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Organizational Behavior By : Anubha. 2-2 INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES – 1: PERSONALITY Meaning; person situation debate; psychological contracts; ability and.

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Behavior By : Anubha. 2-2 INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES – 1: PERSONALITY Meaning; person situation debate; psychological contracts; ability and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Behavior By : Anubha

2 2-2 INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES – 1: PERSONALITY Meaning; person situation debate; psychological contracts; ability and aptitude Differences in personality; Heredity, learning, culture as determinants Personality traits and dimensions: Approaches to understanding the traits Psychological solving behaviours Personality traits

3 Personality

4 2-4 How to define Personality Difficult task? Based on Individual influences – How we behave is based on Who we are? And Situational influence – In which we operate Abilities, Skills

5 2-5 Personality The unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thoughts and emotions shown by individual. Eg Optimistic, confident, friendly…. Ajim Premji Powerful man of the world, pleasant personality, down to earth, integrity, excellence….

6 2-6 Personality A persons general style of interacting with the world People differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and place

7 2-7 Characteristics When we speak of personality we are referring to each individual unique blend of traits that is relatively stable over a period of time.

8 2-8 Personality Definition –Sum total of all typical ways of acting, feeling, and thinking that makes a person different from all others Personality Theories and Assessment

9 2-9 Personality word is derived from the Latin word persona which means to speak through. Fred Luthan says – Personality mean how a person affects other and how he understands and views himself as well as the other pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person-situation interaction. Personality represent the whole person, includes perception, learning, motivation. Personality word is derived from the Latin word persona which means to speak through. Fred Luthan says – Personality mean how a person affects other and how he understands and views himself as well as the other pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person-situation interaction. Personality represent the whole person, includes perception, learning, motivation. WHAT P E R S O N A L I T Y

10 2-10 Biological Factors : - Heredity – from ancestor to descendant - Brain – Right brain and left brain imapct on individual - Physical feature – External appearance Family and Social Factors : Influenced by his family and social group Situational factor : Personality may often change in different situation Other factors : Interest – Having various and different taste makes personality Character – Primarily means honesty. Esstential to study both situation and individual for analysing behaviour. Biological Factors : - Heredity – from ancestor to descendant - Brain – Right brain and left brain imapct on individual - Physical feature – External appearance Family and Social Factors : Influenced by his family and social group Situational factor : Personality may often change in different situation Other factors : Interest – Having various and different taste makes personality Character – Primarily means honesty. Esstential to study both situation and individual for analysing behaviour. Determinants P E R S O N A L I T Y

11 PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY (FREUD THEORY) 2-PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY OF ERIC ( ERIKSON THEORY) 3-CHRIS ARGYRIS IMMATURITY ( MATURITY THEORY) 1-PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY (FREUD THEORY) 2-PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY OF ERIC ( ERIKSON THEORY) 3-CHRIS ARGYRIS IMMATURITY ( MATURITY THEORY) Development P E R S O N A L I T Y

12 2-12 Psychoanalytic Theory Freuds theory and views –Original interest in conversion disorder –Three levels of consciousness Mind is iceberg; conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind are levels Repression (Domination) pushes thoughts into unconscious Personality Theories and Assessment

13 2-13 Superego Moral imperatives Ideals Ego Reality principle Secondary process thinking Unconscious Well below surface of awareness; difficult to retrieve Conscious Contact with outside world Preconscious Material just beneath surface of awareness Id Pleasure principle Primary process thinking

14 2-14 Freud: Personality has 3 parts SuperegoIdEgo Life and death instincts Sexual, aggressive urges The selfish beast Libido The executive Pleasure principle Primary process thinking Ego Ideal The conscience Reality principle

15 2-15 This theory is based on notion that man is motivated by an unseen forces that by conscious and rational thought. It has 3 aspect : ID (pleasure principle), EGO (reality principle), SUPER EGO (societal and personal norm) There are 4 universal stages of psycho sexual development which are decisive in the formation of personality – ORAL (first year of life), ANAL (second to third year focus on libidinal energy shift from mouth to anal region), PHALLIC (focus on sexual gratification shifts to another erogenous body zone) and GENITAL (adult hood, interest in the opposite sex) This theory is based on notion that man is motivated by an unseen forces that by conscious and rational thought. It has 3 aspect : ID (pleasure principle), EGO (reality principle), SUPER EGO (societal and personal norm) There are 4 universal stages of psycho sexual development which are decisive in the formation of personality – ORAL (first year of life), ANAL (second to third year focus on libidinal energy shift from mouth to anal region), PHALLIC (focus on sexual gratification shifts to another erogenous body zone) and GENITAL (adult hood, interest in the opposite sex) 1-PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY (FREUD THEORY) P E R S O N A L I T Y

16 2-16 Erikson criticized on the sexual and biological factors in the developing personality given by freud. He emphasized more on social factor and gave 8 stages Infancy – 1 st yrs - trust vs mistrust Early childhood – 2-3 yrs sense of autonomy Play Age – 4-6 yrs – creative & imaginative abilities dev School Age – 6-12 yrs – may learn new skills / inferiority Adolescence – sense of identity Young Adulthood – 20s intimacy vs isolation Adult hood – crises of generatively vs self absorption Mature hood – sense of wisdom Erikson criticized on the sexual and biological factors in the developing personality given by freud. He emphasized more on social factor and gave 8 stages Infancy – 1 st yrs - trust vs mistrust Early childhood – 2-3 yrs sense of autonomy Play Age – 4-6 yrs – creative & imaginative abilities dev School Age – 6-12 yrs – may learn new skills / inferiority Adolescence – sense of identity Young Adulthood – 20s intimacy vs isolation Adult hood – crises of generatively vs self absorption Mature hood – sense of wisdom 2-PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY OF ERIC ( ERIKSON THEORY) P E R S O N A L I T Y

17 2-17 Personality of an individual develops along a continuum from immaturity as an infant to maturity as an adult. Based upon latent characteristics Identified 7 characteristics Passive – Active Dependence – Independence Free way of behaving – Diverse behaviour Shallow Interest – Deep Interest Short perspective – Long perspective Subordinate position – Superordinate position Lack of self awareness – Self awareness Personality of an individual develops along a continuum from immaturity as an infant to maturity as an adult. Based upon latent characteristics Identified 7 characteristics Passive – Active Dependence – Independence Free way of behaving – Diverse behaviour Shallow Interest – Deep Interest Short perspective – Long perspective Subordinate position – Superordinate position Lack of self awareness – Self awareness 3-CHRIS ARGYRIS IMMATURITY ( MATURITY THEORY) P E R S O N A L I T Y

18 2-18 Personality Trait theories –Five-factor model of personality traits Five dimensions measured in personality tests –Neuroticism (anxious, worrisome) –Extraversion (outgoing, social) –Openness (creative, daring) –Agreeableness (selfless, forgiving) –Conscientiousness (reliable, hardworking) Personality Theories and Assessment

19 dimension of personality Extraversion – A tendency to seek simulation and to enjoy the company of other people – energetic, enthu, sociable, talkative at one end and sober, reserved, silent, cautious on other Agreeableness – Tendency to be compassionate (sympatric, feeling) towards others. Good natured, cooperative, trusting, helpful on one end and irritable, suspicious, and uncooperative on other end.

20 2-20 Conscientiousness – A tendency to show self discipline, hard working to strive for competencies and achievement. This dimension ranges from well organized, careful, self disciplined, responsible and precise at one end and disorganized, impulsive, careless and undependable at other end.

21 2-21 Neuroticism – A tendency to experience unpleasant emotion easily. Poised, calm, composed at one end to anxious, high strung at other end. Openness to experience - A tendency to enjoy new experience and new ideas. Imaginative, witty having broad intt at one end and down to earth, simple, narrow intt at other end

22 2-22 Intelligence – 3 types 1-Cognitive – The ability to understand completes ideas to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various form of reasoning and to overcome obstacle with careful thought. Verbal Comprehension, reasoning, word fluency, numerical ability, space visualization, symbolic reasoning… statistician, architect etc ** Making sense out of common sense

23 Practical Intelligence – Adeptness at solving practical problems of every day life. Knowledge about how to get the things done. Action oriented – Involves Knowing HOW and opposed to knowing THAT.. Athlete can perform well but not able to put in words Allows individual to achieve goals they personally value Acquired without direct help from others

24 Emotional Intelligence – A cluster of skills relating to the emotional side life. (Eg. The ability to recognize and regulate our own emotions, ability to recognize and influence others emotion, self motivation, ability to form effective long term relationship with others

25 2-25 Human Diversity Personality and culture –Personality influenced by culture –Individualistic culture (ie: U.S.) – emphasize individual rights and characteristics Feeling of pride, superiority Seek own goals over those of others More willing to use embarrassment and aggression to prove oneself right Free time often spent in solitary (lonely)pursuits Personality Theories and Assessment

26 2-26 Human Diversity Personality and culture –Collective cultures (ie: Japan, China, India) – emphasize individual in terms of rights, duties, and expectations as member of a group –Leisure time more often spent with family –Less aggressive in conflict; say things to avoid embarrassment of others –Characterized as having close ties, respectful, and friendly

27 2-27 Human Diversity All personality theories must consider effects of culture People of different cultures tend to differ in some important ways There is tremendous variation within cultures Collective and individualistic traits are found among members of all cultures Personality Theories and Assessment

28 2-28 Consensus b/w Ability and Attitude Ability – Capacity to do physical and intellectual tasks Attitude – Capacity to learn the ability to do physical and intellectual tasks. Aptitude is the ability to learn ability. If u lack on either of them u tend to fail.

29 2-29 How personalities differ Heredity – Genes predetermine an individual physical characteristics. Gender, race, size, appearance, health, energy. Individual learn and acquire knowledge, ability, value, attitude and learn there own motives. Over a period of time there pattern behaviour become their personality

30 2-30 Culture – How individual, social sturcture and culture belief influence one another

31 PF- Jungian Aspect of MBTI Source of energy Extraverted Characteristics Act first, think/reflect later Feel deprived when cutoff from interaction with the outside world Usually open to and motivated by outside world of people and things Enjoy wide variety and change in people relationships Introverted Characteristics Think/reflect first, then Act Regularly require an amount of "private time" to recharge batteries Motivated internally, mind is sometimes so active it is "closed" to outside world Prefer one-to-one communication and relationships

32 2-32 Collecting Information Sensing Characteristics Mentally live in the Now, attending to present opportunities Using common sense and creating practical solutions is automatic-instinctual Memory recall is rich in detail of facts and past events Best improvise from past experience Like clear and concrete information; dislike guessing when facts are "fuzzy" Intuitive Characteristics Mentally live in the Future, attending to future possibilities Using imagination and creating/inventing new possibilities is automatic- instinctual Memory recall emphasizes patterns, contexts, and connections Best improvise from theoretical understanding Comfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data and with guessing its meaning.

33 2-33 Decision Making Thinking Characteristics Instinctively search for facts and logic in a decision situation. Naturally notices tasks and work to be accomplished. Easily able to provide an objective and critical analysis. Accept conflict as a natural, normal part of relationships with people. Feeling Characteristics Instinctively employ personal feelings and impact on people in decision situations Naturally sensitive to people needs and reactions. Naturally seek consensus and popular opinions. Unsettled by conflict; have almost a toxic reaction to disharmony.

34 2-34 Understanding the world ESTJ – most manager Judging Characteristics Plan many of the details in advance before moving into action. Focus on task-related action; complete meaningful segments before moving on. Work best and avoid stress when able to keep ahead of deadlines. Naturally use targets, dates and standard routines to manage life. Perceiving Characteristics Comfortable moving into action without a plan; plan on-the-go. Like to multitask, have variety, mix work and play. Naturally tolerant of time pressure; work best close to the deadlines. Instinctively avoid commitments which interfere with flexibility, freedom and variety

35 2-35 Lifestyle approach Type A & B Type A Personality The following are the characteristics of the type A personality Type As has got a severe sense of time urgency. They are always running and can hardly relax. If they sat without doing something useful they may end up feeling guiltyfeeling guilty Type As are over achievers, they usually get themselves involved in many different unrelated activities and perform well in them all. Type A's biggest problem is stress, they are usually overwhelmed by the amount of tasks they have to do. These tasks are usually a huge list that they planned for themselves.stress Type A is usually competitive and has a high challenging spirit.

36 2-36 Personality Types Type As 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type Bs 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.

37 2-37 Type B Personality Type B personality is almost the opposite of Type A. This type of person is relaxed by nature and has no sense of time urgencypersonality Type Bs have got no problems relaxing or sitting without doing anythingproblems relaxing Type Bs may delay the work they have to the last moment and they usually don't get stressed that easily. Type B could be an achiever too but his lack of sense of time urgency helps him much in not feeling stressed while doing his tasks.

38 2-38 Personal Effectiveness Johari Window Arena-Blind-Closed-Dark Known to others and Not known to Self

39 2-39 Personality TRAIT LOCUS OF CONTROL- It is a dimension of personality that explains the degree to which people believe that they, rather than external force determine there lives

40 2-40 Authoritarianism – It is the degree to which a person believes that status and power differences are appropriate in an organisation

41 2-41 Dogmatism – It refers to the degree of flexibility or rigidity of a persons views Machiavellianism – It is a personality attribute that describe the extent to which a person manipulate others for personal gain

42 2-42 Risk Propensity – This refers to a person willingness to take risk Self Esteem- It is the judgment one makes about ones own worth

43 2-43 HOME WORK Four Type of Problem Solving Behaviour Sensation thinker – ST Intuitive Thinker – IT Sensation Feelers- SF Intuitive Feeler - IF

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