Skill 6.Social-Interpersonal 7.Moral-Ethical 8. Personality-Individuality 9. Emotional-Affective Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

3 Theorists Connected with Each of the 9 Domains of Development 1. Physical-Maturational (Gesell) 2. Cognitive-Intellectual (Piaget, Damon) 3. Social-Interpersonal (Youniss, Selman, Damon) 4. Moral-Ethical(Piaget, Kohlberg, Kagan, Hoffman, Damon) 5. Knowledge-Skill (Vygotsky, Damon) 6. Linguistic (Chomsky) 7. Artistic-Creative (Lowenfeld, Gardner) 8. Personality-Individuality (Freud, Erikson, Dowlby, Ainsworth) 9. Emotional-Affective (Hoffman, Kagan) Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

4 1.Psychosexual Personality Development (Freud) 2.Psychosocial Personality Development (Erikson) 3.Developmental Tasks as Developmental Milestones (Havighurst) 4.Cognitive Development (Piaget) 5.Moral Reasoning Development (Kohlberg, Piaget, Havighurst) 6.Moral Emotion Development (Hoffman, Kagan) 7.Social-Conceptual Development (Damon, Selman, Youniss) 8.Scaffolded Knowledge and Skill Development (Vygotsky, Damon) 9.Ecological-Social Development (Bronfenbrenner) 10.Maturational-Biological Milestones (Gesell) 11.Ethological Personality-by-Attachment (Bowlby, Ainsworth) Descriptors of These Theorists Models Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

5 Some Developmental Mechanisms Maturation (genetic program for growth) Imitation (essential for learning) Practice (essential for consolidation) Habituation (promotes novel exploration) Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

6 Three issues addressed by developmental theorists Continuity or Discontinuity of Growth Can development be characterized as a gradual change process, or does it present sudden, distinct bursts of change? The Influence of Maturation Versus Experience Is development primarily influenced by biologically inherited, genetic factors, or by environmental experiences (nature or nurture)? Individual Differences What makes individuals different? To what extent are individual characteristics stable over time? Continuity or Discontinuity of Growth Can development be characterized as a gradual change process, or does it present sudden, distinct bursts of change? The Influence of Maturation Versus Experience Is development primarily influenced by biologically inherited, genetic factors, or by environmental experiences (nature or nurture)? Individual Differences What makes individuals different? To what extent are individual characteristics stable over time? Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

7 Some theories view development as a relatively continuous process. In contrast, stage theories assume that development is discontinuous and involves periodic qualitative milestone changes. INFANCY ADULTHOOD DISCONTINUOUS CONTINUOUS Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

8 Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years of age Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through the senses and exploration (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, etc.) Object permanence Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years of age About 7 to 11 years of age About 12 years of age through adulthood Preoperational Representing things with words and images but have no logical reasoning abilities Pretend play Egocentrism Rapid language development Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing math operations Conservation Mathematical transformations Formal operational Abstract reasoning; reflection; thinking about thinking Abstract logic Potential for moral reasoning Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

9 Sensorimotor Stage The child begins to interact with the environment Preoperational Stage The child begins to represent the world symbolically. Concrete OperationalFormal Operational The adolescent can transcend concrete situations and think about the future and their own thinking Children learn rules such as game rules and the law of conservation, and they take them very seriously Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

10 Piagets theory of cognitive development identifies four stages marked by qualitatively different modes of thinking. Interaction with the environment and maturation gradually alter the way children think. Sensorimotor Coordination of sensory input and motor responses; development of object permanence; begin to explore environment Pre- Operational Early symbolic thought marked by irreversibility, concentration, & egocentrism; assume you know what they know; cannot decenter Concrete Operational Mental operations are applied to concrete events only; mastery of conservation and hierarchical classification; cannot think abstractly Formal Operational Mental operations are applied to abstract ideas; begin logical, systematic thinking; imagine hypothetical events; manipulate symbols in their minds Birth to 2 Years2 to 7 Years7 to 11 Years12 to adult Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

11 Types of Games and Play Pre-Cooperative ParallelEgocentric Immature CooperativeMature Cooperative Game Rule Practice and Consciousness A casual attitude toward game rules; few rules are understood; games ignored Rules are viewed as sacred, obligatory, unchangeable; game rules are vaguely understood Rules are viewed as a product of mutual consent; game rules are codified and of intense interest Basic Morality Is Respect for Rules Heteronomy: morality of constraint; imposed constraints maintain egocentrism; constraints are a necessary precondition for the development of moral autonomy Sense of Justice Justice is what is commanded by authority: H eteronomy Equalitarianism Born of solidarity & mutual respect among equals Equity Consider intentions & situation when judging Thinking Capacity Pre-Operational Can't take the perspective of others; can't think about their own thinking Concrete Operational Take the perspective of others; conceptual but not abstract reasoning Concept of Responsibility Objective sense of responsibility: acts evaluated in terms of material consequences; evaluations based on observable factors Subjective sense of responsibility: acts evaluated in terms of motives/intentions; acts judged immoral if they violate norm of reciprocity central to moral rules Morality of Good Moral Affect Feeling of obligation to follow rules of respected authority; raw material for future autonomous moral behavior is present in sympathetic tendencies and affective reactions Piaget's Theory of Moral Development Developed by Gordon Vessels 2000 © Formal Operational Can think logically and abstractly; can consider many viewpoints Affection between parent and child yields morality of good; develops along side the morality of justice Cooperative No further explanation Feeling of obligation to follow rules emerging from cooperation and respect among equals (reflects valuing of reciprocity); "moral sentiments and motivation" to do right reflect the subordination of early "sympathetic tendencies" and "affective reactions" to rules; "will" is the permanent set of constructed "values" to which one one adheres Autonomy: morality of cooperation; cooperation and reciprocity emerge from relationships among peer equals that deliver them from egocentrism to moral autonomy and a mature sense of justice

12 The idea of "developmental tasks" is appropriately credited to Robert Havighurst who stated that the concept was developed in the 1930s and 40s by Frank, Zachry, Prescott, and Tyron. He further stated, The developmental-task concept occupies a middle ground between two opposing theories of education: the theory of freedom that the child will develop best if left as free as possible; and the theory of constraint that the child must learn to become a worthy, responsible adult through restraints imposed by his society [inculcation]. A developmental task is midway between an individual need and a societal demand. It assumes an active learner interacting with an active social environment. Tasks for three of the developmental stages are presented on the next three slides. Drawn from the description of Havighursts book in Developmental Advising: Annotated Bibliography for Research Published Prior to 1999, an annotated bibliography compiled by G. Steele and Melinda McDonald for the NACADA Journal. Retrieved from The book is Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McCay.Journalhttp://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Journal/developmental.htm Robert Havighursts Developmental Task Theory He also introduced the concepts of teachable moment, authoritarian conscience, and rational conscience, concepts similar to those of Piaget. Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Click Here

13 Developmental Tasks of Middle Childhood: Ages Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games; 2. Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism; 3. Learning to get along with age-mates; 4. Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine social role; 5. Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating; 6. Developing concepts necessary for everyday living; 7. Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values; 8. Achieving personal independence; 9. Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McCay.

14 Developmental Tasks of Adolescence Ages Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes; 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role; 3. Accepting one's physique and using the body effectively; 4. Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults; 5. Preparing for marriage and family life; 6. Preparing for an economic career; 7. Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior; developing an ideology; 8. Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior. Developmental Tasks of Adolescence Ages Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes; 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role; 3. Accepting one's physique and using the body effectively; 4. Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults; 5. Preparing for marriage and family life; 6. Preparing for an economic career; 7. Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior; developing an ideology; 8. Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior. Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McCay.

15 Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood 1. Selecting a mate; 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role; 3. Learning to live with a marriage partner; 4. Starting a family; 5. Rearing children; 6. Managing a home; 7. Getting started in an occupation; 8. Taking on civic responsibility; 9. Finding a congenial social group. Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood 1. Selecting a mate; 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role; 3. Learning to live with a marriage partner; 4. Starting a family; 5. Rearing children; 6. Managing a home; 7. Getting started in an occupation; 8. Taking on civic responsibility; 9. Finding a congenial social group. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McCay.

16 9-12 months is the quiet period since there is a decrease in vocalization Grpmph ! Cat! said with gestures; serves as whole sentence See cat! Telegraphic means lacking connection words Gradual narrowing of sounds to meaningful phonemes of the language being learned 16 of 25 consonant sounds by 30 months Early Language Development

17 Eriksons theory of personality development proposes that people move through eight stages during their lives. Each stage brings a psychosocial crisis or conflict that needs to be resolved interactively. Each involves confronting a question such as, Who am I and where am I going? The stages are described above in terms of personality traits that are potential outcomes from handling these crises. Epigenetic principle: genetically determined unfolding of maturation; HOW we turn out is a function of social/environmental forces and experience in interaction with genotype. Integrity versus Despair Have I lived a full life and taken advantage of what life offered? Generativity versus Absorption Will I produce something of real value or leave a legacy? Intimacy versus Isolation Shall I share my life with another or live alone? Identity versus Role Confusion Who am I and where am I going? Industry versus Inferiority Am I Competent or am I a worthless failure? Initiative versus Guilt Am I Good or am I Bad? Autonomy versus Shame & Doubt Can I do things myself or must I depend on others? Trust versus Mistrust Is my world Predictable and Supportive? Late AdultMiddle Age Young Adulthood Adolescence Late Childhood Early Childhood Toddlerhood Infancy Babies Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004 Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and Society. New York:Norton. Erikson, E.H. (1964). Insight and Responsibility. NewYork: Norton. To learn more about Erikson, begin here:

18 Trust vs Mistrust Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt Initiative vs Guilt Industry vs Inferiority Identity vs Role Confusion Generativity vs Self-Absorption Intimacy vs Isolation Integrity vs Despair Psychosocial Crisis or Conflict Important Events Significant Relations Healthful Virtues Problematic Traits Developmental Stages and Age Ranges Erik Eriksons Psychosocial-Developmental Crises (Stages) of Personality Formation Erik Eriksons Psychosocial-Developmental Crises (Stages) of Personality Formation Oral-Sensory Birth to Months Muscular-Anal 18 Months to 3 Years of Age Locomotion 3 to 6 Years of Age Latency 6 to 12 Years of Age Adolescence 12 to 18 Years of Age Young Adult 19 to 29 Years of Age Middle Age 30 to 55 Years of Age Old Age 56 to 100 Years of Age Mother Parents Family Neighbor & School Children Peer Cliques Girl/Boy Friend Role Models Friends & Life Partners Household Members & Work Mates Mankind or My-kind Feeding Toilet Training Exploration Doing Things School Making Things Well Consolidation of Roles Identifications Committed Relationships Supporting Next Generation Physical Decline Death Hope Faith Will Independence Purpose Courage Imagining Competence Skill, Pride Conscience Fidelity Loyalty Love Trust Caring Altruism Wisdom Sensory Distortion Withdrawal Impulsivity Compulsivity Self-Doubt Cruelty Inhibition Fear of Failure Fanaticism Repudiation Promiscuity Exclusivity Over- Extension Rejecting Presumption Despair Inferiority Lack of Self- Confidence Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004 © Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2000

19 Eriksons Psychosocial Development Continued Early Attachment Erikson proposes that our first major conflict is encountered in the first year Trust vs. Mistrust Infants develop trust through Social Attachment (see Attachment Theory) Erikson proposes that our first major conflict is encountered in the first year Trust vs. Mistrust Infants develop trust through Social Attachment (see Attachment Theory) Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

20 Eriksons Psychosocial Development Continued In the second year of development the child encounters the conflict of... Autonomy vs Shame and DoubtIn the second year of development the child encounters the conflict of... Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt The child explores the environment and seeks the independence to do so.The child explores the environment and seeks the independence to do so. Parents who stifle their children during this stage cause feelings of shame and doubt.Parents who stifle their children during this stage cause feelings of shame and doubt. In the second year of development the child encounters the conflict of... Autonomy vs Shame and DoubtIn the second year of development the child encounters the conflict of... Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt The child explores the environment and seeks the independence to do so.The child explores the environment and seeks the independence to do so. Parents who stifle their children during this stage cause feelings of shame and doubt.Parents who stifle their children during this stage cause feelings of shame and doubt. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

21 Eriksons Psychosocial Development Continued In the third year of development, the child faces the conflict of... Initiative vs. GuiltIn the third year of development, the child faces the conflict of... Initiative vs. Guilt The child starts to show initiative in play and control over emotions.The child starts to show initiative in play and control over emotions. The child also begins to gain a sense of what is right and wrong based on their experiences.The child also begins to gain a sense of what is right and wrong based on their experiences. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

22 Eriksons Psychosocial Development Continued From ages 6 through 12, the child faces the conflict over Industrious children build a sense of competence and self-confidence. Non-industrious children begin to develop inferiority complexes. From ages 6 through 12, the child faces the conflict over Industrious children build a sense of competence and self-confidence. Non-industrious children begin to develop inferiority complexes. Industry vs Inferiority Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

23 Childrens cognitive development is heavily influenced by social and cultural factors via relationships. Childrens thinking develops through dialogues with more capable people, usually parents and teachers. The Zone of Proximal Development is the range of tasks a child cannot master alone. Even though they may be close to having the necessary mental skills, they need guidance in order to complete the tasks. Scaffolding is a framework of temporary support. Adults help children learn how to think by scaffolding or by supporting their attempts to solve problems and discover principles. Scaffolding must be responsive to childrens needs. Childrens cognitive development is heavily influenced by social and cultural factors via relationships. Childrens thinking develops through dialogues with more capable people, usually parents and teachers. The Zone of Proximal Development is the range of tasks a child cannot master alone. Even though they may be close to having the necessary mental skills, they need guidance in order to complete the tasks. Scaffolding is a framework of temporary support. Adults help children learn how to think by scaffolding or by supporting their attempts to solve problems and discover principles. Scaffolding must be responsive to childrens needs. Lev Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory (Scaffolded Knowledge/Skill Acquisition) Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

24 Zone of Proximal Development encompasses the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but within their capacity to learn with guidance and assistance from adults or more skilled children. Scaffolding involves changing the level of support over the course of teaching something the more skilled person/teacher adjusts the amount of guidance to fit students current performance level. Language and Thought: young children use language to plan, guide, and monitor their behavior in a self-regulatory fashion – Vygotsky called this inner speech or private speech. Vygotskys Theory of Development Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Primary Source: Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Another source: Vygotsky, L. S. (1989). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. To learn more, begin with Clifford Morriss information at entitled Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development 1..

25 Ecological Theories of Human Development It is important to study human development in its broader social-environmental context because the structure of the environment influences development. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

26 Environmental Systems: microsystem: setting where individual lives mesosystem: interrelations among microsystems comprising the local community exosystem: experiences in the larger social system or society of which the microsystem and mesosystem are parts macrosystem: the individuals culture chronosystem: environmental events and transitions over time Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory 5 Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 One PPT source retrieved at – no author identified.

27 MESOSYSTEM MICROSYSTEM EXOSYSTEM MACROSYSTEM CHRONOSYSTEM INDIVIDUAL Workplace Church Peer Group Neighborhood Home School Home Neighborhood Workplace Church Peer Group Religion Educational System Government Agencies Mass Media Commerce and Industry Transportation Systems Communication Technology Subcultures Legal System Dominant Beliefs and Ideologies Cultural Norms Traditions Life Styles Choices Opportunities Structures Life Course Options Patterns of Social Interchange CULTURE SOCIETY AT LARGE Changes in systems over time Interrelations among microsystems Where the individual lives Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory

28 Prenatal Development BIOLOGICAL- MATURATIONAL THEORIES Placenta Umbilical Cord Amniotic Sac Sperm Cells Egg Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Liver Eye Frontal Lobes

29 Biological-Maturational Theories of Development Emphasize the genetic, biological, and evolutionary basis of human development. The central concept is maturation a genetically predetermined sequence of physical and psychophysiological changes. These changes take place at about the same age for most people. The environment has a significant influence on when changes occur and the degree of growth that takes place. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

30 Emotions are rapidly differentiated from an initial capacity for excitement (K.M.B. Bridges, 1932). Today, there is great interest in genetically determined temperamental characteristics from which personality forms, such as sociability. Fear Delight Excitement Distress Anger Disgust Elation Affection for adults Affection for children Joy Jealousy Months K. M. B. Bridges, (1932). Emotional development in early infancy. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 37. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

31 Temperament The biological-genetic basis for the self-expressive, arousal, and self-regulatory components of personality. These are evident in infancy in the forms of activity level, irritability, fearfulness, sociability, etc. In 1977 Thomas & Chess stated that childhood temperamental characteristics are relatively innate and well-established by 2-3 months of age. They identified tree types of temperament evident in infancy: Easy high approach response; positive mood (mild to moderate intensity); quick adaptability; Difficult high withdrawal response; frequent negative mood of high intensity; slow adaptability; Slow-to-warm-up many withdrawal responses ( mild to moderate intensity); slow adaptability. Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel In 1984 Buss & Plomin proposed the following criteria for temperament: Inherited, present early in development, predictive of later personality development. Buss, A., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early personality traits. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Side by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

32 Maturation does not take place in a vacuum. There are critical periods during which children must have certain types of experiences in order for perceptual and cognitive abilities to develop normally, thus confirming the use it or lose it saying. For example, in order to develop correct binocular depth perception, the eyes must receive sensory input between age one and three years. A child who was kept in confinement by her parents until the age of thirteen without being spoken to never acquired spoken language beyond two or three word phrases. Maturation does not take place in a vacuum. There are critical periods during which children must have certain types of experiences in order for perceptual and cognitive abilities to develop normally, thus confirming the use it or lose it saying. For example, in order to develop correct binocular depth perception, the eyes must receive sensory input between age one and three years. A child who was kept in confinement by her parents until the age of thirteen without being spoken to never acquired spoken language beyond two or three word phrases. Written and arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

33 Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development The mothers behavior can harm her fetus in in several ways: Severely inadequate nutrition –Risk of complications during delivery and neurological problems –Increased risk of mental disorders later in life Drug use –Fetal alcohol syndrome is a congenital set of physical and mental problems caused by alcohol use during pregnancy. This set includes microcephaly (small head), heart defects, hyperactivity, mental retardation, motor abnormalities, abnormal facial features. –The affects of social drinking during pregnancy include deficient intelligence, a slow reaction time, weak motor skills, inattention, impulsivity, and poor social skills. –Tobacco, alcohol, and drugs, both prescription and recreational, are also linked to birth defects. Viral Illnesses –Viruses can affect prenatal development with the amount of damage depending on (a) when during pregnancy the mother becomes ill, (b) the type of illness, and (c) the medications taken. –Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, and severe influenza can cause extreme abnormalities or death. Slide prepared by Gordon Vessels. Primary sources: Gurnee, Mary C. and Sylvestri, Mario F. (2005). Teratogenicity of Drugs, accessed at U.S. Pharmacist, a Johnson Publication at The Ohio State University Medical Center (2005). Risks during pregnancy, a public service document accessed at

34 Attachment Theory Postulate: the human infant is pre-adapted to respond to its caregiver. Evolutionary function: attachment behaviors promote close proximity to the caregiver so that the child can be protected from danger. Type of attachment is influenced by care- giving behavior; children can be categorized as: –Secure –Ambivalent (seek comfort but show anger or resistance) –Avoidant –Insecure-disorganized Mary AinsworthJohn Bowlby Primary source: Werner-Wilson, Ronald J. (2005). Types of attachment, a PPT slide show retrieved from Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

35 Researching Attachment: Strange Situation Test The Strange Situation Test involves separating the very young child (toddler) from its mother or primary caregiver and then reuniting the child with the parent. The infant is put through eight standardized episodes or situations, all meant to elicit differing levels of distress. These include an experimenter entering the room, one or both leaving, and a stranger entering either with or without the parent in the room. Based on the infants reaction to these situations, his or her type of attachment with the mother or is identified. This is carried out under controlled and monitored conditions and involves carefully recording the childs reactions and the parents behavior. It was developed by Mary Ainsworth who extended the earlier groundbreaking work of John Bowlby. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 From Messer, D. and Miller, S. (1999). Exploring Developmental Psychology. Copy of photo found at Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

36 Infant reunion responses following their separation from their mothers: Secure (B type) behavior –positive, greeting of mother, being comforted Avoidant (A type) behavior –not seeking contact, avoiding gaze Ambivalent (C type) behavior –not comforted, overly passive, show anger Disorganised (D type) Behavior –totally disorganised and confused Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

37 Mothers of ambivalent infants tend to be inconsistent, insensitive, and unpredictable in their interactions with their babies. The mothers of insecure-avoidant babies tend to be averse to physical contact, are inclined to interfere unnecessarily, and generally appear emotionally unavailable or dismissive. The mothers of insecure-disorganized infants are typically suffering from an unresolved trauma, such as abuse or the unresolved loss of an attachment figure, which results in their babies being afraid of them. The mother may actually be abusive or neglectful. Click to Learn More Source: Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1982). Attachment: retrospect and prospect. In C.M. Parkes and J. Stevenson-Hinde, (Eds.) The Place of Attachment in Human Behavior. (pp 3-30) New York: Basic Books. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels 2005.

38 Correspondence Between Child & Adult Attachment Styles Primary source: Werner-Wilson, Ronald J. (2005). Types of attachment, a PPT slide show retrieved from of_Attachment.ppt Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 CHILD ATTACHMENT STYLEPARENT ATTACHMENT STYLE SECURE: Limited distress, continued exploration after initial reunion SECURE/AUTONOMOUS: developmentally appropriate interaction; recognizes significance of attachment. AVOIDANT: child appears indifferent DISMISSING: dismissive about attachment; withdrawn and rejecting RESISTANT OR AMBIVALENT: child appears distressed and is preoccupied with caregiver and clingish PREOCCUPIED: recognizes significance of attachment but is preoccupied with past and appears angry; blurred or unclear boundaries DISORGANIZED/DISORIENTED: difficult to categorize reunion with caregiver; describes 80% of maltreated children. UNRESOLVED/DISORGANIZED: frightened by memory of past; trauma promotes momentary disassociation; scripts child into past dramas

39 In the United States, about two thirds of all children from middle-class families are securely attached. About one child in three is insecurely attached. 63% 22% 10% 5% AvoidantSecure AmbivalentUnclassified Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

40 Bowlbys Attachment Stages Birth to 2-3 months –Undiscriminating social responsivenss 2-3 months to 6-7 months –Discriminating social responsiveness 6-7 months to 3 years –Active proximity seeking /true attachment 3 years and older –Goal-corrected partnership Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Sources: Bowlby, John. (1982). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1. NY: Basic Books; list presented in this slide also listed in slide #5 created at the University of Idaho, retrieved at

41 Separation Distress: Another Indicator of Attachment Percentage of infants who cried when their mothers left Age in months Day-care Home Groups of infants who had and had not experienced day- care were left by their mothers in an unfamiliar room. Gordon Vessels 2005 recreation of graph in a PPT show by Mahnaz Rehmatullah at He took it from Kagan, Jerome (1976), The role of the family during the first half decade. In V. Vaughn& T. Brazelton (Eds.), The family:Can it be saved? Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers

42 Attachment Theory Research Findings Main & Cassidy (1988) Kindergarten childrens self-esteem was found to be related to secure attachment. Main, M., & Cassidy, J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. Developmental Psychology, 24, Lamb et al., (1984) They found the link between attachment style and social-emotional adjustment was only there if family circumstances remained stable. Lamb, M. E., Thompson, R. A., Gardner, W. P., Charnov, E. L, & Estes, D. (1984). Security of infantile attachment as assessed in the "strange situation": Its study and biological interpretation. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, Frankel & Cates (1990) They found that securely attached infants became better problem solvers than insecurely attached infants. Crandell & Hobson (1999) They compared 20 secure and 16 insecure mothers and their kids who were all three years old; the children of secure mothers scored 19 points higher on an IQ test; the degree of parent-child synchrony was also related to the childrens IQs. Crandell, L.E. and Hobson, R.P. (1999). Individual Differences in Young Children's IQ: A Social-developmental Perspective, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 40, no. 3, pp (10). Publisher: Blackwell Publishing Park & Waters (1989) They found that securely attached children coordinate their activities with friends more harmoniously than others. Park, K. A., & Waters, E. (1989). Security of attachment and preschool friendships. Child Development, 60, Meins & Russell (1997) They found greater social responsiveness and flexibility for securely attached children age two and one-half years. Meins, E, & Russell, J (1997). Security and symbolic play: the relation between security of attachment and executive capacity British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1, Sroufe et al., (1993) In this longitudinal study, the researchers found that year old children identified as securely attached in their first year had more positive outcomes. Avoidant infants became isolated. Ambivalent infants became deviant and more difficult to manage at home and school (e.g. hyperactive, aggressive, etc.). Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Kreutzer, T. (1990). The fate of early experience following developmental change: Longitudinal approaches to individual adaptation in childhood. Child Development, 61, Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E. (1999). One social world: The integrated development of parent-child and peer relationships. In W. A. Collins & B. Laursen (Eds.) Relationships as developmental context: The 29th Minnesota symposium on child psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Fonagy et al., (19907) They found that secure preschoolers and young school-age children were more competent on various mental tasks. Fonagy, P, Redfern, S, Charman, T (1997). The relationship between belief-desire reasoning and a projective measure of attachment security British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1, Prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

43 Ainsworths Attachment Classifications versus Thomas & Chesss Temperament Profiles Temperament Profile Percent of Infants Attachment Classification Percent of One Year Olds Slow to Warm Up Avoidant Difficult Resistant Easy Secure 60% 15% 23% 63% 8% 29% Data drawn from a similar chart created by faculty at the University of Western Ontario for undergraduate students taking course 240 B. No specific faculty author is listed. Retrieved at

44 Parenting Styles Baumrind Authoritarian –Child is told, Do it because I said so! –A punitive and highly controlling parenting style –Only concerned about obedience Authoritative –Use firm but fair discipline with an emphasis on communication and high expectations for moral maturity –Are less likely to use physical punishment –Involve children in decisions and rule-making Permissive –Loose and inconsistent structure –Children given much freedom in deciding activities, rules, and schedules and must often make decisions they do not feel comfortable making. Source: Grobman, K.H. (2003). Diana Baumrind's Theory of Parenting Styles: Original Descriptions of the Styles (1967). Retrieved from Original source: Buamrind, Diana (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monograph, 75, Prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

45 Baumrind Parent-Child Relationships Baumrind (1983) states that there are 3 types of parenting: Permissive – set few rules and rarely punish their children. Authoritarian – set strict rules and rely on punishment. Authoritative – warm and loving with firm but fair discipline and much communication about moral maturity Parent-Child Relationships Baumrind (1983) states that there are 3 types of parenting: Permissive – set few rules and rarely punish their children. Authoritarian – set strict rules and rely on punishment. Authoritative – warm and loving with firm but fair discipline and much communication about moral maturity Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Source: Grobman, K.H. (2003). Diana Baumrind's Theory of Parenting Styles: Original Descriptions of the Styles (1967). Retrieved from Original source: Buamrind, Diana (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monograph, 75,

46 What parenting style is best? Outcomes associated with different styles –Authoritarian Lack of social competence Aggression and a disregard for others rights Most social contact confined to deviant peers Externally imposed heteronomous morality –Authoritative Greater self-reliance and self-confidence More sociable, adventuresome, and respectful of others –Permissive Immature, impulsive, unable to take others perspective Limitations of research –Culturally biased? (most research carried out with white, middle class children and adolescents) –Confusion of causality? Kids may elicit parenting styles. Slide prepared by Gordon Vessels in His Sources: Grobman, K.H. (2003). Diana Baumrind's Theory of Parenting Styles: Original Descriptions of the Styles (1967). Retrieved from Original source: Buamrind, Diana (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monograph, 75,

47 ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION of PARENTING STYLES ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION of PARENTING STYLES PARENTING STYLES Accepting Nurturing Responsive Rejecting Unresponsive Emotionally Aloof Demanding Controlling Authoritative Diana Baumrind Authoritarian Rejecting Overly Strict Not Demanding Not Controlling Indulgent Accepting Permissive Neglectful Rejecting Permissive Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005

48 Development of Prosocial Behavior Pro-social behavior is the aspect of moral conduct that includes socially desirable behaviors such as sharing, helping, and cooperating. Pro-social behavior in infancy: babies cry when they hear the crying of other babies but not when they hear tape- recorded crying suggests at least a primitive level of global empathy Martin Hoffman traced the development of empathy through four stages. Sources: Hoffman, Martin (2000). Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge University Press; Hoffman, Martin (1977). Moral internalization: current theory and research. In L. Berkowitz, (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Psychology, Vol. 10, New York: Academic Press; Hoffman, Martin (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: empathy and guilt. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.) The Development of Prosocial Behavior. New York: Academic Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.

49 Development of empathy Empathy involves feeling and understanding anothers emotional state, which goes beyond mere sympathy. Martin Hoffmans research has yielded the following: –emotional contagion of newborns (global empathy) –during the second year, babies actively attempt to comfort a person in distress, particularly their moms has been shown in reactions to staged events such as mothers pretending to hurt an ankle. –preschoolers empathize with a wider set of feelings and can empathize with people they have not met including story characters they can only imagine and people they learn about through the media. –between 6 and 9 years of age, children begin to empathize with people based on their knowledge of troublesome social-environmental conditions such as being sick, living in poverty, or losing a relative. Sources: Hoffman, Martin (2000). Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge University Press; Hoffman, Martin (1977). Moral internalization: current theory and research. In L. Berkowitz, (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Psychology, Vol. 10, New York: Academic Press; Hoffman, Martin (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: empathy and guilt. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.) The Development of Prosocial Behavior. New York: Academic Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.

50 The Development of Moral Reasoning Lawrence Kohlberg Explained how children and teens develop a sense of right and wrong (an ethic of justice) –Looked at reasoning through dilemmas rather than behavior or moral emotion –Examined the nature and progression of moral reasoning or judgment through several stages. –He proposed 3 Levels of Moral Reasoning: Preconventional –Punishment orientation (stage 1) –Reward orientation (stage 2) Conventional –Good boy/good girl orientation (stage 3) –Respect for authority orientation (stage 4) Postconventional –Social contract orientation (stage 5) –Individual principles/conscience orientation (stage 6) Kohlberg, Lawrence (Ed.) (1983). The Psychology of Moral Development. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels 2005.

51 View of "Right" Primary Levels Motivation PerspectiveAge/Grade That Which Gains Approval From Others That Which Adheres to Rules or Principles Pre-Conventional (self-serving) Conventional (other- serving) Post- Conventional (principle- serving) Punishment Avoiding Pleasure/ Reward Seeking Acceptance/ Approval Seeking Rule Following/ Status Seeking Law Abiding/ Rights Respecting Justice Seeking/ Conscience Driven Egocentric Individualistic Interpersonal Organizational Societal Universal Preschool Early Childhood Grades K-2 Middle Childhood Grades 3-5 Late Childhood Grades 6-8 Early Adolescence Grades 9-12 Late Adolescence Adulthood Developed by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2000 © KOHLBERG'S BEHAVIORAL-SOCIAL-COGNITIVE THEORY

52 Moral Development and Conceptions of Fairness: Damon Studied 4 through 12 year old childrens ideas about fairness (positive justice), and how they thought rewards and resources should be divided-up or distributed. A sample story: A classroom of children spent a day drawing pictures. Some children made a lot of drawings; some made fewer. Some children drew well; others did not. Some children were well- behaved and worked hard; others fooled around. Some children were poor; some were boys; some were girls. The class then sold the drawings at a school fair. How should the money from the sale of the drawings be given to out to the students who painted pictures? Sources: Damon, William (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Josse-Bass; Damon, W. (1983). Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton; Damon W. (1988). The Moral Child. New York: The Free Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.

53 Moral Development and Conceptions of Fairness: Damon In his studies of kids in the USA, Israel, Puerto Rico, and parts of Europe, Damon found that ideas of fairness develop through a sequence of levels: –Under age 4, children simply state their desires and give no reason for their choice. –Four and five year old kids state their desires but justify their choices on the basis of external factors (e.g. ¨we should get more because we are girls, or... we are bigger¨) Sources: Damon, William (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Josse-Bass; Damon, W. (1983). Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton; Damon W. (1988). The Moral Child. New York: The Free Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.

54 Moral Development and Conceptions of Fairness: Damon Five to seven year old children believe that equality is the only fair way to divvy up valued rewards, and they will argue their point. –No mitigating circumstances for them For ages 8 and above, ideas of merit and need enter into childrens moral reasoning. –They start to take into account all the factors involved in order to ensure a fair outcome in each situations a case by case decision. Sources: Damon, William (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Josse-Bass; Damon, W. (1983). Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton; Damon W. (1988). The Moral Child. New York: The Free Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.

55 Reasoning and Actual Behavior How does the thinking of young children about fairness correspond to their behavior in the real world? Damon did a study where six-year-old and ten-year-old children were asked to divide candy bars given to their group as ¨payment¨ for making bracelets. –Six-year-olds insisted that fairness meant each person should get the same number of candy bars. –Older children were better able to adjust the outcome to fit the students abilities and the contributions made by each group member. In 50 % of the cases, childrens behavior matched their concept level in the simulated situations. In 10 % of the cases, behavior was on a higher level. In 40 % of the cases, it was on a lower level. Real candy made a real difference. Sources: Damon, William (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Josse-Bass; Damon, W. (1983). Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton; Damon W. (1988). The Moral Child. New York: The Free Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.

56 Infants Trust, Openness, Hope Global Empathy Naturally & Non- Selectively Prosocial Autonomy (Independence), Will Toddlers Preschool Initiative, Imagining, Purpose Guilt for Uncontrolled Aggression Shame & Guilt Dawn of Conscience Authoritarian Conscience Perspective Taking or the Cognitive Component of Empathy; Guilt for Irresponsibility Affective Empathy Early Elementary Conscience Inner Moral Guide Industry, Competence, Skill Late Elementary Middle School High School Anxiety Related to Inconsistency Between Beliefs and Actions (exact point of emergence not clear) No Information Identity Formation (Consolidation of Roles, Identifications, and Personal Characteristics ) Erikson Havighurst Knowles Hoffman Kagan Hay Havighurst Affective Developmentalists Rational Conscience Complete Set of Moral Principles Developed by Gordon Vessels 2000 © Grade Clusters Shown Below

57 HavighurstErikson Hoffman Kagan Hay Selman / Damon Infants Age 0-1 Preschool Early Child- hood 4-5 Early Elementary Middle Childhood Late Elementary Late Childhood Middle School Early Adolescence High School Late Adolescence Toddlers Age 2-3 Emotions of shame and guilt Natural non- selective prosocial tendency Prosocial behavior becomes more selective and declines Global Empathy discomfort at another's distress Self-Regulatory Empathy feelings of concern that limit aggression Beginning of moral responsibility; the Dawn of Conscience Authoritarian Conscience: voice of parent taken in as a moral guide via love & discipline Rational Conscience: through cooperation with peers and an understanding of rules Complete Set of Moral Principles Cant distinguish their perspective from that of others; know self in terms of unrelated surface characteristics Know people have different viewpoints but can take only one at a time and favor their own; understand self in terms of comparisons Better understanding of different viewpoints and know they can have more than one plus mixed feelings; self the same Step outside situation and see as complex; have third- party view of self, others, and relationships; know self in terms of effects on others Understand self in terms of personal philosophy & plan for the future no information no information no information Moral feeling of guilt presumably extant with uncontrolled aggression Perspective Taking the cognitive component of empathy combines with affective compo- nent that is present at birth; guilt and self-scorn related to irresponsibility and over-indulgence are presumably experienced Moral emotion of Anxiety related to inconsistency between beliefs and actions presumably emerges sometime after late childhood or during adolescence no information Need to become Trusting, open, and Hopeful or will be fearful throughout life Need to become Independent, and Willful or be self- doubting Need to take Initiative and Imagine or may be cruel and critical throughout life Move from a need for initiative to need for Industry, Skill, and competence Need to be Competent or do things well or they will feel inferior and be unable to work well with others Need to form an Identity or consolidate roles, identifications, and characteristics or will be insecure, compulsive, or even deviant; tend to be clannish and preoccupied with how they are perceived by peers. no information no information Developed by Gordon Vessels 2000 © Affective Development

58 Piaget on Cognitive Development Piaget on Moral Development Kohlberg on Moral Development Preschool Early Childhood Kindergarten Pre-Kindergarten They cant decenter or take the perspective of others but are imitative. They can sense and perceive but not symbolically manipulate. They cannot comprehend classes and subclasses. They cannot relate to adults abstract reasoning. They cant reflect on or think about their own thinking. They assume you know what they know. They are subject to the morality of constraint. They exhibit social play but do not try to win. Justice is viewed as that commanded by authority. Casual attitude about rules. Authority maintains egocentrism. Egocentrism a step between the solitary play of younger children and the social play of children six and older. (Preconventional 1) They display heteronomous or adult- dependent morality. They think in absolutes of right and wrong. They have an egocentric viewpoint. They are good to avoid punishment or gain rewards. They view the value of life the way they do the value of objects. Early Elementary Middle Childhood First and Second Grades Concrete Operations They move from perceptual or pre- operational to conceptual or concrete- operational thought, i.e., they begin to solve problems in their heads because they can manipulate objects symbolically. They cannot imagine events that are not real events, need real things to think about, and cannot think abstractly. They can take the perspective of others. They are becoming more and more interested in their peers. They willfully engage in social cooperation. They display instrumental cooperation. They are largely subject to the morality of constraint. They want to win by age seven but have a vague notion of game rules. They view rules as sacred and unchangeable. They view justice as that which is commanded by authority. (Preconventional 2) They see right as that which satisfies their needs. They have a concrete, pleasure/ reward- seeking, individualistic perspective. Their cooperation is instrumental, and they exchange favors to satisfy needs. The value of life is viewed as instrumental to need satisfaction. Late Elementary Late Childhood Grades Three Through Five They are in transition between heteronomy and moral autonomy. They come to know codified game rules and show an intense interest in them. They continue to view rules as unchangeable. They view justice in terms of equality that comes about from solidarity and mutual respect. (Conventional 3) They view right as what gains approval. They have an interpersonal, Golden Rule, good-child/bad-child perspective. They gain approval by being caring and accommodating toward significant others. They view the value of life in terms of affectional bonds. Middle School Early Adolescence Grades Six Through Eight High School Late Adolescence Grades Nine Through Twelve Formal Operations They move from concrete operational to formal-operational thought, think logically and abstractly, and begin to manipulate symbols in their heads. They can imagine hypothetical as well as real events. They can introspect, reflect, and think about their own thinking. They can consider many view-points and take the perspective of others fully. They are much more self-conscious than they were previously. They have principled moral autonomy, morality emerging from cooperation. Their rule mastery and codification of game rules, that began at about age ten, continues. They view justice as equity,not equality. Rules are viewed as a changeable product of mutual consent. (Conventional 4) They view right as doing one's duty, showing respect to authority, and main- taining social order. They have an organizational-need, societal-need, law-maintaining view. They view life as sacred within the context of a scheme or moral rights. (Post-conventional) They view right as guarding basic rights and legal contracts, or as meeting mutual obligations in context of societal rights and standards. They have a law-creating, moral-legal view that obligates them to honor social commitments. Principled moral reasoning. unexplained Juxtaposition of Relevant Developmental Theories (part 2 is on the next slide) Developed by Gordon Vessels 1998 ©

59 Preschool Early Childhood Kindergarten Pre-Kindergarten Early Elementary Middle Childhood First and Second Grades Late Elementary Late Childhood Grades Three Through Five Middle School Early Adolescence Grades Six Through Eight High School Late Adolescence Grades Nine Through Twelve Juxtaposition of Relevant Developmental Theories (part 1 is on previous slide) Developed by Gordon Vessels 1998 © (Level 1) Friendship is defined by uneven-handed reciprocity that derives from a subjective, unilateral, or one-way social perspective. Friends begin to realize that feelings and intentions and not just actions keep them together. They know others have a different perspective but can focus only on one. (Level 2) Friendship is defined by two-way, cooperative, even-handed reciprocity. Fair- weather friendships may not withstand conflicts. They can self reflect and realizethat people have an outer and inner self. They realize that people have varying viewpoints and are awareof their own mixed feelings. (Level 3) Friendship is defined by mutual and exclusive trust, loyalty, and intimacy that involves sharing inner-most feelings with a trusted few. It is built on the ability to take a third-party view of self, others, and relationships, i.e., they can step outside a social situation and view its complexities. (Level 4) Friendship is defined by autonomous inter dependence whereby friends are close and intimate yet grant eachother the independence to establish other close friendships. Words, glances, and gestures can have deeper shared meanings that are unknown to others. (Level 1) Children have an egocentric under- standing of friendship that involves sharing toys and enjoyable activities with incidental playmates. They are becoming more selective and selfish with their prosocial behavior. They cant distinguish between their own perspective and that of others. 0-A: (4 years old): They make no attempt to justify choices and feel they should get more because they want more. They distort adult orders to fit their wishes. 0-B: (5 years old): They justify choices in a selfish, after-the-fact way and view authority only as a block to satisfying their own desires. (Egalitarianism) 1-A: They view fairness as equality. Authority is confused with the power to enforce. 1-B: They view fairness in terms of merit and reciprocal obligation. Fairness takes on value in its own right. Children see obedience as legitimate trade for adult favors and help. (Equity/Benevolence) 2-A: They view fairness as a right of all, and they view leaders with knowledge as more legitimate. 2-B: They view justice (by age 10) as context dependent and can make reasoned decisions based on claims and conditions, but their perspective is limited to the situation. (General) Self-understanding is based on social and personality traits rather than the abilities of childhood or the beliefs of late adolescence. Will gain ability to view situations that involve disparate claims to justice from a wider perspective than the situation and can apply moral principles. Self understanding or self-concept is based on beliefs, philosophies, and thoughts rather than personality qualities as was the case in early adolescence. (Havighurst/Hoffman) They begin to form a complete set of moral principles that they use to judge self and others. (Erikson) They seek to consolidate their roles and identifications into an identity. They tend to over-identify with individuals and groups and tend to be clannish and intolerant. They are driven by a concern for how they are perceived by their peers. The resolution of this crisis allows for growth in terms of moral development and the capacity for sexual intimacy. Failure can be due to unresolved earlier crises or the failure to commit to an ideology and way of life. (Havighurst) A rational conscience replaces the authoritarian conscience via peer-group identification, peer cooperation, and an understanding of the function of rules. (Hoffman) Feel guilty for violating internalized abstract moral rules and can take the perspective of others. (Havighurst/Hoffman) They internalize adult standards and the voice of parent(s) as a result of love and empathy-mediating inductions that connect actions with felt affects. (Erikson) They must gain a sense of competence and will feel inferior and have relationship problems if they fail. (Erikson/Hoffman) They must take initiative and will experience much guilt and fail to realize their potential if they fail. They are at the dawn of conscience but have not internalized adult standards. They have affectively empathetic feelings that limit aggression and enable social and moral growth. Erikson, Hoffman, & Havighurst on Moral-Affective Development Damon on Moral Development Selman & Youniss on Friendship Development

60 year old children tell stories about sharing toys and play activities no stories gathered 10 year old children tell stories about playing and sharing play activities 13 year old children tell stories about assisting each other 18 year old adolescents tell stories about sharing private thoughts and feelings Youniss Children's Friendship Stories Selman Friends Are... Friendship Is... Perspective Taking Ability those who live nearby; those with whom they are playing; those whose toys they want subjectivity and uneven- handed reciprocity; know feelings, not just activities, keep them together more cooperative, even- handed reciprocity; fair- weather friendships don't withstand conflict mutual understanding and exclusive trust replaces reciprocal interest; friend- ships withstand conflicts autonomous interdepen- dence: close and intimate friends grant each other the right to have other friends cannot distinguish their own perspective from that of others recognize others may have different viewpoints but can consider only one at a time and favor their own; a one-way social perspective have a better understanding of peoples different view- points and know they can have more than one or mixed feelings; two-way perspective can step outside a situation and view its complexities and have a third-party perspective on self, others, and relationships Damon self-concept and view of self understand self in terms of unrelated surface characteristics understand self in terms of comparisons with others, particularly peers same as above understand self in terms of effects on others of personal characteristics understand others in terms of personal philosophy and plans for the future Friendship / Self / Perspective Taking Developed by Gordon Vessels 2000 ©


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