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Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about.

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Presentation on theme: "Child Development Theories. Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about."— Presentation transcript:

1 Child Development Theories

2 Research has shown that early childhood may be the most important life stage for brain development. A babys brain is about one quarter the size of an adults. Scientists have found that babies brains develop in response to stimulation. Arouses senses such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Babies who are stimulated develop more quickly and have a more secure self-image.

3 What is a theory? A theory should allow us to predict and explain human behavior It should be stated in such a way that it can be shown to be false It must be open to scientific investigation

4 Although researches dont always agree, scientific researchers have agreed upon the five following general rules. Development is similar for each individual Development builds upon earlier learning. Development proceeds at an individual rate. The different areas of development are interrelated. Development is a lifelong process.

5 Psychoanalytic Theories: Freuds Psychosexual Theory Personality has 3 parts There are 5 stages of psychosexual development Oedipus complex allows child to identify with same-sex parent Fixation is an unresolved conflict during a stage of development

6 Phallic Stage Childs pleasure focuses on genitals Figure 2.1 Latency Stage Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills Anal Stage Childs pleasure focuses on anus Genital Stage A time of sexual reawakening; source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of the family Oral Stage Infants pleasure centers on mouth Freudian Stages 6 yrs to puberty Birth to 1½ yrs 1½ to 3 yrs Puberty onward 3 to 6 years

7 Eriksons Psychosocial Theory: There are 8 stages of psychosocial development Each has a unique developmental task Developmental change occurs throughout life span Key points of psychoanalytic theories: Early experiences and family relationships are very important to development Unconscious aspects of the mind are considered Personality is best seen as a developmental process

8 Eriksons StagesDevelopmental Period Trust vs MistrustInfancy (first year) Autonomy vs shame & doubt Infancy (1 to 3 years) Initiative vs guiltEarly childhood (3 to 5 years) Industry vs inferiorityMiddle and late childhood Identity vs identity confusion Adolescence (10 to 20 years) Intimacy vs isolationEarly adulthood (20s, 30s) Generativity vs stagnation Middle adulthood (40s, 50s) Integrity vs despairLate adulthood (60s onward) Figure 2.2 Eriksons Eight Life-Span Stages

9 Cognitive theories: Piagets cognitive developmental theory Stresses conscious mental processes Cognitive processes are influenced by biological maturation Four stages of cognitive development in children Assimilation and accommodation underlie how children understand the world, adapt to it, and organize their experiences

10 Preoperational Stage: The child begins to represent the world with words and images. These words and images reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action. Formal Operational Stage The adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways. Sensorimotor Stage: The infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions: progressing from reflexive, instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic thought toward end of the stage. Concrete Operational Stage: The child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets. Figure –15 years of age through adulthood Birth to 2 years of age 2 to 7 years of age 7 to 11 years of age Piagets Four Stages of Cognitive Development

11 Vygotskys sociocultural cognitive theory Children actively construct their knowledge Social interaction and culture guide cognitive development Learning is based upon inventions of society Knowledge is created through interactions with other people and objects in the culture Less skilled persons learn from the more skilled Information-processing theory Compares computers to the human mind Thinking is information processing

12 Information is taken into brain Information gets processed, analyzed, and stored until use OUTPUT INPUT Information is used as basis of behaviors and interactions Information-Processing Theory math historyreligion geography science literature

13 Environment Person (cognitive) Behavior Banduras Social Cognitive Model Figure 2.4

14 Banduras Modeling/Imitation Child observes someone admired Child imitates behavior that seems rewarded

15 Urie Bronfenbrenners ecological theory: Environmental factors influence development 5 environmental systems affect life-span development Eclectic theoretical orientation: Selects features from other theories No one theory has all the answers Each theory can make a contribution to understanding life-span development

16 ExosystemMesosystems Macrosystem Family School & classroom Religion & groups Peer group Chronosystem School system Political philosophy National customs Economic patterns Social conditions Cultural values Community Mass media Medical institutions Figure 2.5 Bronfenbrenners Ecological Theory of Development

17 Other factors, such as genetic tendencies, poverty, and sociohistorical circumstances Childrens lack of self-control Permissive parenting Childrens lack of self-control Permissive parenting Permissive parenting Childrens lack of self-control and causes both cause causes Observed correlation: as permissive parenting increases, childrens self-control decreases Figure 2.9 Possible Explanations for Correlational Data

18 Group 2 Time playing video games: 6 hours each day More aggressive and antisocial More playful and sociable Time playing video games: 2 hours each day Group 1

19 Heredity Blood type, eye color, and hair color Environment Children also learn attitudes and beliefs from their environments

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