Presentation on theme: "Moral Development: Thoughts, Emotions, and Behaviors"— Presentation transcript:
1 Moral Development: Thoughts, Emotions, and Behaviors Chapter 10: Becoming Who We Are: The Development of Self, Gender, and MoralityMoral Development: Thoughts, Emotions, and BehaviorsBy Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook and Cook)
2 MoralityKnowing the difference between what is right and wrong and acting on that knowledge. Morality includes reasoning, emotions, and behaviors.
3 Moral Reasoning: Thinking about Morality Moral reasoning – The cognitive component of morality; the ways people think about right and wrong.Kohlberg used hypothetical moral dilemmas to study the development of moral reasoning (Kohlberg, 1969; Kohlberg, Levine, & Hewer, 1984).Depends on person’s level of cognitive development.Perspective taking – The ability to understand the psychological perspective, motives, and needs of others; central to the development of moral reasoning, empathy, prosocial reasoning, altruism, and aggression.
4 Moral Reasoning: Thinking about Morality Kohlberg’s Levels and Stages of Moral Reasoning (Kohlberg, 1984)Level I: PreconventionPunishment and obedience orientationIndividualism, instrumental purpose, and exchangeLevel II: ConventionalMutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformitySocial system and conscienceLevel III: PostconventionalSocial contract or utility and individual rightsUniversal ethical principlesMore on Kohlberg:
5 Moral Reasoning: Thinking about Morality Empirical research supported several aspects of Kohlberg’s theory.Critics questioned cross-cultural differences, validity of model for women’s moral reasoning, consistency across contexts.
6 Follow-Up Research on Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (Colby, Kohlberg, Gibbs, & Lieberman, 1983)
7 Moral Reasoning: Thinking about Morality Prosocial reasoning – Children’s thought processes about helping others; specifically, their reasons for deciding whether to help another person.With age, children move from a sole concern with their own needs to a concern with social approval, and finally to reasoning based on broader principles.
8 Guilt and Empathy: The Roles of Emotions in Moral Development Moral affect – The emotional component of morality, including both negative emotions such as guilt and more positive emotions such as emotional attachment to caregivers, sympathy, and empathy.Inductive parenting tells children how they should behave, promotes the development of empathy and sympathy by encouraging children to take the other person's perspective, and helps children understand what the parents’ expectations are and why they are appropriate (Krevans & Gibbs, 1996; Turiel, 1998).
9 Guilt and Empathy: The Roles of Emotions in Moral Development Empathy – Understanding that another person’s emotion and feeling the same or similar emotion.Developmental Levels of Empathy (Hoffman, 1984, 2001)Global empathy (birth to 1 year)Egocentric empathy (1 to 2 or 3 years)Empathy for another's feelings (preschool and elementary school years)Empathy for another’s life conditions (late childhood/early adolescence to adulthood)Developing Empathy in Children
10 Moral Behavior: Altruism and Aggression Moral behavior – The degree to which a person acts in accordance with moral rules when actually faced with a situation that requires a choice.Social learning theorists such as Bandura argue that moral (and immoral) behavior is learned in the same way as any other behavior: through reinforcement, punishment, and observational learning (Bandura, 1977).
11 Moral Behavior: Altruism and Aggression Altruism – Voluntary behavior that is motivated by concern for another or by internal values and goals, not by the expectation of external rewards or punishment (Eisenberg & Fabes, 1998).Children as young as one will share toys or food and attempt to help their parents.Cognitive and emotional factors are important contributors.Culture and specific family practices (parental teaching, verbal reinforcement, encouragement and consistent modeling of altruistic behavior) have important effects.
12 Moral Behavior: Altruism and Aggression Aggression – Behavior intended to harm people or property (Coie & Dodge, 1998); can be instrumental, hostile, or relational.All children show aggressiveness at times.Coercive home environment can influence aggression to continue (G. R. Patterson, 1995, 1997).Reactive aggressors interpret social interactions in a negative and hostile way.
13 Moral Behavior: Altruism and Aggression Proactive aggressors form a goal and consciously choose to act aggressively.Aggressive children show lower levels of perspective-taking, moral reasoning, and sympathy than non aggressive peers (Boldizar, Perry, & Perry, 1989; Gregg, Gibbs, & Basinger, 1994).Cultural conditions can encourage aggressive behaviors (e.g., poverty).
14 Aggression in Elementary School Boys and Girls (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995, p )
15 How Can Adults Help?Provide sensitive and responsive care from infancy.Draw attention to and comment on helpful behavior.Help others when you can, in as many ways as you can.Ask your child how he or she thinks another person feels when someone helps him or her.Use inductive parenting.Establish a family atmosphere that encourages talking about problems and issues.Notice and comment on helpfulness.Emphasize the effects of behavior on the other person to encourage the development of empathy.
16 Pictures on Slide 2: from Cook, J. L. , & Cook, G. (2005) Pictures on Slide 2: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 404). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Graphs on Slide 6: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 405). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Graph on Slide 14: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 413). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.All other images retrieved from Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art.