2INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES – 1: PERSONALITY Meaning; person situation debate; psychological contracts; ability and aptitudeDifferences in personality; Heredity, learning, culture as determinantsPersonality traits and dimensions: Approaches to understanding the traitsPsychological solving behavioursPersonality traits
4How to define Personality Difficult task?Based on Individual influences – How we behave is based on Who we are?And Situational influence – In which we operateAbilities , Skills
5PersonalityThe unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviour, thoughts and emotions shown by individual.Eg Optimistic, confident, friendly….Ajim Premji Powerful man of the world, pleasant personality, down to earth, integrity, excellence….
6A person’s general style of interacting with the world PersonalityA person’s general style of interacting with the worldPeople differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and placeKeywords: personality
7CharacteristicsWhen we speak of personality we are referring to each individual unique blend of traits that is relatively stable over a period of time.
8Personality Definition Personality Theories and AssessmentPersonalityDefinitionSum total of all typical ways of acting, feeling, and thinking that makes a person different from all others
9WHATPersonality word is derived from the Latin word persona which means to speak through.Fred Luthan says – Personality mean how a person affects other and how he understands and views himself as well as the other pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person-situation interaction.Personality represent the “whole person”, includes perception, learning, motivation.P E R S O N A L I T Y
10Determinants Biological Factors : Heredity – from ancestor to descendantBrain – Right brain and left brain imapct on individualPhysical feature – External appearanceFamily and Social Factors :Influenced by his family and social groupSituational factor :Personality may often change in different situationOther factors :Interest – Having various and different taste makes personalityCharacter – Primarily means honesty. Esstential to study both situation and individual for analysing behaviour.P E R S O N A L I T Y
11Development 1-PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY (FREUD THEORY) 2-PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY OF ERIC ( ERIKSON THEORY)3-CHRIS ARGYRIS IMMATURITY ( MATURITY THEORY)P E R S O N A L I T Y
12Psychoanalytic Theory Personality Theories and AssessmentPsychoanalytic TheoryFreud’s theory and viewsOriginal interest in conversion disorderThree levels of consciousnessMind is iceberg; conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind are levelsRepression (Domination) pushes thoughts into unconscious
13SuperegoMoral imperatives IdealsEgoReality principleSecondary process thinkingUnconsciousWell below surfaceof awareness; difficult to retrieveConsciousContact with outside worldPreconsciousMaterial just beneath surface of awarenessIdPleasure principlePrimary process thinking
14Freud: Personality has 3 parts SuperegoIdEgoLifeand deathinstinctsSexual,aggressiveurgesThe selfishbeastLibidoThe executivePleasureprinciplePrimaryprocessthinkingEgo IdealThe conscienceReality
151-PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY (FREUD THEORY) This theory is based on notion that man is motivated by an unseen forces that by conscious and rational thought.It has 3 aspect : ID (pleasure principle), EGO (reality principle), SUPER EGO (societal and personal norm)There are 4 universal stages of psycho sexual development which are decisive in the formation of personality –ORAL (first year of life),ANAL (second to third year focus on libidinal energy shift from mouth to anal region),PHALLIC (focus on sexual gratification shifts to another erogenous body zone) andGENITAL (adult hood, interest in the opposite sex)P E R S O N A L I T Y
16P E R S O N A L I T Y 2-PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY OF ERIC ( ERIKSON THEORY) Erikson criticized on the sexual and biological factors in the developing personality given by freud.He emphasized more on social factor and gave 8 stagesInfancy – 1st yrs - trust vs mistrustEarly childhood – 2-3 yrs sense of autonomyPlay Age – 4-6 yrs – creative & imaginative abilities devSchool Age – 6-12 yrs – may learn new skills / inferiorityAdolescence – sense of identityYoung Adulthood – 20’s intimacy vs isolationAdult hood – crises of generatively vs self absorptionMature hood – sense of wisdomP E R S O N A L I T Y
173-CHRIS ARGYRIS IMMATURITY ( MATURITY THEORY) Personality of an individual develops along a continuum from immaturity as an infant to maturity as an adult. Based upon latent characteristicsIdentified 7 characteristicsPassive – ActiveDependence – IndependenceFree way of behaving – Diverse behaviourShallow Interest – Deep InterestShort perspective – Long perspectiveSubordinate position – Superordinate positionLack of self awareness – Self awarenessP E R S O N A L I T Y
18Personality Trait theories Five-factor model of personality traits Personality Theories and AssessmentPersonalityTrait theoriesFive-factor model of personality traitsFive dimensions measured in personality testsNeuroticism (anxious, worrisome)Extraversion (outgoing, social)Openness (creative, daring)Agreeableness (selfless, forgiving)Conscientiousness (reliable, hardworking)
195 dimension of personality Extraversion – A tendency to seek simulation and to enjoy the company of other people – energetic, enthu, sociable, talkative at one end and sober, reserved, silent, cautious on otherAgreeableness – Tendency to be compassionate (sympatric, feeling) towards others. Good natured, cooperative, trusting, helpful on one end and irritable, suspicious, and uncooperative on other end.
20Conscientiousness – A tendency to show self discipline, hard working to strive for competencies and achievement. This dimension ranges from well organized, careful, self disciplined, responsible and precise at one end and disorganized, impulsive, careless and undependable at other end.
21Neuroticism – A tendency to experience unpleasant emotion easily Neuroticism – A tendency to experience unpleasant emotion easily. Poised, calm, composed at one end to anxious, high strung at other end.Openness to experience - A tendency to enjoy new experience and new ideas. Imaginative, witty having broad intt at one end and down to earth, simple, narrow intt at other end
22Intelligence – 3 types1-Cognitive – The ability to understand completes ideas to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various form of reasoning and to overcome obstacle with careful thought.Verbal Comprehension, reasoning, word fluency, numerical ability, space visualization, symbolic reasoning… statistician, architect etc** Making sense out of common sense
232 Practical Intelligence – Adeptness at solving practical problems of every day life. Knowledge about how to get the things done.Action oriented – Involves Knowing HOW and opposed to knowing THAT.. Athlete can perform well but not able to put in wordsAllows individual to achieve goals they personally valueAcquired without direct help from others
243 Emotional Intelligence – A cluster of skills relating to the emotional side life. (Eg. The ability to recognize and regulate our own emotions, ability to recognize and influence others emotion, self motivation , ability to form effective long term relationship with others
25Human Diversity Personality and culture Personality Theories and AssessmentHuman DiversityPersonality and culturePersonality influenced by cultureIndividualistic culture (ie: U.S.) – emphasize individual rights and characteristicsFeeling of pride, superioritySeek own goals over those of othersMore willing to use embarrassment and aggression to prove oneself rightFree time often spent in solitary (lonely)pursuits
26Human Diversity Personality and culture Collective cultures (ie: Japan, China, India) – emphasize individual in terms of rights, duties, and expectations as member of a groupLeisure time more often spent with familyLess aggressive in conflict; say things to avoid embarrassment of othersCharacterized as having close ties, respectful, and friendly
27Human DiversityPersonality Theories and AssessmentAll personality theories must consider effects of culturePeople of different cultures tend to differ in some important waysThere is tremendous variation within culturesCollective and individualistic traits are found among members of all cultures
28Consensus b/w Ability and Attitude Ability – Capacity to do physical and intellectual tasksAttitude – Capacity to learn the ability to do physical and intellectual tasks.Aptitude is the ability to learn ability. If u lack on either of them u tend to fail.
29How personalities differ Heredity – Genes predetermine an individual physical characteristics. Gender, race, size, appearance, health, energy.Individual learn and acquire knowledge, ability, value, attitude and learn there own motives. Over a period of time there pattern behaviour become their personality
30Culture – How individual, social sturcture and culture belief influence one another
3116 PF- Jungian Aspect of MBTI Source of energy Extraverted CharacteristicsAct first, think/reflect laterFeel deprived when cutoff from interaction with the outside worldUsually open to and motivated by outside world of people and thingsEnjoy wide variety and change in people relationshipsIntroverted CharacteristicsThink/reflect first, then ActRegularly require an amount of "private time" to recharge batteriesMotivated internally, mind is sometimes so active it is "closed" to outside worldPrefer one-to-one communication and relationships
32Collecting Information Sensing CharacteristicsMentally live in the Now, attending to present opportunitiesUsing common sense and creating practical solutions is automatic-instinctualMemory recall is rich in detail of facts and past eventsBest improvise from past experienceLike clear and concrete information; dislike guessing when facts are "fuzzy"Intuitive CharacteristicsMentally live in the Future, attending to future possibilitiesUsing imagination and creating/inventing new possibilities is automatic-instinctualMemory recall emphasizes patterns, contexts, and connectionsBest improvise from theoretical understandingComfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data and with guessing its meaning.
33Decision Making Thinking Characteristics Instinctively search for facts and logic in a decision situation.Naturally notices tasks and work to be accomplished.Easily able to provide an objective and critical analysis.Accept conflict as a natural, normal part of relationships with people.Feeling CharacteristicsInstinctively employ personal feelings and impact on people in decision situationsNaturally sensitive to people needs and reactions.Naturally seek consensus and popular opinions.Unsettled by conflict; have almost a toxic reaction to disharmony.
34Understanding the world ESTJ – most manager Judging CharacteristicsPlan many of the details in advance before moving into action.Focus on task-related action; complete meaningful segments before moving on.Work best and avoid stress when able to keep ahead of deadlines.Naturally use targets, dates and standard routines to manage life.Perceiving CharacteristicsComfortable moving into action without a plan; plan on-the-go.Like to multitask, have variety, mix work and play.Naturally tolerant of time pressure; work best close to the deadlines.Instinctively avoid commitments which interfere with flexibility, freedom and variety
35Lifestyle approach Type A & B Type A PersonalityThe following are the characteristics of the type A personalityType A’s has got a severe sense of time urgency. They are always running and can hardly relax. If they sat without doing something useful they may end up feeling guiltyType A’s are over achievers, they usually get themselves involved in many different unrelated activities and perform well in them all.Type A's biggest problem is stress, they are usually overwhelmed by the amount of tasks they have to do. These tasks are usually a huge list that they planned for themselves.Type A is usually competitive and has a high challenging spirit.
36Personality Types Type A’s are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;strive to think or do two or more things at once;cannot cope with leisure time;are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.Type B’snever suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience;feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments;play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost;can relax without guilt.
37Type B PersonalityType B personality is almost the opposite of Type A. This type of person is relaxed by nature and has no sense of time urgencyType Bs have got no problems relaxing or sitting without doing anythingType Bs may delay the work they have to the last moment and they usually don't get stressed that easily.Type B could be an achiever too but his lack of sense of time urgency helps him much in not feeling stressed while doing his tasks.
38Personal Effectiveness Johari WindowArena-Blind-Closed-DarkKnown to others and Not known to Self
39Personality TRAITLOCUS OF CONTROL- It is a dimension of personality that explains the degree to which people believe that they , rather than external force determine there lives
40Authoritarianism –It is the degree to which a person believes that status and power differences are appropriate in an organisation
41Dogmatism – It refers to the degree of flexibility or rigidity of a persons views Machiavellianism – It is a personality attribute that describe the extent to which a person manipulate others for personal gain
42Risk Propensity – This refers to a person willingness to take risk Self Esteem- It is the judgment one makes about ones own worth
43HOME WORK Four Type of Problem Solving Behaviour Sensation thinker – STIntuitive Thinker – ITSensation Feelers- SFIntuitive Feeler - IF