Presentation on theme: "9 Domains of Development"— Presentation transcript:
19 Domains of Development 1. Physical-Maturational2. Cognitive-Intellectual3. Artistic-Creative4. Linguistic-CommunicativeKnowledge-SkillSocial-InterpersonalMoral-Ethical8. Personality-Individuality9. Emotional-AffectiveCreated by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
2Theorists Connected with Each of the 9 Domains of Development 1. Physical-Maturational (Gesell)2. Cognitive-Intellectual (Piaget, Damon)3. Social-Interpersonal (Youniss, Selman, Damon)4. Moral-Ethical (Piaget, Kohlberg, Kagan, Hoffman, Damon)5. Knowledge-Skill (Vygotsky, Damon)6. Linguistic (Chomsky)7. Artistic-Creative (Lowenfeld, Gardner)8. Personality-Individuality (Freud, Erikson, Dowlby, Ainsworth)9. Emotional-Affective (Hoffman, Kagan)Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
3Descriptors of These Theorists’ Models Psychosexual Personality Development (Freud)Psychosocial Personality Development (Erikson)Developmental Tasks as Developmental Milestones (Havighurst)Cognitive Development (Piaget)Moral Reasoning Development (Kohlberg, Piaget, Havighurst)Moral Emotion Development (Hoffman, Kagan)Social-Conceptual Development (Damon, Selman, Youniss)Scaffolded Knowledge and Skill Development (Vygotsky, Damon)Ecological-Social Development (Bronfenbrenner)Maturational-Biological Milestones (Gesell)Ethological Personality-by-Attachment (Bowlby, Ainsworth)Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
4Some Developmental Mechanisms Maturation (genetic program for growth)Imitation (essential for learning)Practice (essential for consolidation)Habituation (promotes novel exploration)Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
5Three issues addressed by developmental theorists Continuity or Discontinuity of GrowthCan development be characterized as a gradual change process, or does it present sudden, distinct bursts of change?The Influence of Maturation Versus ExperienceIs development primarily influenced by biologically inherited, genetic factors, or by environmental experiences (nature or nurture)?Individual DifferencesWhat makes individuals different?To what extent are individual characteristics stable over time?Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
6ADULTHOODADULTHOODINFANCYCONTINUOUSDISCONTINUOUSSome theories view development as a relatively continuous process. In contrast, stage theories assume that development is discontinuous and involves periodic qualitative milestone changes.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
7Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Age RangeDevelopmentalPhenomenaDescription of StageSensorimotorExperiencing the world through thesenses and exploration (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, etc.)Birth to nearly 2 years of ageObject permanenceStranger anxietyPreoperationalRepresenting things with words and images but have no logical reasoning abilitiesPretend playEgocentrismRapid languagedevelopmentAbout 2 to 6 years of ageConcrete operationalThinking logically about concreteevents; grasping concrete analogiesand performing math operationsAbout 7 to 11 years of ageConservationMathematical transformationsAbout 12 years of age throughadulthoodFormal operationalAbstract reasoning; reflection; thinking about thinkingAbstract logicPotential for moral reasoningArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
8Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational The child begins to interact with the environmentThe child begins to represent the world symbolically.Sensorimotor StagePreoperational StageConcrete OperationalFormal OperationalChildren learn rules such as game rules and the law of conservation, and they take them very seriouslyThe adolescent can transcend concrete situations and think about the future and their own thinkingCreated by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
9Early symbolic thought Formal OperationalMental operations are applied to abstract ideas; begin logical, systematic thinking; imagine hypothetical events; manipulate symbols in their mindsConcrete OperationalMental operations are applied to concrete events only; mastery of conservation and hierarchical classification; cannot think abstractlyPre-OperationalEarly symbolic thoughtmarked by irreversibility, concentration, & egocentrism; assume you know what they know; cannot decenterSensorimotorCoordination of sensory input and motor responses; development of object permanence; begin to explore environmentBirth to 2 Years2 to 7 Years7 to 11 Years12 to adultPiaget’s theory of cognitive development identifies four stages marked by qualitatively different modes of thinking. Interaction with the environment and maturation gradually alter the way children think.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
10Piaget's Theory of Moral Development Types ofGamesand PlayPre-CooperativeCooperativeParallelEgocentricImmature CooperativeMature CooperativeA casual attitude toward game rules; few rules are understood; games ignoredRules are viewed as sacred, obligatory,unchangeable; game rules are vaguely understoodRules are viewed as a product of mutual consent; game rules are codified and of intense interestGame RulePracticeand ConsciousnessHeteronomy: morality of constraint; imposed constraints maintain egocentrism; constraints are a necessary precondition for the development of moral autonomyAutonomy: morality of cooperation; cooperation and reciprocity emerge from relationships among peer equals that deliver them from egocentrism to moral autonomy and a mature sense of justiceBasic MoralityIs Respectfor RulesSense ofJusticeJustice is what iscommanded by authority:HeteronomyEqualitarianismBorn of solidarity & mutual respect among equalsEquityConsider intentions & situation when judgingThinkingCapacityPre-OperationalCan't take the perspective of others; can't think about their own thinkingConcrete OperationalTake the perspective ofothers; conceptual but not abstract reasoningFormal OperationalCan think logically andabstractly; can considermany viewpointsConcept ofResponsibilityObjective sense of responsibility: actsevaluated in terms of material consequences; evaluations based on observable factorsSubjective sense of responsibility: acts evaluated in terms of motives/intentions; acts judged immoral ifthey violate norm of reciprocity central to moral rulesPiaget’s explanations of children’s moral development have not been accurately described in the literature. Primary sources reveal that he did not view heteronomy or externally imposed goodness as a bad thing for young children or as an unnecessary and avoidable step in the process of becoming a moral person. Some have erroneously concluded that he was against punitive or expiatory sanctions of all kinds and at all ages. Those who read his writings rather than others’ interpretations of his writings quickly discover that he said relationships with children should be as cooperative as possible and that reciprocity sanctions should gradually replace expiatory or punitive sanctions. They will also discover that he had several parallel theories of moral development with each focusing on a different aspect of moral functioning. In addition, his intuitive ideas about moral affect proved to be close to the mark as recently revealed by Hoffman and Kagan. He wrote that young children at the pre-cooperation stage feel obligated to follow rules enjoined by respected adults and that the raw material of their sympathetic tendencies and emotional reactions become moral when subjected to rules. For children at the cooperative stage, he described feelings of obligation to follow rules emerging from cooperative relationships and mutual respect among equals and a related valuing of reciprocity in relationships. He stated that moral sentiments and moral motivation results when sympathetic tendencies and emotional reactions are subordinated to rules. We now know that children show a natural affective empathy from birth and that this makes the internalization of moral standards and the development of conscience possible through relationships. Piaget emphasizes the importance of cooperative relationships with peers, related games and game rules, changing conceptions of justice beginning with that commanded by authority, equalitarianism, and equity with the latter two corresponding to concrete operational and formal operational thinking. He explained that children’s conception of responsibility changes from objective to subjective, with the latter involving a consideration of intentionality. Piaget briefly described a morality of good which he said develops along side a morality of justice with the former emerging when the parent-child relationship is one of mutual affection. This concept corresponds to Gilligan’s ethics of care. You may recall hat she criticized Kohlberg for focuses on justice and ignoring care.Moralityof GoodAffection between parent and child yields morality of good; develops along side the morality of justiceNo further explanationMoralAffectFeeling of obligation to follow rules emerging from cooperation and respect among equals (reflects valuing of reciprocity); "moral sentiments and motivation" to do right reflect the subordination of early "sympathetic tendencies" and "affective reactions" to rules; "will" is the permanent set of constructed "values" to which one one adheresFeeling of obligation to follow rules of respected authority; raw material for future autonomous moral behavior is present in sympathetic tendencies and affective reactionsDeveloped by Gordon Vessels 2000
11Robert Havighurst’s “Developmental Task Theory” Click HereHe also introduced the concepts of “teachable moment,” “authoritarian conscience,” and “rational conscience,” concepts similar to those of Piaget.The idea of "developmental tasks" is appropriately credited to Robert Havighurst who stated that the concept was developed in the 1930s and40s by Frank, Zachry, Prescott, and Tyron. He further stated, “The developmental-task concept occupies a middle ground between two opposing theories of education: the theory of freedom — that the child will develop best if left as free as possible; and the theory of constraint — that the child must learn to become a worthy, responsible adult throughrestraints imposed by his society [inculcation]. A developmental task is midway between an individual need and a societal demand. It assumesan active learner interacting with an active social environment.” Tasks for three of the developmental stages are presented on the next three slides.Drawn from the description of Havighurst’s book in Developmental Advising: Annotated Bibliography for Research Published Prior to 1999, an annotated bibliography compiled by G. Steele and Melinda McDonald for the NACADA Journal. Retrieved from The book is Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McCay.Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
12Developmental Tasks of Middle Childhood: Ages 6-12 1. Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games;2. Building wholesome attitudes toward oneself as a growing organism;3. Learning to get along with age-mates;4. Learning an appropriate masculine or feminine social role;5. Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating;6. Developing concepts necessary for everyday living;7. Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values;8. Achieving personal independence;9. Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions.Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McCay.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
13Developmental Tasks of Adolescence Ages 12-18 Developmental Tasks of AdolescenceAges 12-181. Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both sexes;2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role;3. Accepting one's physique and using the body effectively;4. Achieving emotional independence of parents and other adults;5. Preparing for marriage and family life;6. Preparing for an economic career;7. Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior; developing an ideology;8. Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior.Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McCay.Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
14Early Adulthood Developmental Tasks of 1. Selecting a mate; 2. Achieving a masculine or feminine social role;3. Learning to live with a marriage partner;4. Starting a family;5. Rearing children;6. Managing a home;7. Getting started in an occupation;8. Taking on civic responsibility;9. Finding a congenial social group.Havighurst, R. J. (1972). Developmental tasks and education. New York: David McCay.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
15Speaking in Sentences 30-49 Months 16 of 25 consonant sounds by 30 monthsEarly Language Developmentwords 36 MonthsSpeaking in Sentences MonthsSee cat! Telegraphic means lacking connection words11 of 14 Vowel Sounds by 30 MonthsTelegraphic Speeking MonthsHolophrasic MonthsGrpmph!One-Word Utterances 9-18 MonthsJargon Period at 9 MonthsClassic Babbling Baby 4-9 MonthsSounds More Similar to AdultsCat! said with gestures; serves as whole sentenceCooing & Listening 2-4 MonthsMany More Sounds Than NeededCrying & Grunting 0-2 Months9-12 months is the quiet period since there is a decrease in vocalizationGradual narrowing of sounds to meaningful phonemes of the language being learned
16and experience in interaction with genotype. Epigenetic principle: genetically determined unfolding of maturation; HOW we turn out is a function of social/environmental forcesand experience in interaction with genotype.Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and Society. New York:Norton. Erikson, E.H. (1964). Insight and Responsibility. NewYork: Norton. To learn more about Erikson, begin here:IntegrityversusDespairHave Iliveda fulllife andtakenadvantageof whatlifeoffered?GenerativityversusAbsorptionWill Iproducesomethingof realvalueor leavea legacy?IntimacyversusIsolationShall Ishare mylife withanotheror livealone?IdentityversusRoleConfusionWho am Iandwheream Igoing?IndustryversusInferiorityAm ICompetentor am I aworthlessfailure?InitiativeversusGuiltAm IGoodor amI Bad?AutonomyversusShame& DoubtCan I dothings myselfor must Idependon others?TrustversusMistrustIs my worldPredictableandSupportive?Infancy BabiesEarly ChildhoodLateChildhoodYoung AdulthoodToddlerhoodAdolescenceMiddle AgeLate AdultErikson’s theory of personality development proposes that people move through eight stages during their lives. Each stage brings a psychosocial crisis or conflict that needs to be resolved interactively. Each involves confronting a question such as, “Who am I and where am I going?” The stages are described above in terms of personality traits that are potential outcomes from handling these crises.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2004
18Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Continued Early AttachmentErikson proposes that our first major conflict is encountered in the first year Trust vs. MistrustInfants develop trust through Social Attachment (see Attachment Theory)Adolescence is a transition period between childhood and adulthood that begins with puberty.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
19Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Continued In the second year of development the child encounters the conflict of Autonomy vs Shame and DoubtThe child explores the environment and seeks the independence to do so.Parents who stifle their children during this stage cause feelings of shame and doubt.Some adolescents enter Piaget’s formal operational stage, in which the individual can reason about abstract as well as concrete situations.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
20Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Continued In the third year of development, the child faces the conflict of Initiative vs. GuiltThe child starts to show initiative in play and control over emotions.The child also begins to gain a sense of what is right and wrong based on their experiences.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
21Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Continued From ages 6 through 12, the child faces the conflict overIndustrious children build a sense of competence and self-confidence.Non-industrious children begin to develop inferiority complexes.Industry vs InferiorityCreated by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
22Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (Scaffolded Knowledge/Skill Acquisition) Children’s cognitive development is heavily influenced by social and cultural factors via relationships.Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable people, usually parents and teachers.The Zone of Proximal Development is the range of tasks a child cannot master alone. Even though they may be close to having the necessary mental skills, they need guidance in order to complete the tasks.Scaffolding is a framework of temporary support. Adults help children learn how to think by scaffoldingor by supporting their attempts to solve problems anddiscover principles. Scaffolding must be responsive to children’s needs.Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
23Vygotsky’s Theory of Development Zone of Proximal Development encompasses the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but within their capacity to learn with guidance and assistance from adults or more skilled children.Scaffolding involves changing the level of support over the course of teaching something — the more skilled person/teacher adjusts the amount of guidance to fit students’ current performance level.Language and Thought: young children use language to plan, guide, and monitor their behavior in a self-regulatory fashion – Vygotsky called this “inner speech” or private speech.Primary Source: Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Another source: Vygotsky, L. S. (1989). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. To learn more, begin with Clifford Morris’s information at entitled Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development 1..Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
24Ecological Theories of Human Development It is important tostudy human developmentin it’s broader social-environmental context because the structure of the environment influencesdevelopment.Ecological Theories of Human DevelopmentCreated by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
25Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory 5Environmental Systems:microsystem: setting where individual livesmesosystem: interrelations among microsystems comprising the local communityexosystem: experiences in the larger socialsystem or society of which the microsystemand mesosystem are partsmacrosystem: the individual’s culturechronosystem: environmental events andtransitions over timeOne PPT source retrieved at – no author identified.Slide arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
26Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Changes in systems over timeCHRONOSYSTEMMACROSYSTEMEXOSYSTEMOpportunities StructuresReligionMass MediaSOCIETY AT LARGELife Styles ChoicesMESOSYSTEMSchoolPeer GroupLegal SystemSubculturesMICROSYSTEMWhere the individual livesSchoolPeer GroupEducational SystemGovernment AgenciesHomeINDIVIDUALCultural NormsTraditionsHomeChurchChurchInterrelations among microsystemsNeighborhoodWorkplaceWorkplaceCommunication TechnologyTransportation SystemsNeighborhoodLife Course OptionsPatterns of Social InterchangeCommerce and IndustryCULTUREDominant Beliefs and IdeologiesCreated by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
27MATURATIONAL THEORIES BIOLOGICAL-MATURATIONAL THEORIESFrontal LobesAmniotic SacEggPlacentaSperm CellsUmbilical CordEyeLiverPrenatal DevelopmentCreated by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
28Biological-Maturational Theories of Development Emphasize the genetic, biological, and evolutionary basis of human development. The central concept is maturation — a genetically predetermined sequence of physical and psychophysiological changes. These changes take place at about thesame age for most people. The environment has a significant influenceon when changes occur and the degree of growth that takes place.Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
29Affection for adults Elation Joy Delight Excitement Distress Anger Affection for childrenAffection for adultsElationJoyDelightExcitementDistressAngerJealousyDisgustFearMonthsEmotions are rapidly differentiated from an initial capacity for excitement (K.M.B. Bridges, 1932). Today, there is great interest in genetically determined temperamental characteristics from which personality forms, such as sociability .K. M. B. Bridges, (1932). Emotional development in early infancy. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 37. Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
30TemperamentThe biological-genetic basis for the self-expressive, arousal, and self-regulatory components of personality. These are evident in infancy inthe forms of activity level, irritability, fearfulness, sociability, etc.In 1977 Thomas & Chess stated that childhood temperamental characteristics are relatively innate and well-established by 2-3 months of age. They identified tree types of temperament evident in infancy:Easy ─ high approach response; positive mood (mild to moderate intensity); quick adaptability;Difficult ─ high withdrawal response; frequent negativemood of high intensity; slow adaptability;Slow-to-warm-up ─ many withdrawal responses ( mild to moderate intensity); slow adaptability.Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/MazelIn 1984 Buss & Plomin proposed the following criteria for temperament:Inherited,present early in development,predictive of later personality development.Buss, A., & Plomin, R. (1984). Temperament: Early personality traits. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Side by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
31There are critical periods during Maturation does nottake place in a vacuum.There are critical periods duringwhich children must have certain typesof experiences in order for perceptual andcognitive abilities to develop normally, thusconfirming the “use it or lose it” saying.For example, in order to develop correct binocular depth perception, the eyes must receive sensory input between age one and three years.A child who was kept in confinement by herparents until the age of thirteen withoutbeing spoken to never acquiredspoken language beyond twoor three word phrases.Written and arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
32Environmental Factors and Prenatal Development The mother’s behavior can harm her fetus in in several ways:Severely inadequate nutritionRisk of complications during delivery and neurological problemsIncreased risk of mental disorders later in lifeDrug useFetal alcohol syndrome is a congenital set of physical and mental problems caused by alcohol use during pregnancy. This set includes microcephaly(small head), heart defects, hyperactivity, mental retardation, motor abnormalities, abnormal facial features.The affects of social drinking during pregnancy include deficient intelligence, a slow reaction time, weak motor skills, inattention, impulsivity, and poor social skills.Tobacco, alcohol, and drugs, both prescription and recreational, are also linked to birth defects.Viral IllnessesViruses can affect prenatal development with the amount of damage depending on (a) when during pregnancy the mother becomes ill, (b) the type of illness,and (c) the medications taken.Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, and severe influenza can cause extreme abnormalities or death.A developing baby and its mother are linked through the placenta, and a mother’s behaviors can affect the baby dramatically.Severe maternal malnutrition is linked to increased risk of birth complications and neurological problems in the newborn. Moderate maternal malnutrition has been shown to have negative effects for many years after birth. Research links maternal malnutrition to vulnerability, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders in adolescence and early adulthood.Maternal drug use can significantly impact a developing baby, even if the drugs are legal, like alcohol and cigarettes. Many drugs, both prescription and recreational, are linked to birth defects. Problems can even be caused by some over the counter drugs.Fetal alcohol syndrome is a collection of congenital (inborn) problems associated with alcohol use during pregnancy. Problems include microcephaly, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, and delayed mental and motor development. While degree of impairment has been shown to be related to the amount of alcohol consumed by a pregnant woman, current studies suggest that even normal social drinking can have enduring negative effects on children, including deficits in IQ, reaction time, motor skills, attention span, and math skills, as well as impulsive, antisocial, and delinquent behavior.Maternal illness can also interfere with prenatal development; the nature of the damage depends, in part, on when the mother contracts the illness. Some illnesses, such as AIDS and herpes, can be passed on to the baby.Slide prepared by Gordon Vessels. Primary sources: Gurnee, Mary C. and Sylvestri, Mario F. (2005). Teratogenicity of Drugs, accessed at U.S. Pharmacist, a Johnson Publication at The Ohio State University Medical Center (2005). Risks during pregnancy, a public service document accessed at
33Attachment TheoryMary AinsworthJohn BowlbyPostulate: the human infant is pre-adapted to respond to it’s caregiver.Evolutionary function: attachment behaviors promote close proximity to the caregiver so that the child can be protected from danger.Type of attachment is influenced by care-giving behavior; children can be categorized as:SecureAmbivalent (seek comfort but show anger or resistance)AvoidantInsecure-disorganizedPrimary source: Werner-Wilson, Ronald J. (2005). Types of attachment, a PPT slide show retrieved fromSlide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
34Researching Attachment: Strange Situation Test The Strange Situation Test involves separating the very young child (toddler) fromits mother or primary caregiverand then reuniting thechild with theparent.The infant is put through eight standardized episodes or situations, all meant to elicit differing levels of distress. These include an experimenter entering the room, one or both leaving, and a stranger entering either with or without the parentin the room. Based on the infant’sreaction to these situations, hisor her type of attachmentwith the mother oris identified.From Messer, D. and Miller, S. (1999). Exploring Developmental Psychology. Copy of photo found atThis is carried out under controlled andmonitored conditions and involves carefullyrecording the child’s reactions and the parent’sbehavior. It was developed by Mary Ainsworth whoextended the earlier groundbreaking work of John Bowlby.Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
35Infant reunion responses following their separation from their mothers: Secure (B type) behaviorpositive, greeting of mother, being comfortedAvoidant (A type) behaviornot seeking contact, avoiding gazeAmbivalent (C type) behaviornot comforted, overly passive, show angerDisorganised (D type) Behaviortotally disorganised and confusedArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
36Mothers of ambivalent infants tend to be inconsistent, insensitive, and unpredictable in their interactions with their babies.The mothers of insecure-avoidant babies tend to be averse to physical contact, are inclined to interfere unnecessarily, and generally appear emotionally unavailable or dismissive.The mothers of insecure-disorganized infants are typically suffering from an unresolved trauma, such as abuse or the unresolved loss of an attachment figure, which results in their babies being afraid of them. The mother may actually be abusive or neglectful.Click to Learn MoreSource: Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1982). Attachment: retrospect and prospect. In C.M. Parkes and J. Stevenson-Hinde, (Eds.) The Place of Attachment in Human Behavior. (pp 3-30) New York: Basic Books. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels 2005.
37Correspondence Between Child & Adult Attachment Styles CHILD ATTACHMENT STYLEPARENT ATTACHMENT STYLESECURE: Limited distress,continued exploration after initial reunionSECURE/AUTONOMOUS: developmentally appropriate interaction; recognizessignificance of attachment.AVOIDANT: child appearsindifferentDISMISSING: dismissive about attachment; withdrawn andrejectingRESISTANT OR AMBIVALENT:child appears distressed and is preoccupied with caregiver and clingishPREOCCUPIED: recognizes significance of attachment but is preoccupied with past andappears angry; blurred or unclear boundariesDISORGANIZED/DISORIENTED: difficult to categorize reunion with caregiver; describes 80% of maltreated children.UNRESOLVED/DISORGANIZED: frightened by memory of past;trauma promotes momentary disassociation; scripts child intopast dramasPrimary source: Werner-Wilson, Ronald J. (2005). Types of attachment, a PPT slide show retrieved fromof_Attachment.ppt Slide prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
3810% 22% 63% 5% Avoidant Secure Ambivalent Unclassified In the United States, about two thirds of all children from middle-class families are securely attached. About one child in three is insecurely attached.Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
39Bowlby’s Attachment Stages Birth to 2-3 monthsUndiscriminating social responsivenss2-3 months to 6-7 monthsDiscriminating social responsiveness6-7 months to 3 yearsActive proximity seeking /true attachment3 years and olderGoal-corrected partnershipSources: Bowlby, John. (1982). Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1. NY: Basic Books; list presented in this slide also listed in slide #5 created at the University of Idaho, retrieved atArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
40Separation Distress: Another Indicator of Attachment 10080Day-carePercentage of infants who criedwhen their mothers left60Groups of infants who had and had not experienced day-care were left by their mothers in an unfamiliar room.40Home200.03.55.57.59.511.513.515.517.519.521.523.525.529Age in monthsGordon Vessels’ 2005 recreation of graph in a PPT show by Mahnaz Rehmatullah at He took it from Kagan, Jerome (1976), The role of the family during the first half decade. In V. Vaughn& T. Brazelton (Eds.), The family:Can it be saved? Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers.
41Attachment Theory Research Findings Main & Cassidy (1988) ─ Kindergarten children’s self-esteem was found to be related tosecure attachment. Main, M., & Cassidy, J. (1988). Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachmentclassifications and stable over a 1-month period. Developmental Psychology, 24,Lamb et al., (1984) ─ They found the link between attachment style and social-emotional adjustment was only there if family circumstances remained stable.Lamb, M. E., Thompson, R. A., Gardner, W. P., Charnov, E. L, & Estes, D. (1984). Security of infantile attachment as assessed in the "strange situation": Its study andbiological interpretation. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7,Frankel & Cates (1990) ─ They found that securely attached infants became better problem solvers than insecurely attached infants.Crandell & Hobson (1999) ─ They compared 20 secure and 16 insecure mothers and theirkids who were all three years old; the children of secure mothers scored 19 points higheron an IQ test; the degree of parent-child “synchrony” was also related to the children’s IQs.Crandell, L.E. and Hobson, R.P. (1999). Individual Differences in Young Children's IQ: A Social-developmental Perspective, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry andAllied Disciplines, vol. 40, no. 3, pp (10). Publisher: Blackwell PublishingPark & Waters (1989) ─ They found that securely attached children coordinate theiractivities with friends more harmoniously than others.Park, K. A., & Waters, E. (1989). Security of attachment and preschool friendships. Child Development, 60,Meins & Russell (1997) ─ They found greater social responsiveness and flexibility forsecurely attached children age two and one-half years. Meins, E, & Russell, J (1997). Security and symbolic play: therelation between security of attachment and executive capacity British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1, 63-76Sroufe et al., (1993) ─ In this longitudinal study, the researchers found that year old children identified as securely attached in their first year had more positive “outcomes.” Avoidant infants became isolated. Ambivalent infants became deviant and more difficult to manage at home and school (e.g. hyperactive, aggressive, etc.).Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Kreutzer, T. (1990). The fate of early experience following developmental change: Longitudinal approaches to individual adaptation in childhood.Child Development, 61, Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., & Carlson, E. (1999). One social world: The integrated development of parent-child and peer relationships.In W. A. Collins & B. Laursen (Eds.) Relationships as developmental context: The 29th Minnesota symposium on child psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Fonagy et al., (19907) ─ They found that secure preschoolers and young school-age children were more competent on various mental tasks.Fonagy, P, Redfern, S, Charman, T (1997). The relationship between belief-desire reasoning and a projective measure of attachment security British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1,Prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
4260% 63% 15% 8% 23% 29% Ainsworth’s Attachment Classifications versus Thomas & Chess’s Temperament ProfilesPercentof One Year OldsTemperament ProfilePercentof InfantsAttachment ClassificationEasySecure60%63%DifficultResistant15%8%Slow to Warm Up23%Avoidant29%Data drawn from a similar chart created by faculty at the University of Western Ontario for undergraduate students taking course 240 B . No specific faculty author is listed. Retrieved at
43Parenting Styles ─ Baumrind AuthoritarianChild is told, “Do it because I said so!”A punitive and highly controlling parenting styleOnly concerned about obedienceAuthoritativeUse firm but fair discipline with an emphasis on communication and high expectations for moral maturityAre less likely to use physical punishmentInvolve children in decisions and rule-makingPermissiveLoose and inconsistent structureChildren given much freedom in deciding activities, rules, and schedules and must often make decisions they do not feel comfortable making.Source: Grobman, K.H. (2003). Diana Baumrind's Theory of Parenting Styles: Original Descriptions of the Styles (1967).Retrieved from Original source: Buamrind, Diana (1967). Childcare practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monograph, 75,Prepared by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
44Parent-Child Relationships BaumrindParent-Child RelationshipsBaumrind (1983) states that there are 3 types of parenting:Permissive – set few rules and rarely punish their children.Authoritarian – set strict rules and rely on punishment.Authoritative – warm and loving with firm but fair discipline and much communication about moral maturityIdentity Achievement -- According to Erikson, the task of adolescence is to resolve the crisis of identity versus role confusion.Social Relationships -- The adolescent becomes more and more influenced by peer values, especially in regard to styles, sexuality, and drug use.Source: Grobman, K.H. (2003). Diana Baumrind's Theory of Parenting Styles: Original Descriptions of the Styles (1967). Retrieved from Original source: Buamrind, Diana (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monograph, 75,Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
45What parenting style is best? Outcomes associated with different stylesAuthoritarianLack of social competenceAggression and a disregard for others’ rightsMost social contact confined to deviant peersExternally imposed “heteronomous” moralityAuthoritativeGreater self-reliance and self-confidenceMore sociable, adventuresome, and respectful of othersPermissiveImmature, impulsive, unable to take others’ perspectiveLimitations of researchCulturally biased? (most research carried out with white,middle class children and adolescents)Confusion of causality? Kids may elicit parenting styles.Slide prepared by Gordon Vessels in His Sources: Grobman, K.H. (2003). Diana Baumrind's Theory of Parenting Styles: Original Descriptions of the Styles (1967). Retrieved from Original source: Buamrind, Diana (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monograph, 75,
46ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION of PARENTING STYLES AcceptingNurturingResponsiveRejectingUnresponsiveEmotionally AloofDemandingControllingAuthoritativeDiana BaumrindAuthoritarianRejectingOverly StrictNot DemandingNot ControllingIndulgentAcceptingPermissiveNeglectfulRejectingPermissiveArranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005
47Development of “Prosocial” Behavior Pro-social behavior is the aspect ofmoral conduct that includes socially desirable behaviors such as sharing, helping, and cooperating.Pro-social behavior in infancy: babiescry when they hear the crying of other babies but not when they hear tape-recorded crying ─ suggests at least a primitive level of global empathyMartin Hoffman traced the developmentof empathy through four stages.Sources: Hoffman, Martin (2000). Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge University Press; Hoffman, Martin (1977). Moral internalization: current theory and research. In L. Berkowitz, (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Psychology, Vol. 10, New York: Academic Press; Hoffman, Martin (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: empathy and guilt. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.) The Development of Prosocial Behavior. New York: Academic Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.
48Development of empathy Empathy involves feeling and understanding another’s emotional state, which goes beyond mere sympathy.Martin Hoffman’s research has yielded the following:emotional contagion of newborns (global empathy)during the second year, babies actively attempt to comfort a person in distress, particularly their momshas been shown in reactions to staged events such as mother’s pretending to hurt an ankle.preschoolers empathize with a wider set of feelings and can empathize with people they have not met including story characters they can only imagine and people they learn about through the media.between 6 and 9 years of age, children begin to empathize with people based on their knowledge of troublesome social-environmental conditions such as being sick, living in poverty, or losing a relative.Sources: Hoffman, Martin (2000). Empathy and Moral Development: Implications for Caring and Justice. Cambridge University Press; Hoffman, Martin (1977). Moral internalization: current theory and research. In L. Berkowitz, (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Psychology, Vol. 10, New York: Academic Press; Hoffman, Martin (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: empathy and guilt. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.) The Development of Prosocial Behavior. New York: Academic Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.
49The Development of Moral Reasoning Lawrence KohlbergExplained how children and teens develop a senseof right and wrong (an ethic of justice)Looked at reasoning through dilemmas ratherthan behavior or moral emotionExamined the nature and progression of moralreasoning or judgment through several stages.He proposed 3 Levels of Moral Reasoning:PreconventionalPunishment orientation (stage 1)Reward orientation (stage 2)ConventionalGood boy/good girl orientation (stage 3)Respect for authority orientation (stage 4)PostconventionalSocial contract orientation (stage 5)Individual principles/conscience orientation (stage 6)Lawrence Kohlberg devised a stage theory of moral development based on subjects’ responses to presented moral dilemmas. Kohlberg was interested in a person’s reasoning, not necessarily their answer.He theorized that people progress through a series of three levels of moral development. each stage represents a different way of thinking about right and wrong.These stages are further elaborated in a subsequent slide.Kohlberg, Lawrence (Ed.) (1983). The Psychology of Moral Development. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels 2005.
51Moral Development and Conceptions of Fairness: Damon Studied 4 through 12 year old children’s ideas about fairness (positive justice), and howthey thought rewards and resources should be divided-up or distributed. A sample story:A classroom of children spent a day drawing pictures. Some children made a lot of drawings; some made fewer. Some children drew well; others did not. Some children were well-behaved and worked hard; others fooled around. Some children were poor; some were boys; some were girls. The class then sold the drawings at a school fair. How should the money from the sale of the drawings be given to out to the students who painted pictures?Sources: Damon, William (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Josse-Bass; Damon, W. (1983). Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton; Damon W. (1988). The Moral Child. New York: The Free Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.
52Moral Development and Conceptions of Fairness: Damon In his studies of kids in the USA, Israel, Puerto Rico, and parts of Europe, Damon found that ideas of fairness develop through a sequence of levels:Under age 4, children simply state their desires and give no reason for their choice.Four and five year old kids state their desires but justify their choices on the basis of external factors (e.g. ¨we should get more because we are girls, or we are bigger¨)Sources: Damon, William (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Josse-Bass; Damon, W. (1983). Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton; Damon W. (1988). The Moral Child. New York: The Free Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.
53Moral Development and Conceptions of Fairness: Damon Five to seven year old children believe that equality is the only fair way to divvy up valued rewards, and they will argue their point.No mitigating circumstances for themFor ages 8 and above, ideas of merit and need enter into children’s moral reasoning.They start to take into account all the factors involved in order to ensure a fair outcome in each situations — a case by case decision.Sources: Damon, William (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Josse-Bass; Damon, W. (1983). Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton; Damon W. (1988). The Moral Child. New York: The Free Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.
54Reasoning and Actual Behavior How does the thinking of young children about fairness correspond to their behavior in the real world?Damon did a study where six-year-old and ten-year-old children were asked to divide candy bars given to their group as ¨payment¨ for making bracelets.Six-year-olds insisted that fairness meant each person should get the same number of candy bars.Older children were better able to adjust the outcome to fit the students’ abilities and the contributions made by each group member.In 50 % of the cases, children’s behavior matched their concept level in the simulated situations.In 10 % of the cases, behavior was on a higher level.In 40 % of the cases, it was on a lower level. Real candy made a real difference.Sources: Damon, William (1977). The Social World of the Child. San Francisco: Josse-Bass; Damon, W. (1983). Social and Personality Development: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton; Damon W. (1988). The Moral Child. New York: The Free Press. Slide arranged by Gordon Vessels, 2005.