Presentation on theme: "Assessment Of Growth And Development By Dr. Hanan Said Ali."— Presentation transcript:
Assessment Of Growth And Development By Dr. Hanan Said Ali
Learning Objectives * Define of growth * Define of development * Identify factors influencing growth and development * Enumerate stages of growth and development * Identify age periods and developmental tasks
What Is The Meaning Of Growth ? Is a physical changes and increase in size. * Indicators of growth include height, weight, bone size, and dentition. * The growth rate is rapid during the prenatal, neonatal, infancy, and adolescent stages. * The rate is slows during childhood.
What Is The Meaning Of Development ? Is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression. Development is the behavioural aspect of growth(e.g., person develops the ability to walk, talk, and to run)
N.B. Growth and development are independent, interrelated processes For example, an infant’s muscles, bones, and nervous system must grow to a certain point before the infant can sit up or walk. Growth generally takes place during the 20 years of life; development continues after that.
What Are Factors That Influencing Growth And Development ? The factors that influence growth and development are genetic and environmental. 1-Genetic The genetic inheritance of an individual is established at conception. * It remains unchanged throughout life and determines such characteristic as:
a- gender. b- Physical Characteristics (e.g., eye colour, potential height) c- Temperament (e.g., response to stimuli in the environment). 2- Environmental Factors Family, climate, culture, school, nutrition
What Are The Stages Of Growth And Development ? 1- Neonatal (Birth to 28 days). Behaviour is largely reflexive and develops more purposeful behaviour. 2- Infancy (1month to1 year ) Physical growth is rapid 3- Toddlerhood (1 to 3 years) Motor development permits increased physical autonomy. Psychosocial skills increase
4- Preschool(3 to 6 years) * New experiences and the preschooler’s social role are tried during play. * Physical growth is slower. 5- School Age (6 to 12 years) * Peer group increasingly influences behaviour. * Physical,cognitive, and social development increases. * Communication skills are improved.
6- Adolescence (12 to 20 years) * Self –concept changes with biologic development. * Values are tested. * Physical growth accelerates. * Stress increases, especially in face of conflicts. 7- Young adulthood ( 20 to 40) * A personal lifestyle develops. * Person establishes a relationship with a significant other and a commitment to something.
8- Middle adulthood (40 to 65) * Lifestyle changes due to other changes; for example, children leave home, occupational goals change. 9- Older adulthood A- Young- old (65 to 74) * Adaptation to retirement and changing physical abilities is often necessary. * Chronic illness may develop.
B- Middle- old (75 to 84 years) * Adaptation to decline in speed of movement, reaction time. * Increasing dependence on others may be necessary. C- Old-old (85 and over) * Increasing physical problems may develop.
Age Periods and Developmental Tasks A- Infancy and early childhood 1- Learning to walk. 2- Learning to take solid foods. 3- Learning to talk. 4- Learning to control the elimination of body wastes.
5- Learning sex differences and sexual modesty. 6- Achieving psychologic stability. 7- Forming simple concepts of social and physical reality. 8- Learning to relate emotionally to parents, siblings, and other people 9- Learning to distinguish right from wrong.
B- Middle childhood 1- Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games. 2- Learning to get along with age- mates. 3- Building wholesome attitudes towards oneself. 4- Learning an appropriate masculine or or feminine social role.
5- Developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating. 6- Developing conscience,and morality. 7- Achieving personal independence. 8- Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions.
C- Adolescence 1- Achieving new and more mature relations with age- mates of both sexes. 2- Achieving emotional independence from parents and other adults. 3- Achieving assurance of economic independence. 4- Selecting and preparing for an occupation.
5- Preparing for marriage and family life. 6- Developing intellectual skills. 7- Desiring and achieving socially responsible behaviour. 8- Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as guide to behaviour
D- Early adulthood 1- Selecting mate. 2- Learning to live with a partner. 3- starting a family. 4- Rearing children
5- Managing a home. 6- Getting started in the occupation. 7- Taking on civic responsibility. 8- Finding a congenial social group.
E- Middle Age 1- Achieving adult civic and social responsibility. 2- Establishing and maintaining an economic standard of living. 3- Developing adult leisure-time activities. 4- Adjusting to aging parents
F- Later Maturity 1- Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health. 2- adjusting to retirement and reduced income. 3- Adjusting to death of a spouse. 4- Meeting social and civil obligations. 5- Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements.